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Early Modern India
Maratha Aristocracy: Holkars of Indore
by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha, 27 November 2010
Indore is a city in the modern day state of Madhya
Pradesh, in India. It was built up by a zamindar (an official
employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from the peasants), named
Rao Nandalal Chaudhary, across the banks of the River Narmada.
It was then known as Indreshwar after the local
Indreshwar temple, and it came to be a princely state in the late
eighteenth century under the ruling family, the Holkars.
The Holkars came to prominence during the
time of Maratha Peshwa Bajirao I (or Baji Rao). His able
military commander, Malharrao Holkar, was the patriarch of this
Holkar family. A dhangar (shepherd) peasant by caste, Malharba, as he
was popularly known, rose through the Maratha ranks by stint of his
valour and attained the rank of general in Peshwa Bajirao's army. He
helped Bajirao in establishing Maratha supremacy in central and
northern India along with the likes of his equally competent
contemporaries such as Ranoji Scindia and Udaji Pawar.
Genealogy of the Holkar family prior to
Malharrao Holkar (born 1693-died 1766)
was born in the village of Hol, near Jejuri, Pune, to one Khanduji
Holkar of Vir.
Malharrao joined the Maratha cavalry at a young
age and this brave youth soon impressed his peers. He was noticed
by Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath and was gradually elevated to the rank
of a commander.
He assisted the next peshwa, Bajirao I (son of
Balaji Vishwanath), in his early years and soon became a part of
the team that progressed north to establish Maratha hegemony.
Malharrao was instrumental in Bajirao's successes in Malwa and
was soon given the task of collecting revenue from that region.
Malharrao participated in several victorious battles
such as at Delhi in 1736, Bhopal in 1738, Bassein in 1739, Rajputana
in 1743, the Rohilla campaigns of 1748, and 1751-1752, the Jat campaign
at Kumher in 1754 (where Malharrao lost his son, Khanderrao, to a
stray cannonball), Delhi in 1757, Sarhind and Lahore in 1758, and
Mangrol in 1761. For his services to the Maratha kingdom Malharrao
Holkar was given the subhedari and the jagirdari of Indore.
Malharrao headquartered himself at Maheshwar, Indore.
However, many historians (such as Rajwade, amongst
others) have criticised Malharrao for his lack of timely support in
the Third Panipat War (against the Afghans and the Rohillas), and
his leniency towards his foes such as Najib ud daulla khan, mainly
ascribed to his differences with the Scindias and the members of the
peshwa family including Sadashivrao and Raghunathrao. Historians such
as Shejwalkar eventually concluded that the Maratha debacle was a
collective failure caused by several internal and external factors
and was not a result of any dereliction of duty by Malharrao.
After Panipat, Malharrao Holkar tried to rebuild
lost Maratha pride in the north. He defeated Maharaja Madhav Singh
of Jaipur, who was trying to create a coalition to prevent the Marathas
from entering the north. But Madhav Singh was defeated at the Battle
of Mangrol in 1761 by Malharrao, although the old war veteran himself
was wounded in the battle and retired to Indore to recuperate. He was
never quite his old self again.
The Rajbada palace was built by Malharrao Holkar and completed
in 1766. It was burnt down during the 1984 riots and rebuild by
the current maharana in 2007
Malharrao Holkar gained Indore in reward for his services for the
Because of the death of his only son and with him being in a
precarious condition, Malharrao handed over the reins of his
fiefdom's administration to his daughter-in-law, Rajmata
Malharrao Holkar breathed his last at Alampur,
Madhya Pradesh, on 2 May 1766, where his cenotaph still rests.
He was succeeded by his daughter-in-law.
Ahilyabai Holkar (born 31 May 1725 -
died 13 August 1795, reigned 1767-1795) was the daughter-in-law and
successor of Malharrao Holkar. She was also known as Punyashlok (as
noted in the shlokas, or sacred chants) and as the 'Philosopher Queen'.
Ahilyabai was born in the village of Chaundi to one
Mankoji Shinde, the patil (village chief). Unlike women of her times,
Ahilyabai was accorded an education by her father. Malharrao Holkar
chanced upon this bright girl and married her off to his son, Khanderao
Holkar. She was then just eight years old.
After Khanderao's death in 1754, Malharrao introduced
Ahilya to the administration of his estates. Twelve years later Malharrao
also died and Ahilyabai was declared queen of Indore. It is said that
she faced resistance in the form of Raghunathrao, the uncle and regent
of Peshwa Madhavrao, but thanks to popular support and determination
on her part, she continued to rule as queen.
Her son Malerao died prematurely, in 1766.
Ahilyabai proved her administrative skills and
improved the life of her subjects, due to which she gained immense
popularity. She built several charitable homes, roads, schools, ghats,
wells, and temples, not just in her state but all around the country.
She patronised the arts, architecture, literature and poetry in her
kingdom, ensured effective policing in her state and even promoted
agriculture and industry. She also made several judicial and social
reforms, improved the lives of widows in her kingdom to a great extent,
sponsored orphans, improved the lives of the tribal peoples and protected
their customs. Ahilyabai Holkar therefore proved to be a person of
extraordinary abilities and has etched her name amongst the few
glorious queens of India eulogised right up to the present day.
After her death, her commander-in-chief - and also
Malharrao's adopted son - Tukojirao Holkar (a distant relative),
succeeded to the Indore throne.
Tukojirao Holkar (1795-1797) was the adopted
son of Malharrao Holkar and the commander-in-chief of his forces.
He was a veteran of many campaigns fought alongside
Malharrao, and he helped to consolidate Maratha rule in Rajputana
and Malwa. His most famous battle was against Tipu Sultan whom he
defeated decisively. There was also a sense of rivalry and one-upmanship
with the Scindia family (Mahadji Scindia) of Gwalior during his tenure
(which started during the reign of Ahilyabai Holkar).
Ahilyabai Holkar was Indore's glorious queen regnant
The Holkars often found themselves in the opposing
camp during their quest in Rajputana and the Jat lands. Tukojirao
served as king of Indore for a very short period. He died in Khadki,
Pune in 1797. His cenotaph still exists.
Kashirao Holkar (1797-1798) had assisted his
father in many of his campaigns in northern India. After the death of
Tukoji, there was a successional war between his sons, Kashirao and
Malharrao II. The Scindias, who were fishing in troubled waters, had
supported the cause of Kashirao and had him made the next ruler of
Malharrao II Holkar (1797-1798), ruled
independently of Kashirao. He was killed by Scindia's forces.
This was greatly resented by Yeshwantrao (Jaswantrao)
Holkar, the illegitimate son of Tukojirao Holkar, who was supporting
Malharrao II along with Vithoji Holkar, as Yeshwantrao considered
Malharrao II to be more competent to succeed Tukoji, especially after
the latter showed his valour in the battles of Panchilas and Lakhiri.
Soon Yeshwantrao rebelled against Kashirao and
subsequently deposed him and made himself the next king. Kashirao
sought Scindia help but was captured at Asirgarh by Yeshwantrao's
forces and imprisoned in Sendhwa. Kashirao later died in a scuffle
(it was reported that he had been murdered) at Sendhwa fort in 1808.
It must be noted that while Kashirao was declared
ruler of Indore by the Scindias, Yeshwantrao declared someone else
as his king at Maheshwar.
Khanderao Holkar II
(1799-1806), the son of Malharrao II, was proclaimed king by Yeshwantrao
and the latter stood in as regent until Khanderao's death by cholera
in 1806 (although British historians have claimed that he was poisoned
Tukojirao Holkar reigned for only two years before dying in Pune
Yeshwantrao Holkar I (1806-1811) was the
illegitimate son of Tukojirao Holkar. He deposed his brother, Kashirao,
and became the next ruler of Indore.
Yeshwantrao assisted the rulers of Dhar in
countering an invasion by the marauding Pindaris. His rivalry with
the Scindias (in the form of Daulatrao Scindia) continued and was
exacerbated when Peshwa Bajirao II and Daulatrao Scindia allied
themselves to each other. Yeshwantrao even aligned himself with the
infamous Pindari leader, Amir Khan, and plundered Scindia, Bhosale and
the peshwa territories.
Peshwa Bajirao II had Yeshwantrao's brother, Vithoji,
executed in Pune (Vithoji had earlier attacked the peshwa's
territories until he was captured by the Scindia forces. Vithoji also
supported Amritrao, the adopted son of Raghunathrao, to attain the post of
peshwa in place of his elder brother, Bajirao II).
An incensed Yeshwantrao Holkar sacked Pune in 1802,
deposed the peshwa and had the peshwa's adopted brother, Amritrao,
installed in his place. In retaliation, Bajirao II had to flee Pune
and seek British help. The British reinstated him as peshwa while
Yeshwantrao, content with the booty collected at Pune, left to return
During the Second Anglo-Maratha War between the
British and the Scindia-Bhosale combine, Yeshwantrao preferred to
remain neutral (thanks to the Scindia-Holkar rivalry). But after
Scindia's defeat in 1804, Yeshwantrao feared that he would be the
next target of the British and he launched an offensive against
them. He sought the help of various princes such as those of Jind
(Raja Bhag Singh), Patiala (Raja Fateh Singh), and Lahore (Ranjit
Singh), but that help failed to materialise. He was also betrayed
by his close aides, especially Amir Khan and Bhawani Shankar
Despite a few successes such as those at Kunch,
Mukandare, Kota, and Bharatpur - in which he was aided by the
Jat king, Ranjit Singh, in an abortive attempt to free Mughal
Emperor Shah Alam II from British control - Yeshwantrao was
isolated and defeated. So the treaty at Beas was concluded and
Yeshwantrao became a British vassal.
Malharrao II Holkar was killed by Scindia's forces after a year's
To his credit he did try reorganising the Marathas
against the British (a factory to manufacture cannon was secretly
set up by him at Bhanpura and even the odd 100,000 soldiers were
gathered together), but no external help came his way and he died
in 1811 after suffering a stroke, probably a disillusioned man.
Towards the end of his life Yeshwantrao reportedly became mentally
Yeshwantrao was termed the 'Napoleon of India' by
historian-novelist N S Inamdar.
Malharrao Holkar III (1811-1833) was the
son of Yeshwantrao Holkar (from his wife, Maharani Krishnabai).
After ascending the throne at the age of four, he ruled under the
regency of Maharani Tulsibai Holkar, the widow (concubine) of
Yeshwantrao. Tulsibai was also the regent for her husband,
Yeshwantrao, after he became mentally ill.
The British made efforts to intervene in the
affairs of Indore. They conspired with some of the regent's Pathan
and Pindari courtiers and Tulsibai was herself murdered on the banks
of the River Sipra in 1817. Then the British defeated the Holkar army
(led by the eleven year-old Malharao and his brave cousins, twenty
year-old Harirao Holkar, son of Vithoji Holkar, and Bhimabai Holkar,
daughter of Yeshwantrao and his first queen Larabai, at Mahidpur in
1817), after the Holkars were betrayed by some of their own key men.
A treaty was signed at Mandsaur in 1817 whereby
the Holkars' rights over the lands in Rajputana were relinquished.
Bhimabai continued to oppose the British. She died in 1858. Malharrao
III transferred his capital to Indore, but he too died, on 27 October
Martandrao Holkar (1833-1834) was made the
next king of Indore. He was the son of Sardar Bapusaheb Holkar and
was formally adopted by Maharani Gautamibai, the widow of Malharao
III. But he was deposed in favour of Harrirao Holkar, the son of
Vithoji Holkar (brother of Yeshwantrao). He was kept in confinement
in Poona until his death in 1849.
Yeshwantrao Holkar I put up a brave fight against the British
Hari Rao Holkar (1834-1843) had earlier raised
a revolt against the British, in 1819, but was captured and confined
in Maheshwar fort. He was released and officially adopted by Gautamabai
and made king. He died in 1843.
Khanderao Holkar III (1843-1844) was the eldest
son of Sardar Bapusaheb Holkar and the elder brother of the ex-king,
Martandrao. He was adopted by Harirao and made king after his death. His
adoptive grandmother, Maharani Krishnabai (the second wife of Yeshwantrao),
acted as his regent. But he died at Maheshwar fort without having adopted
Sir Tukoji rao Holkar II (1844-1886) was the
son of a distant relative by the name of Sardar Santojirao Holkar.
He was declared king by the British. His adoptive mother acted as
his regent until he came of age. He also held the rank of
lieutenant-general in the British army. He was an expert horseman,
and a good marksman and swordsman. He promoted agriculture, industry
(starting his own newspaper, 'Malwa Akhbar', and the first printing
press in his kingdom, a postal service, a mint, etc), and education
in a big way. He was succeeded by his third son, Shivajirao Holkar
(the first two sons died prematurely) from his fourth wife, Parvatibai
Shivajirao Holkar (1886-1903) was the son
and successor of Tukoji II. He had a good knowledge of astrology.
He founded Holkar College in Indore, constructed several palaces
and other buildings and promoted wrestling as a sport in his kingdom.
He abdicated the throne in favour of his eldest son, Tukojirao III.
He died in 1908.
A wood carving of 1857 depicting Indore
Sir Tukoji Rao Holkar III (1903-1926) was
the son and successor of Shivajirao Holkar. He received a Western
education, and was said to be a progressive-minded person. He promoted
industrialisation, thermal power stations, agriculture, education,
the arts, culture, and so on in his kingdom. He had to abdicate the
throne due to the Bawla murder case (in 1925, Abdul Kadar Bawla, the
paramour of Mumtaz Begum, a mistress of the maharaja, was murdered
and there was an attempt to kidnap Mumtaz Begum into the bargain).
Pressure followed from the British resident for him to abdicate.
Yeshwantrao Holkar II (1926-1948) was the
son and successor of Tukojirao III. Yeshwantrao II was Oxford educated
and an avid cricketer. He was deeply involved in charitable and public
utility works. He was the last king of Indore before it was forcibly
merged into the Indian Union in 1947. He served as a senior upa
rajyapramukh until 1956. He died in Mumbai in 1961 leaving behind a
son by the name of Richard (from his third wife, Euphemia Fay Watt),
and a daughter, Usha Devi (from his first wife, Rajashri Bai Saheb).
Richard has authored books and is a fine gourmet and is
married to filmmaker Pamela Rooks (his second wife), a producer of films
which include 'Miss Beatty's Children', 'Train to Pakistan', Dance Like a
Man'. Pamela was previously married to Conrad Rooks, another filmmaker.
Richard has a son, Yeshwant, by Pamela and a daughter, Sabrina, by his
first wife, Sally Sue Budd. Usha Devi was declared Yeshwantrao's
successor and not Richard.
Yeshwantrao Holkar II was forced to hand over his state to the
Indian Union in 1947
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