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Marathas (Dewas)

Dhar and Dewas were princely states in the present day Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. In the early eighteenth century Maratha Sardar Udaji Pawar and his brothers accompanied Peshwa Baji Rao I on his expeditions to subjugate the regions of Malwa. In recognition of his services, Udaji Pawar was rewarded with the jagir of Dhar in 1728. Udaji later fell out with Peshwa Baji Rao and his lands were transferred to his brother, Anandrao Pawar (the other brother was Jagdevrao Pawar of the Chitgaon line) and he was sent away to Multan.

The Pawars today consider themselves to have descended from the Parmaras, an offshoot of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled regions in central India. They were Gurjars who assumed the status of Chandravanshi Rajput Kshatriyas (they claim descent from Raja Vikramaditya of Malwa. His descendents found fluctuating fortunes and some settled as rajas of Bijolya, in Mewar, present day Rajasthan state). Some of their clan members (Puar Rajputs) also ruled in the central Indian regions of Rajgarh and Chatarpur.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

Pawars of the Senior House of Dewas
AD 1732 - 1948

The Maratha states of Dhar and Dewas were ruled by different families belonging to the same clan, that of the Pawars, or Ponwars, Puars, etc. The rulers of Dewas descended from Krishnarao Pawar, son of the Shivajirao Pawar who migrated to the region of Maharashtra in 1610. Dewas further divided into a senior and junior house with the Pawar brothers demarcating their individual regions of control.

1667 - 1699

Bubajirao Pawar

Son of Krishnarao Pawar of Dhar.

1699

Bubajirao Pawar is granted the titles 'Vishwasrao Bahadur' and 'Saptasahashri Senapati' by the Maratha King Raja Ram. He is killed at Asirgad when he is bricked alive into a wall by the Moghuls.

1699 - 1726

Kalojirao Pawar

Served the ruler of Kolhapur as his subelashkar.

1732 - 1754

Tukojirao Pawar I / Tukaji Pawar

1732

Udajirao of Dhar falls out with the Peshwa and his jagir rights are transferred to his two brothers, Tukaji Pawar and Jivaji Pawar (the latter of the Junior house), who establish themselves as rulers in Dewas. Udajirao is sent off to Multan, where he dies.

Dewas Coat of Arms
Coat of arms of the senior house of Dewas

1739

Tukojirao assists the Peshwas in their Malwa conquest (where he distinguishes himself at the Battle of Dharawi).

1754

The king is killed in a skirmish with the Jats.

1754 - 1789

Krishnaraoji Pawar

Adopted son.

1754 - 1756

Rani Savitribaisaheb

Aunt and regent.

1754 - 1756

Krishnaraoji Pawar is the natural son of Shrimant Bapujirao Pawar and is adopted by his paternal uncle and named his successor. He rules under the regency of his aunt and adoptive mother, Rani Savitribaisaheb until he comes of age in 1756.

1789 - 1827

Tukojirao Pawar II

Nephew.

1789 - 1794

Rani Gangabaisaheb

Adoptive mother and regent.

1789

The natural son of Sardar Ranojirao Bapujirao Pawar, Tukojirao is adopted by his paternal uncle as his successor and rules under the regency of his adoptive mother, Rani Gangabaisaheb, until he comes of age in 1794.

1818

The king enters into an alliance with the British East India Company.

1827 - 1860

Rukmangadrao Pawar

Adopted son.

1827 - ?

Rani Rewabaisaheb

Adoptive mother and regent.

1827

Rukmangadrao is the natural son of Sardar Ranojirao Pawar and is adopted by Tukojirao II after the king's own son, Krishnajirao, had died at an early age. Rukmangadrao rules under the regency of his adoptive mother, Rani Rewabaisaheb (from the royal family of Baroda) until he comes of age.

1860 - 1899

Krishnaraoji Pawar II

1860 - 1867

Rani Tarabaisaheb

Adoptive mother and regent.

1860

Krishnaraoji is the natural son of Sardar Madhavrao Pawar and is adopted by his cousin, Rukmangadrao. He rules under his adoptive mother until 1867, and marries Rani Tarabaisaheb, the eldest daughter of Maharaja Sir Jayajirao Scindia of Gwalior.

1899 - 1900

Krishnaraoji dies without an heir, even an adopted one, so the throne is vacant for the best part of a year while the nobles decide who to select.

1900 - 1934

Tukojirao Pawar III

Abdicated and fled to Pondichery. Died there in 1937.

1934

Tukojirao has to abdicate the throne and flee to Pondichery, in French India, where he dies in 1937. The famed author E M Forster (author of 'A Passage to India') serves as his private secretary.

1934 - 1947

Sir Vikram Singhrao Pawar

Died 1983.

1939 - 1947

Vikram Singhrao serves in the British army (in the Maratha Light Infantry) in the Second World War. His role is ADC to King George VI. He abdicates the throne so that his eldest son may ascend the throne of Kolhapur in 1947 as Shahuji II. His other son, Krishnaraoji, succeeds him in Dewas.

1947 - 1999

Krishnaraoji Pawar III

Son. Died in Nagpur. Last ruler. Titular heir after 1948.

1947 - 1948

Rani Pramilarajesaheb

Mother and regent.

1947 - 1948

The dominion of India is formed on 15 August 1947 following the official handover of power by the British. Krishnaraoji reigns briefly under the regency of his mother, Rani Pramilarajesaheb, before relinquishing his kingdom to India in 1948. He later serves as an MLA in independent India.

1999 - Present

Tukojirao IV

Son. MLA and ex-minister of state for education.

Vikramraje

Son and heir.

Pawars of the Junior House of Dewas
AD 1732 - 1948

Udajirao of Dhar fell out with the Peshwa in 1732 and his jagir rights were transferred to his two brothers, Tukaji Pawar (of the Senior house) and Jivaji Pawar, who established themselves as rulers of the two branches in Dewas. Udajirao was packed off to Multan, where he died. Udajirao's second son, Haibatrao, was later adopted by his uncle and succeeded as ruler in the Dewas junior branch in 1840.

1732 - 1774

Jivajirao Pawar I

Born 1728.

1732

Jivajirao Pawar assists in the Maratha campaign in Dewas. He is granted half of the Dewas jagir along with his brother, Tukojirao, by the Peshwa.

1774 - 1790

Sadashivrao Pawar

Son. Killed by his own son.

1790

Sadashivrao falls out with the Peshwa after the latter rules against him and is killed at Ujjain by his only son, Rukmangadrao.

Coat of arms of the junior house of Dewas
Coat of arms of the junior house of Dewas

1790 - 1817

Rukmangadrao Pawar

Son. Died without issue.

1817 - 1840

Anandrao Puar / Anandrao II.

Son of Sardar Yadavrao Pawar.

1840 - 1864

Haibatrao Pawar

Adopted son. Son of Udajirao Pawar of Dhar.

1864 - 1892

Narayanrao Pawar

Son.

1864 - 1877

Narayanrao Pawar reigns under a regency council until he comes of age in 1877.

1892 - 1934

Sir Malharrao Pawar

Son of Jivajirao Pawar, adopted by his uncle, Haibatrao Pawar.

1892 - 1913

Malharrao rules under a regency council until 1913.

1934 - 1943

Sadashivrao Pawar II

Younger brother.

1943 - 1965

Sir Colonel Yeshwantrao Pawar

Son. Last ruler. Died 1965.

1947 - 1948

The dominion of India is formed on 15 August 1947 following the official handover of power by the British. Yeshwantrao relinquishes his kingdom to India in 1948. He later serves in the Jaipur Infantry as the regimental colonel.

1965

Colonel Yeshwantrao Pawar dies and is survived by his two daughters, Durgaraje and Udayaraje. The fate of the Dewas title is unknown.