Map of Xionite North-Western India AD 500s-600s
The centre of Kidarite silver coin production lay in Gandhara and Uddiyana, where four to five mints of unknown specific locations were at work. The area of circulation stretched at least from Kabulistan to Taxila.
Six Kidarite drachms were uncovered at the Buddhist monument, the Butkara stupa (in Swat), which may well be interpreted as products of a mint there. Beside silver drachms, copper coins were used for smaller transactions at local markets. One of the most important find locations is the Hindu cave complex of Kashmir Smast in northern Gandhara, where numerous Kidarite copper coins have been found.
Even before the middle of the fifth century AD the Kidarite identity, established by the first set of invading Xionites, was gradually evolving into that of the Alchons, who had settled in Kabulistan toward the end of the fourth century and soon expanded their sphere of control eastwards over the Khyber Pass into Gandhara and Taxila alongside the Hephthalites in their invasion of India.
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