History Files
 

 

Napoleonic Europe

Armies of 1815

by Peter Kessler, 1 April 1999

 

 

The Prussian West Rhine Army of 1815

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF:
Field-Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Prince of Wahlstadt
CHIEF OF STAFF:
General Augustus Wilhelm, Graf Neithard von Gneisenau
QUARTERMASTER GENERAL:
Major-General Karl Wilhelm Georg von Grölmann
ARTILLERY COMMANDER: Unknown

ANGLO-ALLIED ARMY LIASON:
Major-General Baron von Müffling
Lt-Colonel Sir Henry Hardinge

ADCs:
To Blücher: Nostitz
Major von Winterfeldt
Käpitan von Scharnhorst

ARMY STRENGTH:
I CORPS (Strength 31,129 men, 96 guns)
II CORPS (Strength 31,529 men, 80 guns)
III CORPS (Strength 24,141 men, 48 guns)
IV CORPS (Strength 32,211 men, 88 guns)
GARRISONS (Strength 6,000 men, 00 guns)

TOTAL: 125,010 men, 312 guns

In Depth

 

 

I Corps (Strength 31,129 men, 96 guns)
Commanded by Lt-General Hans Ernst Karl, Graf von Ziethen
Chief of Staff: Oberstleutnant Ludwig von Reiche

1st Brigade: Major-General Carl von Steinmetz (9,069)
          12th (1st Brandenburg) Infanterie-Rgmt
          24th (4th Brandenburg) Infanterie-Rgmt
          1st Westphalian Landwehr Rgmt
          1st Silesian Jäger Company
          3rd Silesian Jäger Company
2nd Brigade: Major-General Otto von Pirch II (8,018)
          6th (1st West Prussian) Infanterie-Rgmt
          28th Infanterie-Rgmt
          2nd Westphalian Landwehr Rgmt
3rd Brigade: Major-General von Jágow (7,146)
          7th (2nd West Prussian) Infanterie-Rgmt
          29th Infanterie-Rgmt
          3rd Westphalian Landwehr Rgmt
          2nd Silesian Jäger Company
          4th Silesian Jäger Company
4th Brigade: Major-General Donnersmarck (4,900)
          19th (2nd Posen) Infanterie-Rgmt
          4th Westphalian Landwehr Rgmt

Corps Cavalry: Major-General von Röder (2,175)
     1st Cavalry Brigade: Treskow
          2nd (1st West Prussian) Dragoon Rgmt
          5th (Brandenburg) Dragoon Rgmt
          3rd (Brandenburg) Uhlan Rgmt
     2nd Cavalry Brigade: Oberstleutnant von Lützow
          6th (2nd West Prussian) Uhlan Rgmt
          1st Kurmark Landwehr Cavalry
          2nd Kurmark Landwehr Cavalry
          4th (1st Silesian) Hussar Rgmt
          1st Westphalian Landwehr Cavalry

Corps Artillery: Colonel von Lehmann (1,109)
          2nd Heavy Company: 6 x 12pdrs, 2 x 10" howitzers (400)
          6th Heavy Company: 6 x 12pdrs, 2 x 10" howitzers
          9th Heavy Company: 6 x 12pdrs, 2 x 10" howitzers
          1st Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers (712)
          3rd Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          7th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          8th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          15th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          1st Howitzer Company: 8 x 7" howitzers (178)
          2nd Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers (459)
          7th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          10th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          Engineers (1 co)

 

 

II Corps (Strength 31,529 men, 80 guns)
Commanded by Major-General George Ludwig von Pirch I

5th Brigade: Major-General Graf von Tippelskirch (7,153)
          2nd (1st Pomeranian) Infanterie-Rgmt
          25th Infanterie-Rgmt
          5th Westphalian Landwehr Rgmt
6th Brigade: Major-General von Krafft (6,762)
          9th (Colberg) Infanterie-Rgmt
          26th (1st Magdeburg)Infanterie-Rgmt
          1st Elbe Landwehr Rgmt
7th Brigade: Major-General von Brause (6,503)
          14th (2nd Pomeranian) Infanterie-Rgmt
          22nd (1st Upper Silesian) Infanterie-Rgmt
          2nd Elbe Landwehr Rgmt
8th Brigade: Major-General Langen (Major-General von Bose in command) (6,584)
          21st (4th Pomeranian) Infanterie-Rgmt
          23rd (2nd Upper Silesian) Infanterie-Rgmt
          3rd Elbe Landwehr Rgmt

Corps Cavalry: Major-General von Wahlen-Jürgass (4,468)
     3rd Cavalry Brigade: Thümen
          2nd (Silesian) Uhlan Rgmt
          1st (Queen's Koningin) Dragoon Rgmt
          6th (Neumark) Dragoon Rgmt
     4th Cavalry Brigade: Oberstleutnant von Sohr
          3rd (Brandenburg) Hussar Rgmt
          5th (Pomeranian) Hussar Rgmt
          11th (2nd Westphalian) Hussar Rgmt
     5th Cavalry Brigade: Oberst von der Schulenburg
          4th Kurmark Landwehr Cavalry
          5th Kurmark Landwehr Cavalry
          Elbe Landwehr Cavalry

Corps Artillery: Oberst von Röhl (1,454)
          4th Heavy Company: 6 x 12pdrs, 2 x 10" howitzers (404)
          8th Heavy Company: 6 x 12pdrs, 2 x 10" howitzers
          5th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers (606)
          10th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          12th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          34th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          37th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          5th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers (467)
          6th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          14th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers

 

 

III Corps (Strength 24,141 men, 48 guns)
Commanded by Lt-General Johann Adolf Frieherr von Thielemann

9th Brigade: Major-General von Borcke (7,262)
          8th (Leib) Infanterie-Rgmt
          36th Infanterie-Rgmt
          1st Kurmark Landwehr Rgmt
10th Brigade: Oberst von Kámphen (4,419)
          27th Infanterie-Rgmt
          2nd Kurmark Landwehr
11th Brigade: Oberst von Luck (3,980)
          3rd Kurmark Landwehr Rgmt
          4th Kurmark Landwehr Rgmt
12th Brigade: Oberst von Stülpnagel (6,614)
          31st Infanterie-Rgmt
          5th Kurmark Landwehr Rgmt
          6th Kurmark Landwehr Rgmt

Corps Cavalry: Major-General von Hobe (2,405)
     6th Cavalry Brigade: Oberst von der Marwitz
          7th (1st Rhenish) Uhlan Rgmt
          8th (2nd Rhenish) Uhlan Rgmt
          9th (Rhenish) Hussar Rgmt
     7th Cavalry Brigade: Oberst von Lottum
          5th (1st Westphalian) Uhlan Rgmt
          7th (Westphalian) Dragoon Rgmt
          3rd Kurmark Landwehr Cavalry
          6th Kurmark Landwehr Cavalry

Corps Artillery: Oberst von Mohnhaupt (964)
          7th Heavy Company: 6 x 12pdrs, 2 x 10" howitzers (200)
          18th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers (295)
          35th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          18th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers (455)
          19th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          20th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers

 

 

IV Corps (Strength 32,211 men, 88 guns)
Commanded by General Friedrich Wilhelm, Count Bülow von Dennewitz

13th Brigade: Major-General von Hacke (6,560)
          10th (1st Silesian) Infanterie-Rgmt (3) (2,400)
          2nd Neumark Landwehr Rgmt (3) (2,075)
          3rd Neumark Landwehr Rgmt (3) (2,365)
14th Brigade: Major-General Count von Ryssel (7,138)
          11th Infanterie-Rgmt (3) (2,200)
          1st Pomeranian Landwehr Rgmt (3) (2,460)
          2nd Pomeranian Landwehr Rgmt (3) (2,415)
15th Brigade: Major-General von Losthin (7,143)
          18th Infanterie-Rgmt (3) (2,400)
          3rd Silesian Landwehr Rgmt (3) (1,900)
          4th Silesian Landwehr Rgmt (3) (1,780)
16th Brigade: Oberst von Hiller (6,423)
          15th (2nd Westphalian) Infanterie-Rgmt (3) (2,245)
          1st Silesian Landwehr Rgmt (3) (1,800)
          2nd Silesian Landwehr Rgmt (3) (1,710)

Corps Cavalry: Major-General HRH Prinz Wilhelm of Prussia (3,081)
     8th Cavalry Brigade: Oberst von Schwerin
          10th (1st Magdeburg) Hussar Rgmt (4) (665)
          1st Neumark Landwehr Cavalry (4) (365)
          2nd Neumark Landwehr Cavalry (4) (425)
          1st Pommeranian Landwehr Cavalry (4) (305)
          2nd Pommeranian Landwehr Cavalry (4) (315)
     9th Cavalry Brigade: Oberstleutnant von Watzdorff
          1st Silesian Landwehr Cavalry (4) (425)
          2nd Silesian Landwehr Cavalry (2) (200)
          3rd Silesian Landwehr Cavalry (2) (175)
     10th Cavalry Brigade: Major-General von Sydow
          1st (West Prussian) Uhlan Rgmt (4) (640)
          6th (2nd Silesian) Hussar Rgmt
          8th (1st Westphalian) Hussar Rgmt (4) (450)

Corps Artillery: Major von Bardeleben (1,866)
          3rd Heavy Company: 6 x 12pdrs, 2 x 10" howitzers
          5th Heavy Company: 6 x 12pdrs, 2 x 10" howitzers
          13th Heavy Company: 6 x 12pdrs, 2 x 10" howitzers
          2nd Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          11th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          13th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          14th Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          21st Light Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          1st Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          11th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers
          12th Horse Company: 6 x 6pdrs, 2 x 7" howitzers

 

 

Austria

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF: Marshal Prinz Schwarzenberg
CHIEF OF STAFF: Unknown

ADCs: Unknown

ARMY STRENGTH:
I CORPS
II CORPS
III CORPS
IV CORPS
SAXON CORPS

TOTAL:210,000 men, ? guns

I Corps
Commanded by General Coleredo

II Corps
Commanded by General Hohenzollern

III Corps
Commanded by General Wárttenberg

IV Corps
Commanded by General Wrede

Reserve Corps
Commanded by Archduke Ferdinand

Saxon Corps
Commander Unknown

Saxon Infantry:
          Jäger-Btn (1)
          Leichte-Infanterie-Rgmt (2)
          Linien-Infanterie-Rgmt (3)
          Linien-Infanterie-Rgmt (3)
          Linien-Infanterie-Rgmt (3)

Saxon Cavalry:
          Leib-Kürassier-Garde Rgmt
          Uhlanen-Rgmt
          Husaren-Rgmt

Saxon Artillery:
          4 Feld-Artillerie-Batteries
          2 Chevau-Artillerie-Batteries

Other Forces:
          Troops of Hessen-Darmstadt
          Troops of Hessen-Kassel

 

Other Armies in 1815

French Corps du Paris

(Strength 20,000 men, ? guns)
Commanded by Marshal Louis Davout, Minister of War, Governor of Paris

French Armée de l'Ouest

(Strength 10,000 men, ? guns)
Commanded by Général de Division Lamarque

2nd Young Guard Division: Detached from Armée Du Nord

French Armée du Rhin

(Strength 23,000 men, ? guns)
Commanded by Général de Division Comte Rapp
(Made up of the V Corps of the Armée Du Nord - Based at Strasbourg)

6th Light Cavalry Division:
          2e Rgmt de Chasseurs á Cheval
          6e Rgmt de Dragons
          11e Rgmt de Dragons
          17e Rgmt de Dragons
          19e Rgmt de Dragons

French Corps D'Observation du Jura

(Strength 8,400 men, ? guns)
Commanded by Général de Division Lecourbe

          2e Rgmt de Hussars
          13e Rgmt de Chasseurs á Cheval (1)

French Armée des Alpes

(Strength 23,500 men, ? guns)
Commanded by Marshal Louis Suchet

French Armée du Var

(Strength 5,500 men, ? guns)
Commanded by Marshal Guillaume Brune

French Armée des Pyrenees Occidentales

(Strength 6,800 men, ? guns)
Commanded by Général de Division Clausel

French Armée des Pyrenees Orientales

(Strength 7,600 men, ? guns)
Commanded by Général de Division Decaen

Army of Switzerland

(Strength 37,000 men, ? guns)
Commanded by General Bachmann

Army of Upper Italy

(Strength 50,000 men, ? guns)
Commanded by General Frimont

Army of Naples

(Strength 23,000 men, ? guns)
Commanded by General Onasco

Army of North Germany (Federal Army Corps)

(Strength 17,500 men maximum (15,000 in June), 8 guns)
Commanded by General Kleist von Nollendorf
(A single Prussian Corps under Blücher's nominal command is based in Luxembourg)
Second-in-Command: Oberstleutnant von Perbrandt (Prussian General Staff)
Chief of Staff: Oberstleutnant von Witzleben

ADCs: Major von Legad (Prussian General Staff)
Kapitan Graf von Schweidnitz (7th Prussian Hussars)
Kapitan Heiden
Kapitan Staedterl (Saxon)
French Representative: Général d'Arblay (arr June)

HQ Guard:
          Saxon Guard (1/24)
          Saxon Hussars (25)

     Hessen-Kassel Infantry Brigade: General von Engelhardt
          2 Infantry Rgmts
          Lassberg Grenadier Btn (1) (arr 11/06)
          2/Kurfürst Infantry Rgmt (1)
          Hessen-Kassel Hussar Rgmt
          Hessen-Kassel Dragoon Rgmt (attached to Anhalt-Thuringian Brigade)
          2 Artillery Btys
          2 Artillery Btys (arr June)
          2 Supply columns

     Saxon Infantry Brigade: (never reached full strength)

     Anhalt-Thuringian Infantry Brigade: Major General von Egloffstein von Saxe-Weimar (6,800)
     Chief of Staff: Major von Sonnenberg (Anhalt-Bernburg) (replaced by Kpt von Mauderode)
          Reus Btn (1) (left to join Austrian forces)
          Saxe-Weimar Btn (1)
          Saxe-Gotha Btn (1)
          Saxe-Anhalt Btn (1)
          Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Btn (1)
          Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen Btn (1)
          Weimar Infantry Rgmt (2) (2nd Btn arr 23/06)
          3rd Provisional Rgmt (1,200) (Oberst Graf Waldeck):
          Lippe-Detmold Btn (1) (arr 20/05)
          Lippe-Detmold Landwehr Btn (5 cos) (arr 10/06)
          Schaumberg-Lippe Btn (1) (arr 20/05)
          Waldeck Infantry Rgmt (2) (arr 20/05)
          Bernburg Landwehr (2 cos) (arr 25/05)
          Detmold Landwehr (3 cos) (arr 08/06)

     Others:
          1st Nassau Infantry Rgmt (2,987) (Generalmajor von Kruse) (left for Allied Army 21/05)
          Oldenburg Infantry Rgmt (1,500) (arr 1-3/06)
          Mecklenburg-Schwerin Infantry Rgmt (6) (arrived after Waterloo)
          Mecklenburg-Schwerin Cavalry Rgmt

 

Army of Russia

(Strength 200,000, ? guns)
Commanded by General Witzingerode & General Barclay de Tolly

 

Spanish & Portuguese Armies

(Strength 80,000 men, ? guns)

 

Sources

Haythornthwaite, Philip J. Uniforms of Waterloo in Colour, 16-18th June 1815
                              (New York: Hippocrene Books, 1974)
Haythornthwaite, Philip J. Wellington's Military Machine
                              (Tunbridge Wells, Kent: Spellmount, Ltd, 1989)
Mercer, Cavalié. Journal of the Waterloo Campaign
                              (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1969 / De Capo 1995)
Pericoli, Ugo. 1815. The Armies at Waterloo
                              (London: Seeley, Service and Co., 1973)
Siborne, H.T. Waterloo Letters
                              (Harrisburg, Penn: Arms and Armour Press, 1983)
Allied Order of Battle Information from F De Bas:
                              "Prins Frederik der Nederlanden en zijn Tijd", Schiedam 1904

 

 

     
Text copyright © P L Kessler. An original feature for the History Files.