After Babur's conquest of Delhi, he
erected a mosque at Panipat to celebrate his victory over Ibrahim
Lodi. A second mosque, known as the Babri Masjid, was built in
Ayodhya (on a demolished Hindu Ramjanmabhumi temple). This was the
construction which was so famously - and controversially - demolished
by Hindus in 1992. A third mosque also built by Babur
during the same period was constructed in Sambhal, at Distt Moradabad.
Some of the earliest and most characteristic examples
that remain of early Mughal architecture were built in the short
reign of Emperor Sher Shah Suri (1540–1545), who was not even a Mughal;
they include a mosque known as the Qila i Kuhna (1541) near Delhi,
and the military architecture of the Old Fort in Delhi and Rohtas
Fort, near Jhelum in present-day Pakistan. The emperor's mausoleum, octagonal
in plan and set upon a plinth in the middle of an artificial lake,
is in Sasaram, and was completed by his son and successor, Islam Shah Suri (1545-1553).
The Emperor Akbar (1556-1605) built largely, and
the style developed vigorously during his reign. As in the Gujarat
and other styles, there is a combination of Muslim and Hindu
features in his works. Akbar constructed the royal city of Fatehpur
Sikri, located twenty-six miles (forty-two kilometres) west of Agra, in the late 1500s. The
numerous structures at Fatehpur Sikri best illustrate the style of
his works, and the great mosque there is scarcely matched in
elegance and architectural effect; the south gateway is well known,
and from its size and structure it excels any similar entrance in
India. The Mughals built impressive tombs, which include the fine
tomb of Akbar's father, Humayun, and Akbur's tomb at Sikandra, near
Agra, which is a unique structure of the kind, and is of great merit.
Under Jahangir (1605–1627) the Hindu features
vanished from the style; his great mosque at Lahore is in the
Persian style, covered with enamelled tiles. At Agra, the tomb of
Itmad-ud-Daula, which was completed in 1628, was built entirely of white marble and
covered wholly by pietra dura mosaic. It is one of the most splendid
examples of that style of ornamentation to be found anywhere.
Jahangir also built the Shalimar Gardens and its accompanying
pavilions on the shore of Dal Lake in Kashmir. He even built a
monument to his pet antelope, Hiran Minar, in Sheikhupura (now in Pakistan)
and due to his great love for his wife, after his death she went on
to build his mausoleum in Lahore.
The Taj Mahal, the 'teardrop on eternity', was
completed in 1648 by Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife,
Mumtaz Mahal. It is completely symmetric, other than the sarcophagus
of Shah Jahan, which is placed off centre in the crypt room below
the main floor. This symmetry extended to the building of an entire
mirror mosque in red sandstone, to complement the Mecca-facing
mosque place to the west of the main structure.