History Files


Far East Kingdoms

Central Asia




The Qara-Khitai Empire
AD 820 - 1000

In the 1120s China's Liao Dynasty was ousted by the Manchurian Jurchen, which became the Chin Dynasty (Tartars) in China. The Liaos, or Khitans (known by the Chinese as Western Tartars), were driven west into Central Asia, where, after defeating the Seljuq Turks of Persia under the Sultan Sanjar in 1141, they founded the Qara-Khitai empire with Samarkand as its capital.


Mahmud of Ghazni campaigns against the Qara-Khitai in Central Asia, but is ultimately defeated.


The Qara-Khitai are ousted from China.

1124 - 1144


1144 - 1151

Kan'Tien Hou

1151 - 1163


1163 - 1178

Ch'eng-T'ien Hou

1178 - 1211



The Qara-Khitai empire loses Transoxiana to the Khwarazm shahs, who previously held the status of vassals.

1211 - 1218

Kuchlug Khan Naiman

1217 - 1218

Tiring of the Chinese campaign, Mongol Great Khan Chingiz sends his general, Chepe, westwards to overthrow the empire of the Qara-Khitaï and annexe its territory. This defeat also opens the way towards Mongol interaction with Khwarazm and Persia.