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European Kingdoms

Eastern Europe

 

 

 

Bishops of Culm / Chelmno
AD 1243 - Present Day

Until the arrival of the Teutonic Knights, the Prussian region of Chelmno (or Culmerland / Kulmerland) was a disputed part of the Polish region of Mazovia in western-central Prussia, a south-western tip of territory which was encircled by the River Vistula to the west and the Drewenz to the east. Battles here between the Poles and the Prussians were the initial reason for the Knights being invited to settle in the Lower Vistula and provide a buffer for the Polish kingdom. Once the Knights had conquered Prussia, Culm became a diocese. The Papal legate, William of Modena, oversaw the creation of the diocese in 1243, along with those of Ermland and Pomesania, placing the seat at Kulmsee (Chelmza). This was moved in 1257 to Lubawa Castle.

1245 - 1263

Heidenreich

Of the Dominican Order.

1252

The bishopric of Samland is formed in northern Prussia, comprising the Frisches Haff (Vislinskii Zaliv) and Kurisches Haff (Kurskii Zaliv), with Königsberg serving as the administrative headquarters.

1257

The bishop's seat is moved to Lubawa Castle.

The church of St James and St Nicholas in Chełmno
The church of St James and St Nicholas in Chełmno

1260 - 1274

The Livonian Knights, along with the Teutonic Knights, are abandoned by their Estonian and Couronian vassals and severely defeated at the Battle of Durbe in Livonia by the Samogitians. As a result, numerous rebellions break out against the Teutonic Knights all across the Baltics, including a general uprising throughout Prussia. The Prussians win several battles against the hard-pressed Knights and by 1264 the situation is critical. Reinforcements arrive from Germany and the Order launches an attack against the rebels, with final defeat of the Prussians coming in 1274. Several uprisings occur in the thirteenth century, but none as serious as this.

1264 - 1274

Friedrich von Hausen

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1275 - 1291

Werner von Kulm

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1291/92 - 1301

Heinrich Schenk

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1303 - 1311

Hermann von Kulm

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1311 - 1316/19

Eberhard von Kulm

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1319 - 1323

Nikolaus Afri

Of the Dominican Order.

1323 - 1349

Otto von Kulm

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1349 - 1359

Jakob von Kulm

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1359 - 1363

Johann Schadland

Of the Dominican Order.

1363 - 1381/85

Wikbold Dobilstein

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1385 - 1390

Reinhard von Sayn

1390

Martin von Lynow

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1390 - 1398

Nikolaus Schippenbeil

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1398 - 1402

Johann II

Herzog von Oppeln.

1402 - 1416

Arnold Stapel

Of the Teutonic Knights.

1416 - 1457

Johann Marienau

1457 - 1479

Vincent Goslawski Kielbasa

1466

At the conclusion of the Thirteen Year War, along with the Teutonic Knights, the bishopric of Culm falls under the suzerainty of Poland.

1480 - 1495

Stephan von Niborka

1496 - 1507

Nikolaus Krapitz

1508 - 1530

Jan Konopacki

1525

The Teutonic Knights' Ordenstaat is secularised and converted to Lutheran Protestantism as the duchy of East Prussia. In the same year, the reverberations of the Peasants' War in Germany reach Prussia.

1530 - 1538

Johannes Dantiscus

1538 - 1549

Tiedemann Giese

1549 - 1551

Stanislaus Hosius

1551 - 1562

Jan Lubodziecki

1562 - 1571

Stanisław Żelisławski

1569

The Union of Poland-Lithuania, Ruthenia, Livonia, Polotsk, and Samogitia is effected, establishing the Commonwealth of Poland. Sigismund II Augustus becomes king of a united Poland-Lithuania.

1574 - 1595

Piotr Kostka

1587

The bishopric of Culm survives the dissolution of two of the other bishoprics in Prussia between 1577-1587. In 1587, it gains the remaining Catholic areas of the former bishopric of Pomesania when that too is dissolved.

1595 - 1600

Piotr Tylicki

1600 - 1610

Wawrzyniec Gembicki

1611 - 1613

Maciej Konopacki

1614 - 1624

Jan Kucborski

1624 - 1635

Jakob Zadzik

1635 - 1639

Jan Lipski

1639 - 1646

Kasper Działyński

1646 - 1652

Andrzej hrabia Leszczyński

1653 - 1655

Jan Gembicki

1658 - 1661

Adam Koss

1662 - 1674

Andrzej Olszewski

1676 - 1681

Jan Małachowski

1681 - 1693

Kasimir Johann z Bnina Opaliński

1693 - 1694

Kasimir Szczuka

1699 - 1712

Theodor Andrzej Potocki

1719 - 1721

Johann Kasimir Alten-Bokum

1723 - 1730

Felix Ignaz Kretkowski

1731 - 1733

Tomasz Franciszek Czapski

1736 - 1739

Adam Stanislaus Grabowski

1739 - 1746

Andrzej Stanisław Załuski

1747 - 1758

Wojciech Stanisław Leski

1759 - 1785

Andrzej Ignacy z Broniewic Baier

1785 - 1795

Karl von Hohenzollern-Hechingen

1795 - 1814

Franciszek Ksawery z Wrbna Rydzyński

1824 - 1832

Ignaz Vinzenz Stanislaus Matthy

1834 - 1856

Anastazy Sedlag

1857 - 1886

Johann Nepomuk Marwicz

1886 - 1898

Leon Redner

1899 - 1926

Augustin Rosentreter

1926 - 1944

Stanisław Wojciech Okoniewski

1945

The conclusion of the Second World War witnesses the expulsion of the German population by the Soviet Russian victors. This expulsion includes the German bishop of Warmia, with the result that the position remains vacant in Poland until a new Polish diocese is formed in 1972. Culm itself becomes part of Poland.

1946 - 1972

Kazimierz Józef Kowalski

1973 - 1980

Bernard Czapliński

1981 - 1992

Marian Przykucki

1992 - Present

Jan Bernard Szlaga

Bishop of Pelplin.