Map of Eastern Europe AD 632-665
The Onogur-Bulgar confederation became more powerful following the mutual annihilation of the Kutrigurs (Kotraks on the map) and Utigurs. In AD 632 Qaghan Koubrat came to power as the head of this confederation and three years later he was able to throw off Avar domination and found Great Bulgaria (the plain brown section located around the Sea of Azov on the map, above).
The confederation expanded greatly in 638 (shown by the diagonal brown bars on the map), mostly due to the Avars buckling in the west while the Göktürks were at the limits of their power on the Volga and they rarely ventured beyond that border.
Twenty-two years of dominance followed, but Koubrat died around 651 and, by 660, the Khazars and Avars were pressing against its borders, causing a degree of shrinkage (the dashed black line on the map). More territory was lost in 665, especially on the west bank of the Dniepr (the dotted black line on the map). The end came in 668 when Koubrat's son and successor gave in to Khazar domination.
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