St Dunstan in the East is located on the
corner of St Dunstan's Lane and Idol Lane, between Great Tower
Street and Lower Thames Street. The original Gothic Norman church
was built around 1100. This was severely damaged in the Great Fire
of London in 1666, but rather than completely rebuild it, it was
decided to patch it up and Christopher Wren added a sturdy steeple
to the tower. Unusually, Wren matched the steeple to the Gothic
design of the church.
However, by 1817 the church was in a very poor
state of repair and was rebuilt by David Laing, assisted by William
Tite, retaining Wren's steeple. The church was severely damaged by
enemy action in 1941 and this time not rebuilt. Only the tower and some
elements of the walls still stand while the rest of the floor space
was converted into one of the most attractive small gardens in
London, which was opened in 1971. The parish was united with that of
All Hallows by The Tower.
St Magnus the Martyr is a little to the
west of St Dunstan's, along Lower Thames Street, opposite Pudding
Lane (starting point of the Great Fire) and Fish Street Hill. The
first stone church here was built before 1067, and dedicated to
St Magnus, possibly the one who became a martyr in AD 276 in
Roman Caesarea. It was pulled down and a new larger one built in
1234 on a new plot of land, close to the unloading bays for medieval
ships which couldn't pass under London Bridge.
During the fourteenth century the Pope was the
church's patron. The medieval church was repaired in the seventeenth
century and then completely rebuilt after the Great Fire started just
a hundred metres or so to the north. Another fire in 1760 destroyed
the roof, at which point the tower was opened up on either side for
the widening of London Bridge, allowing the resurrection of the ancient
footpath which led to the first London Bridge, straight through the tower.
St Michael Crooked Lane lay north of St
Magnus on what is now the north side of Monument Street (on the
righthand side here, looking west), where it meets King William
Street. The first church was probably Norman, and was recorded in
the 1200s, but this was destroyed by the Great Fire and was one of
those rebuilt by Wren in 1687. When London Bridge was widened in
1831, the church was too close to the old road, so it had to be
demolished for the sake of progress.
St Margaret New Fish Street's former site
now lies next to the Monument to the Great Fire, at the junction
between Fish Street and Monument Street. Also known as St Margaret
Bridge Street or St Margaret Fish Street Hill, it received many
gifts from pilgrims as they passed by on their way to London Bridge.
The church was the first to be destroyed by the fire, and was one of
the thirty-five churches not to be selected for rebuilding. Its
parish was united to that of St Magnus.
The site of St Leonard Eastcheap now lies
on the corner of Eastcheap (Anglo-Saxon for 'east market', as
opposed to Westcheap, or Cheapside as it is now), and Fish Street
Hill. The Monument can be seen half way down the hill, with the site
of St Margaret's on this side of it. St Leonard's was originally
built by one William Melker, and was also known as St Leonard Milke
Church. It was substantially renovated in 1618 and destroyed by the
St George Botolph Lane sat on the
north-east corner of Eastcheap and Pudding Lane, one street west of
St Leonard's. It was founded in the twelfth century, and was the
only City church dedicated to St George of Cappadocia, patron saint
of England from the fourteenth century. It underwent renovation in
1360 and 1627, and after the Great Fire it was rebuilt in 1671-1677
with rubble from St Paul's. The last service was in 1890, and the
dilapidated church was demolished in 1904.
St Andrew Hubbard was situated
on the land between the northern end of Botolph Lane (shown here)
and Love Lane (to the left of the shot), facing onto Eastcheap. This
is just one street west of St George's, in the area known as Little
Eastcheap. The church took its name from Hubert, a medieval
benefactor, and was apparently a busy parish which was rife with
rats. Destroyed in the Great Fire it was not rebuilt. Instead, the
King's Weigh House was erected on its site.
St Botolph Billingsgate was on
the south-eastern corner of Botolph Lane, between Botolph's Wharf
and Cock's Key (now facing onto Monument Street). The Norman church
was built before 1181 and destroyed by the Great Fire. It was
initially selected to be rebuilt until it was realised that part of
the site was required so that Thames Street could be widened and a
passage maintained to Botolph's Wharf. The work was cancelled and
only the entrance posts survive today.