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Schaumburg-Lippe
AD 1643 - 1807

The early modern German county of Lippe was a parcel of territory that was located between the River Weser and the south-eastern section of the Teutobergerwald. The House of Lippe resided along the river of the same name, originating in the person of Count Jobst Hermann of Lippe. He died around 1056, but his grandson (or great-grandson, born around 1090), Bernard, succeeded him. In 1123, he was granted a parcel of territory by Holy Roman Emperor Lothar II of Supplinburg and, as the new, and first, 'Lord of Lippe', Bernhard became Bernhard I.

With the death of Count Simon VI in 1613, Lippe was divided in four: Lippe-Detmold (held by the senior line of descent under Simon VII), Lippe-Brake (passed to the next oldest son, Otto), Lippe-Schwalenberg (held by the next in line, Hermann, who is included alongside the counts of Lippe-Detmold), and Lippe-Alverdissen (held by the youngest, Philip I). Each division retained the status of a county, although the secondary divisions rarely held any territory of note other than the odd castle or town. When Count Otto V of Holstein-Schaumburg died in 1640 without having produced an heir, the county of Schaumburg was divided (in 1643) between Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hessen-Kassel, and Lippe. Count Philip I of Lippe-Alverdissen was able to found the Schaumburg-Lippe line of the House of Lippe to incorporate the expanded territory that came to him (aided, perhaps, by his being married to Sophie, daughter of Landgrave Maurice of Hessen-Kassel). Hessen-Kassel itself held the lion's share, including the county of Schaumburg itself, minus various territories, and retained some feudal rights over Schaumburg-Lippe at first, along with control of many institutions that Schaumburg-Lippe had to share.

(Additional information Jackie Speel, and from External Links: German Genealogy: Lippe, and European Heraldry: House of Lippe, and Lippe.)

1643 - 1681

Philip I

First lord of Schaumburg-Lippe. House of Lippe-Detmold.

1643 - 1648

The Thirty Years' War in Central Europe sees a series of destructive conflicts take place. Originally this is as a result of the Reformation and its Papal response, the Counter Reformation, but later it also serves as a continuation of the Bourbon-Habsburg struggle for supremacy. Count Simon VIII of Lippe-Detmold does his best to keep Lippe neutral so that it might be spared as much as possible, but it suffers nevertheless when imperial troops are billeted within its borders.

House in Lippe-Detmold
Despite Count Simon's best efforts, Lippe could not entirely be spared from the ravages of the brutal Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)

1648

The near-constant warfare and rapid change brought about by the Reformation and Counter Reformation is finally ended by the Peace of Westphalia.

1681

When Count Philip I dies, his territory of Schaumberg-Lippe (the former, enhanced, Lippe-Alverdissen) is divided between his sons. Schaumberg-Lippe goes to Friedrich Christian, while the title of Lippe-Alverdissen is revived for the younger son, Philipp Ernst, who rebrands it Schaumburg-Lippe-Alverdissen.

1681 - 1728

Frederick / Friedrich Christian

Son of Philip I of Lippe-Alverdissen/Schaumburg-Lippe.

1709

Upon the death of the childless Count Louis Ferdinand, the territory of Lippe-Brake is reunited with that of Lippe-Detmold under Count Frederick Adolphus.

1720

Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI offers to raise Count Simon Henry of Lippe-Detmold to the rank of imperial prince for the reasonable figure of 4,400 talers. Unfortunately, not only can Simon Henry not raise the money, his finances are so fragile that he is forced to sell off two lordships in the Netherlands in 1725, those of Amiede and Vianen, and pledge Sternberg Castle to Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1733. Opinion is divided on whether this financial trouble is due to alleged profligacy by the count or hardships inflicted by the Thirty Years' War that the count copes with admirably by raising money where and when he can.

1728 - 1748

Albert / Albrecht Wolfgang

Son.

1736

Sternberg-Schwalenberg is divided, with probably the majority of its territory going to form Lippe-Biesterfeld (which may already exist as it is sometimes applied to Jobst Herman of Sternberg-Schwalenberg). The remainder is used in 1762 to form Lippe-Weissenfeld. The descendants of Rudolf Ferdinand are known as the lords of Lippe-Biesterfeld.

1740 - 1748

The War of the Austrian Succession is a wide-ranging conflict that encompasses the North American King George's War, two Silesian Wars, the War of Jenkins' Ear, and involves most of the crowned heads of Europe in deciding the question of whether Maria Theresa can succeed as archduke of Austria and, perhaps even more importantly, as Holy Roman Emperor. Austria is supported by Britain, Schaumburg-Lippe, the Netherlands, the Savoyard kingdom of Sardinia, and Saxony (after an early switchover), but opposed by an opportunistic Prussia and France, who had raised the question in the first place to disrupt Habsburg control of central Europe, backed up by Bavaria and Sweden (briefly). Spain joins the war in an unsuccessful attempt to restore possessions lost to Austria in 1715 (such as Milan).

War of the Austrian Succession
The War of the Austrian Succession saw Europe go to war to decide whether Maria Theresa would secure the throne left to her by her father, but several other issues were also decided as a wide range of wars were involved in the overall conflict

1748 - 1777

William / Wilhelm

Son. Important military leader during the war. Died childless.

1748

One of the things for which William is noted during his reign is the comparatively large standing army that he maintains. A thousand men for such a small territory is quite unusual, but he is prompted by security fears in relation to his share of the productive Bückeburg mines and the possibility (however remote) that the dominating force in the county of Schaumburg, Hessen-Kassel, might attempt to seize total control of them.

1762

A cadet branch of the counts of Lippe-Biesterfeld becomes the first count of Lippe-Weissenfeld in the form of Ferdinand Johann Ludwig. At the same time, the lord of Lippe-Biesterfeld is raised to the rank of count.

1777

William dies without having produced an heir, and the senior line of Schaumberg-Lippe dies out with him. The junior line, of Schaumburg-Lippe-Alverdissen, inherits Schaumburg-Lippe and the two titles are permanently merged under the latter name. All subsequent descendants of Count Philipp Ernst of Schaumburg-Lippe-Alverdissen are shown below.

1777 - 1787

Philip Ernest / Philipp Ernst II

Former lord of Schaumburg-Lippe-Alverdissen (1749-1777).

1787 - 1807

George William

Son. Raised to the rank of prince in 1807.

1787 - 1799

Princess Juliane

Of Hessen-Philippsthal. Mother & regent until her death.

1787 - 1806?

Johann Ludwig Reichsgraf

Count of Wallmoden-Gimborn. co-regent.

1789

The counts of Lippe-Detmold are raised to the rank of 'Prince of the Empire', the title for the head of noble families rather than the offspring of monarchs. Despite already being the senior line of descent for the House of Lippe, it is clearly now superior to the other branches of the family, and so the designation of Detmold is dropped from the title. The town of Detmold itself remains the capital of the new principality.

1807

The county of Schaumberg-Lippe is raised to a principality upon joining the Confederation of the Rhine on 15 December, which is dominated by Napoleon Bonaparte's French First Empire.

MapPrincipality of Schaumburg-Lippe
AD 1807 - Present Day

The county of Lippe-Detmold had been raised to a principality in 1789, but the titles of the other, junior divisions of Lippe had remained unaltered at the time. Schaumberg-Lippe was raised to a principality on 15 December 1807, during the hectic years of turmoil as part of the Confederation of the Rhine, which was under the domination of Napoleon Bonaparte and the French First Empire. By this stage the principality consisted of two towns, Bückeburg (in the modern German state of Lower Saxony), which was the capital, and Stadhagen to the north-east. The princes resided at Schloss Bückeburg (Bückeburg Palace) which is located at the very centre of the town, and even today it remains their residence, despite the loss of princely rights and authority in 1918. RAF Bückeburg lies immediately to the north-east of the town, which provided a base for British occupation forces following the end of the Second World War.

1807 - 1860

George William

Former count of Schaumburg-Lippe.

1815

FeatureLippe sends a battalion of infantry and a battalion of landwehr (militia) along with three companies of the Detmold Landwehr and the Schaumberg-Lippe Battalion to join the allied forces that array themselves against France during the Hundred Days. The units are attached to the Anhalt-Thuringian Infantry Brigade, part of the Army of North Germany under the command of General Kleist von Nollendorf. As a result of the subsequent Congress of Vienna, Lippe becomes a member of the German Confederation.

Map of Northern Germany 1815
Lippe's position in northern Germany placed it in the path of Prussian expansionism in the nineteenth century, making it more likely that it would be gobbled up

1854

All of the main forms of worship in Lippe are granted equal status, including the main two forms of Protestantism, Lutherism and Calvinism, as well as the Catholic Church. This allows Catholics to have their own parishes for the first time since the Reformation.

1860 - 1893

Adolphus / Adolf I

Son. Supported Prussia.

1866

Prussia fights the Austro-Prussian War against Austria, essentially as a decider to see which of the two powers will be dominant in Central Europe. Austria and its southern German allies are crushed in just seven weeks (giving the conflict its alternative title of the Seven Weeks' War), and Prussia is now unquestionably dominant. Bismark oversees the seizure of four of Austria's northern German allies, and the new, Prussian-dominated North German Confederation gains members in Lippe and Schaumburg-Lippe Bückeburg, among many others.

1870 - 1871

The exile of Queen Isabella of Spain to France starts a remarkable chain of events. Isabella's abdication on 25 June 1870 leads to the Franco-Prussian War when France refuses to accept the possibility of the Prussian Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen gaining the Spanish throne. French troops are humiliated by Prussia's ultra-modern army and the siege of Paris brings about the downfall of its empire. Following the victory, the Second Reich (Germanic empire) is declared by Prussia, which now displaces Austria as the main Germanic power, as well as being the dominant power throughout central and western Europe. Lippe is incorporated into the empire as a client state.

1893 - 1911

George

Son.

1895

FeatureWith the accession of the incapacitated Prince Alexander of Lippe, the 'Lippe-Detmold Question' is first raised. Its significance lies not so much in the relatively obscure successional conflict that is triggered in Lippe but in the way it highlights certain weaknesses within the administrative structure of the German empire.

1897

With Prince Alexander of Lippe remaining childless, his eventual death as the senior member of the House of Lippe means that the Lippe-Detmold branch of the family will become extinct. The future Count Leopold of Lippe-Biesterfeld is due to succeed as prince and the head of the house, and is also in line to gain the first physical territory for his branch of the family, but the neighbouring principality of Schaumburg-Lippe disputes the assumed succession. As Schaumburg-Lippe is junior not only to the Lippe-Biesterfeld line, but also the Lippe-Weissenfeld line, a ruling goes in favour of Ernest of Lippe-Biesterfeld. Adolphus of Schaumburg-Lippe steps down as regent in favour of the victorious Ernest.

1905

The imperial court is forced to rule on the decision of 1897 that had upheld the claim by Ernest of Lippe-Biesterfeld to be the rightful successor to Prince Alexander of Lippe. As Alexander is the last of the Lippe-Detmold line, and the only other claimant, Count Adolphus of Schaumburg-Lippe, is a junior member of the Lippe princely house, Ernest's claim is upheld. Lippe-Biesterfeld merges back into Lippe and all further details for that branch are listed in the main Lippe line of hereditary descent.

1911 - 1936

Adolphus / Adolf II

Son. Forced to abdicate as ruling prince in 1918.

1914

The German empire (which includes Lippe-Detmold, Lippe-Biesterfeld, Lippe-Weissenfeld, and Schaumburg-Lippe, the latter being the smallest state in the empire in terms of the level of its population) moves swiftly to support its ally, Austria-Hungary, in a long-anticipated Great War (later more readily known as the First World War, or World War I). At the start it is successful against the Russian invasion of Prussia, routing their army at the Battle of Tannenberg, and in the west its armies reach the northern outskirts of Paris before they are stopped by the armies of Britain and France, together with the small Belgian army. Turkey joins the German cause on 31 October, but Afghanistan remains neutral, refusing to attempt an attack on British India.

Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1914
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Prussia and the German empire inspects his troops on the eve of war in 1914, a war that Lippe had no chance of escaping

1916

The title of count of Lippe-Biesterfeld has already merged with the principality of Lippe in 1905, when Leopold had succeeded the now extinct princely line. However, on 24 February 1916, Leopold upgrades various titles, with that of 'Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld' becoming 'His Serene Highness, Prince'. The same honour is bestowed on the same day upon the counts of Lippe-Weissenfeld, while other members of the family receive upgraded titles on 9 November 1918.

1918

Emperor William II, at the Western Front with his troops from 29 October following riots in Berlin, is forced to abdicate on 9 November, signalling the end of the House of Hohenzollern in power. The next day he flees to neutral Holland, and the First World War officially ends on 11 November. The princes of Lippe and Schaumburg-Lippe are forced to abdicate as part of the creation of the Weimar Republic, ending seven hundred and ninety-five years of princely rule of Lippe. Lippe becomes a free state.

Following collapse at the end of the First World War, Germany becomes a republic with a new government, proclaimed on 9 November 1918, but without a president until 1919. All the princely states in Germany are abolished and, locally, Detmold served as the capital of the Free State of Lippe. This is an autonomous region which retains a level of independence in local affairs until January 1947, when the occupying forces of the British sector merge Lippe into the newly-formed state of North Rhine-Westphalia. After being forced to abdicate as prince of Lippe on 12 November 1018, Prince Leopold retreats to the residential palace, the Residenzschloss Detmold, which remains in the possession of the prince and his family. The hereditary princes of Lippe still live there today as their primary residence.

1919

Germany adopts the democratic 'Weimar constitution' following the abolition of the German empire. This new Germany consists of the former German kingdoms and duchies, all of which have now been abolished, which include Baden, Bavaria, Hesse, Lippe, Saxony and Württemberg.

1928

The three sons of Prince Leopold of Lippe by his first wife sign up to the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP). The eldest, Prince Ernst, is reputedly the first German prince to do so.

1936 - 1962

Ernst Wolrad

Brother. Hereditary prince of Schaumburg-Lippe.

1937

Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, son of Prince Leopold's brother, Bernard, marries Princess Juliana of the Netherlands.

Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld and Princess Juliana of the Netherlands
The marriage between Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld and Princess Juliana of the Netherlands was a major social event in 1937

1945 - 1949

Following the Nazi surrender, Germany is occupied by the forces of Soviet Russia, the United States, Britain, and France until 1949. The victorious Russians take East Prussia and annexe it directly to the state. The German population either flees or is expelled and is replaced by an imported Russian population. In 1947, Lippe is merged into the state of North Rhine-Westphalia by the regional British authorities.

1948

Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands abdicates to make way for her daughter, Juliana. With the latter having married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld in 1937, their children are technically members of the House of Lippe, but officially they remain part of the House of Orange-Nassau.

1949

Both of Prince Leopold's eldest two sons had contracted unequal marriages, so Leopold writes them out of his will, making his youngest son, Armin, by his second wife his heir. When Leopold dies on 30 December 1949, Armin becomes the head of the House of Lippe and possessor of Schloss Detmold.

1962 - 2003

Philip Ernest / Philipp-Ernst

Son.

Prince Ernst of Lippe comes to regret his decision of 1958, in which he had declared that the eldest of all of Lippe's princes still alive in Germany would henceforth be head of the House of Lippe. He now qualifies his statement by announcing that all princes of Lippe should be considered for the role of head of the house, and not just those living in Germany. At a point between 1958 and 1990 he re-assumes his former role as head of the house (possibly at the death of Prince Simon Casimir in 1980), although this seems not to be with universal agreement. Many still apparently view Armin as the head of the house, and his son Stephan as his heir.

1990

With the death of Prince Ernst, his son, Friedrich Wilhelm continues his claim to be head of the House of Lippe, while the acknowledged head seems to be Armin, perhaps restored following the death of the elderly Prince Simon Casimir. However, Friedrich Wilhelm's offspring are all girls, so his claim is likely to end with him, leaving Armin and his heir, Stephan, as undisputed heads of the house.

2003 - Present

Alexander

Son.

Prince Heinrich-Donatus

Son and heir. Born 1994.