Homo georgicus remains were discovered in 2001
at Dmanisi in Georgia. The main find, a skull, has an estimated age is
1.8 million years. Specimen D2700 consisted of a mostly complete skull
in exceptionally good condition, including a lower jaw (D2735) found
about a metre away and thought to belong to the same individual.
At around 600cc (cubic capacity), this was the smallest
and most primitive hominid skull ever discovered outside of Africa until
Homo floresiensis' more recent discovery.
Two other skulls had earlier been found at the same
site in 1999. D2280 was an almost complete braincase with a brain size
of 780cc. D2282 was a cranium which included many of the facial and
upper jaw bones, with a brain size of about 650cc. A lower jaw, D211,
had also been discovered in 1991, and another lower jaw, D2600, in
Although the brain size of D2282 (650cc) was smaller
than any Homo erectus fossil then known, and close to the average
Homo habilis brain size, Gabunia et al (2000) pointed out the
many similarities of D2280 and D2282 to Homo erectus fossils
such as WT 15000 and ER 3733. Their final conclusion was that D2280
and D2282 were both Homo ergaster or something very similar.
At 600cc, new discovery D2700 is even smaller than
D2282, and appears more primitive. Vekua et al (2002) list many
characteristics in which it resembles ergaster (or erectus),
and also a number in which it resembles the habilis skull
The differences between the three Dmanisi skulls were
not considered great enough to justify placing them in different
species. However, in a later paper, all these specimens were assigned
to the new species, Homo georgicus, using the fossil D2600 as
a type specimen (Gabunia et al, 2002). The same paper also estimated
the height of georgicus from a foot bone at about 1.5m (four
feet eleven inches).