History Files


Far East Kingdoms

South Asia




Goa (Chandrapur / Chandor)

Goa is modern India's smallest state. It is located on the Konkan coast, sharing its boundaries with the states of Karnataka and Maharashtra. Goa in the ancient period in India went by various names including Gomanta, Gomantak, Goparapuri, Govapuri, Gomanchala, Goparashtra (derived from Gova rashtra or the land of the cow herds, and mentioned as such in the Mahabharata). The name Goa is also said to have been derived from the Konkani word 'Goyan', which means a patch of tall grass. It was alternatively known as Aparahanta by the third century BC. Goa was also known to the Greeks by the name Chersonesus or Nelikinda (Periplus), Nekanidon (Pliny), Melinda or Tricadiba Insula (Ptolemy), Nincilda (Peutingerian tables), Sibo, and to the Arabs by the names Sindabur, Chintabur and Cintabor.

Its origins run back into mythology. It is said that the warrior ascetic, Sage Parshurama, struck a arrow into the deep seas and the area covered by the arrow was soon converted into dry land, which was Goa. The area where the arrow landed was Benali, today's Benaulim. Parshurama invited several Brahmins to settle down in Goa. These particular sects are called Gauda Saraswat Brahmins.

Historians have concluded a more plausible train of events for the arrival of the Gauda Saraswat Brahmins in Goa. Apparently they formed a section of the Aryan tribes that migrated away from northern India (from Kashmir and Punjab) after the drying up of the River Saraswati. While this river was in the process of drying up, something which resulted in a regional famine, these Brahmins took to eating fish (Brahmins are usually vegetarians). Their exodus began with them heading in all directions such as Uttar Pradesh, Rajputana, Bihar (Trihotra) and Bengal (Gauda). The tribe that settled in the eastern regions of Trihotra, Gauda, later migrated southwards to Goa, quite possibly at the invitation of Sage Parshurama.

The name Chandor was one of the more common names for the Goa region. Chandrapur was one of the early capitals of the Kadambas of Goa (although they later shifted it Govapuri, on the banks of the River Zuari). Chandrapur is also an area in present day Maharashtra State, and this should not be confused with the ancient use of the name.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

3rd century BC

Goa is a colony of the Mauryan empire in northern India. It is ruled regionally by governors, but details of individual governors are unavailable.

Goa countryside and Pilgaon Temple
Goa's lush countryside, here showing Pilgaon Temple, has made it a prosperous region within India, which emerged from pre-history in the third century BC

Chutus of Karwar
2nd Century BC - 2nd Century AD

The Satavahanas ruled Goa through their vassals, the Chutus of Karwar (and of Banavasi in North Karnatka), at an unknown point between the second century BC and the second century AD, but probably for most of this period. No details on the Chutu rulers is available, but a few of their more important kings are known from numismatic evidence. Unfortunately the dates of rule often shown alongside coins are impossibly long, leaving it unclear at which end of those dates the kings in question actually lived and reigned.

1st century BC

The Chutus are apparently governing territory around Goa by this period, and are probably subjugated by the powerful Satavahanas around the same period.

Map of Central Asia & India c.50 BC
By the period between 100-50 BC the Greek kingdom of Bactria had fallen and the remaining Indo-Greek territories (shown in white) had been squeezed towards Eastern Punjab. India was partially fragmented, and the once tribal Sakas were coming to the end of a period of domination of a large swathe of territory in modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and north-western India. The dates within their lands (shown in yellow) show their defeats of the Greeks that had gained them those lands, but they were very soon to be overthrown in the north by the Kushans while still battling for survival against the Satvahanas of India (click on map to show full sized)

30 BC - AD 70?


78 - 175?


175 - 280?


mid-3rd century

By the middle of the third century the Satavahana kingdom has fragmented into many parts, each having a ruler of its own who claims to be the true Satvahana descendant. Their perennial enemy, the Sakas, assume overlordship of Goa. That overlordship is temporary, however, as the Abhiras soon take over.

3rd Century - 4th Century AD

The Abhiras claimed descent from the Satavahanas and succeeded them in ruling from the ancient capital of Pratishthana. They gained control of the region which included Goa in the mid to late third century AD and retained it for approximately a century to a century and-a-half. No details are known about this dynasty of rulers, but a few of their more important kings are known from numismatic evidence. It is not known if they ruled in sequence or whether other kings reigned in between.




Early in his reign, Samudragupta of the Guptas takes the kingdoms of Shichchhatra and Padmavati. Then he attacks the Malwas, the Yaudheyas, the Arjunayanas, the Maduras, and the Abhiras, all of which are tribes in the region.



4th century

The Abhiras give way to the newly dominant Traikutas.

4th Century - 5th Century AD

The Traikutas, who were centred on what is now Mumbai, took over Goa at some point in the fourth century AD and retained it for around a century. No details are known about this dynasty of rulers, but a few of their more important kings are known from numismatic evidence. It is not known if they ruled in sequence or whether other kings reigned in between.





5th century

The Traikutas give way to the Bhojas.

5th Century - 6th Century AD

The Bhojas of the Yadava clans of Gujarat succeeded to Goa during the fifth century AD and retained it for around a century. No details are known about this dynasty of rulers, but a few of their more important kings are known from numismatic evidence. It is not known if they ruled in sequence or whether other kings reigned in between, but it seems that by 500 they became vassals of the Kadamba king of Banavasi.





Harisena of the Vatsagulma kingdom of the Vakatakas is killed by some of his own vassals while fending off an attack by the Ashmakas and the Banavasi kingdom. As a result, Ravivarma, the Kadamba king of Banavasi, is able to extend his kingdom as far north as the River Narmada. The heartland of the kingdom essentially consists of most of Karnataka, Goa, and southern areas of modern Maharashtra.

Konkan Mauryas
6th Century AD

The Konkan Mauryas took over the rule of Goa for much of the sixth century AD. No details are known about this dynasty of rulers, or what their connections (if any) might be to the original Mauryas, but one of their more important kings is known.


Attacked by the Chalukyas.

6th-7th centuries

The Kalyani Chalukyas rule the region through their vassals, the Kadambas of Banavasi.

8th-9th centuries

The Rashtrakutas rule the region.

9th century

The Kalyani Chalukyas again rule the region through their vassals, this time the Silharas of South Konkan.


Adityavarman of South Konkan offers help to the Gond kings of Chandrapur and Chemulya (modern Chaul), thirty miles to the south of Bombay. This shows that the rule of the Silharas has spread to encompass the whole of Konkan. While they remain dominant, the Kadambas of Goa establish themselves more locally.

Kadambas of Goa
c.AD 950 - 1340

The Kadambas once ruled a large kingdom around Banavasi in the region of Uttara Kannada in India, but decline set in and by the sixth century the Kadambas had been eclipsed. Between then and the tenth century they were little more than local chiefs. The founder of the Kadamba dynasty of Hangal was a vassal of the western Chalukyas. He re-established the Kadambas, and his successors enjoyed considerable independence, all but becoming sovereign rulers of Goa and Konkan until the fourteenth century. The Kadambas of Goa formed a sub-branch that ruled Goa for around three hundred years, and during that time, Goa took shape as a distinct political entity for the first time. The Kadambas were later vassals of the Seuna Yadavas. The last king was a subordinate of the Salvas of Gerasoppa.

Under Jayakeshi II, Kadamba rule reached its peak and this is testified by the gold coins that are stamped with their lion crest. Until 1310, Chandrapur served as the capital, before it was shifted to a site on the banks of the River Zuari, a new port city called Govepuri or Gopakapattanam (modern Goa Velha, where the ruins of the Kadamba port still exist).


Local ruler and vassal of the Chalukyas.



? - 980

Guhaladeva I

Son. Powerful king and ally of the south Silharas.

966 - 980

Shasthadeva I

Son. Contemporary of Irivabedanga-deva of Hangal.

966 - 980


Son. Apparently ruled alongside or closely supported his father.

945 - 970

Bhima of South Konkan overthrows the petty ruler of Chandor. At this time Sasthadeva and his son, Chaturbhuja, are trying to overthrow Rashtrakuta rule. This explains Bhima's opposition to the Kadambas of Goa and the ruler of Chandor.

980 - 1005

Guhaladeva II

Brother. Extended borders towards the Western Ghats.

1005 - 1050

Sasthadeva II

Son. Captured northern Silhars' Konkan and made them vassals.

1050 - 1080

Jayakeshin / Jayakeshi I


Santivarma of Hangal maintains his hold on the throne after Jayakeshin's intervention, when he helps implement a settlement in the kingdom's civil war.

Tambdi Surla
The Tambdi Surla temple in Goa dates from the period of Kadamba rule

1080 - 1100

Guhaladeva III

Son. Vassal of the Chalukyas.

1075 - 1116

Kirtivarma of Hangal fights against the combined might of the Kadambas of Goa and the Chalukyas when he tries to extend his borders. Ultimately defeated, he ends up becoming a vassal of the Chalukyas. Guhaldeva's reign is not entirely successful, as he loses Kavadwipa island and Iridige to the king of North Konkan.

1100 - 1104

Vijayaditya I

Son. Regained Kavadwipa. Vassal of the Chalukyas.

1104 - 1147/48

Jayakeshin / Jayakeshi II

Son. 'King of Hangal'.

Jayakesin II is responsible for many successful conquests, raising the Kadamba rule of Goa to its zenith. He throws off the shackles of Chalukyan vassalage after Vishnuvardhana of the Hoysala invades the territory of the Chalukya king, Vikramaditya VI. But that vassalage returns when Vikramaditya VI attacks and forces Goa's surrender. After this, relations between the Kadambas and the Chalukyas become cordial. Jayakeshi also marries a Chalukyan princess, and he goes on to defeat the Rattas of Saundati and the Sindas of Yelburga, and carries out successful raids inside the territories of the Kadambas of Hangal. Literature, the arts, and architecture all flourish under his rule.


Vijayaditya of Kolhapur defeats Jayakesin II who had earlier defeated his Silhara counterpart of Thane.

1147/47 - 1181


Son. Vassal of the Chalukyas.

1147/48 - 1187

Vijayaditya II

Brother. Shared power with Permadi.

Vijayaditya is unfortunate enough to become a vassal first of the Hoysalas, and then of the Hangal Kadambas.

1187/88 - 1216

Jayakeshin / Jayakeshi III



During his lifetime, Jayakeshin III had declared his independence from the Hangal Kadambas, but following his death Goa becomes a vassal of the Yadavas of Devagiri.

Sivachitta Vira Varjadeva

Son. Ruled jointly with his father.

? - 1237




Towards the end of his reign, Tribhuvanamalla suffers defeat at the hands of the Yadavas of Devagiri and probably dies in battle in 1237/38. The kingdom is apparently seized by the Yadavas, and it takes Shasthadeva III a decade to regain it with the help of his brother-in-law, Kamadeva (who probably comes from the Ratta dynasty). But the Yadavas reassert control and Shasthadeva becomes their vassal.

1237 - 1257

Shasthadeva III



Following the death of Shasthadeva, the Yadavas of Devagiri appoint his brother-in-law as their puppet king in Goa.

1257 - 1310


Brother-in-law. Yadava puppet.


Yadava power fades following their defeat at the hands of the sultan of Delhi and Kamadeva declares independence. Delhi subsequently attacks Goa and destroys it. The Kadambas then shift their capital from Chandrapura (Chandor) to a new port city called Govepure or Gopakapattanam on the banks of the River Zuari. Malik Kafur returns northwards with his plunder and the Kadambas take possession of their kingdom. After this, information on the Kadambas is hard to come by, as the dynasty fades swiftly in power and influence.

1310/11 - 1328


Son. Name unknown.

1328 - 1340


Son. Name unknown.

1334 - 1340

The weakened Kadambas lose power as the Yadavas are fully annexed to the Delhi sultanate. For six years there is chaos until the Bahamani empire annexes Goa, although it is probable that it is another raid by Delhi which kills the last Kadamba king.


By this point, Bukka Raya of the Vijaynagar empire has gained the upper hand over the Bahamanis for control of the Tungabhadra-Krishna doab. He also takes control of Goa and other territories.


The poor reign of Vijaynagar king, Virupaksha, is marked by the loss of a lot of the kingdom's territory to the Muhammadans, including Goa itself.

1465 - 1470

Virupaksha Raya seizes the Vijaynagar throne from his failed cousin, but still loses the Konkan coast (including Goa, Chaul, and Dabul) by 1470 to Mahamud Gawan, the prime minister of the Bahamani kingdom, when he is sent to conquer the area by Sultan Mohammed Shah III.


Explorer Vasco da Gama discovers a maritime route to India via the Horn of Africa, the first European to reach the subcontinent this way. He makes landfall at Calicut in Kerala. By this time, Goa is governed by Yusuf Adil Shah, governor of Bijapur.


Portugal begins to establish its control over Goa, although the Bijapur sultanate holds the reigns of power for a further six years.

Portuguese Colony of Goa (and Viceroys of India)
AD 1510 - 1961

Following Vasco de Gama's 1498 discovery of a viable maritime route to India, it was only a matter of time before a Portuguese presence was established. The first inroads in Goa were made by Alfonsoe de Albureque, at which time Goa was part of the Bijapur sultanate. After initial attempts, Alfonsoe established control over Goa on 25 November 1510. It is said that following this capture, Alfonsoe massacred its entire Muslim settlement in retaliation for the resistance shown by them. However he spared the Hindus, mainly because of the help provided by a local Hindu chieftain named Timoja. By 1543, the Portuguese established their control over the neighbouring areas of Ilhas, Salcette, Marmgoa and Bardez.

(Additional information by Hari Nayanar.)


Dom Tristao Da Cunha

First Portuguese viceroy of India.

1504 - 1507

Tristao Da Cunha is appointed India's first Portuguese viceroy. However he is unable to assume his post due to temporary blindness. In 1506, he leads a Portuguese fleet (along with his cousin, Alfonsoe de Albureque) towards Africa and India and distinguishes himself in the siege of Kannur in Kerala in 1507.

1505 - 1509

Dom Fransisco de Almeida

Second Portuguese viceroy of India.

Fransisco de Almeida brings the regions of Kerala, Diu, Daman, Anjediva (near Goa/Karnataka), and more under his control. His son, Lorenco, is killed at the Battle of Chaul. Francisco decides to return to Portugal in 1509, but dies on the way.

1509 - 1515

Dom Alfonsoe de Albureque


Alfonsoe de Albureque forcibly takes control of Goa from the Bijapur sultanate in 1510, after which he is awarded the title duke of Goa. He also distinguishes himself in Kerala, Diu, Daman, Mallaca and Hormuz. Due to misunderstandings with Manuel, king of Portugal, he is divested of his powers in Goa. Unable to withstand the shock, he dies in 1515 in Goa. Only afterwards does the king realise his mistake and the fact that Alfonsoe had been completely loyal towards the throne.

1515 - 1518

Dom Lopo Soares de Albergaria

Confirmed capture of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Quillon (in Kerala),

1518 - 1522

Dom Diogo Lopes de Sequeira

Constructed the fort of Chaul (near Alibaug, Konkan).

1522 - 1524

Dom Duarte de Menezes


Dom Vasco Da Gama

Third viceroy of India. Died from malaria at Cochin, Kerala.

Vasco Da Gama becomes famous for discovering the sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope and also for his cruelty against Muslims in India in particular.

1525 - 1526

Dom Henrique de Menezes

Died at Cannanore (Kannur in Kerala).

1526 - 1529

Lopes Vas de Sampaio

First governor of Goa not to be a lord.


A new political force appears in northern India in the shape of the Moghul warlord Barbur and Delhi is soon conquered by him. The Bahamanis are also conquered, falling in 1527.

1529 - 1538

Nuno da Cunha

Son of Tristao da Cunha. Took Bombay, Bassein, Diu & Daman.

1538 - 1540

Dom Garcia de Norhonha

Another of Alfonsoe's lieutenants. Died in Cochin, Kerala.

1540 - 1542

Estevao da Gama

Son of Vasco da Gama. Former Captain of Mallaca.

1540 - 1542

The Portuguese change their stance after being initially tolerant of Hinduism when the dreaded Inquisition arrives in Goa in 1540. Hindu rituals are subsequently banned, temples are destroyed, and people are burnt at the stake. This results in a great deal of forced proselytisation and the suppression of the Hindu populace.

1542 - 1545

Martim Afonso de Sousa

Commanded first expedition to Brazil. Served as governor.

Afonso de Sousa acquires Diu for the Portuguese.

Vasco Da Gama
Vasco Da Gama was the third Portuguese viceroy of India, and was famous for discovering the sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope

1545 - 1548

Dom Joao de Castro

Nephew of Garcia de Norhonha. Later fourth viceroy of India.

Joao de Castro overthrows Mahmud, king of Gujarat. He also captures Bharuch in Gujarat.

1548 - 1549

Garcia de Sa

Acquired Bardez and Salcette. Died in Goa.

1549 - 1550

Jorge Cabral

Interim governor.

1550 - 1554

Dom Afonso de Norhonha

Viceroy. Former governor of Cueta in Africa.

1554 - 1555

Pedro Masceranhas

Viceroy. Discovered Diego Garcia in Indian Ocean. Died in Goa.

1555 - 1558

Francisco Barretto

Under him, printing press and Inquisition introduced into Goa.

1558 - 1561

Dom Constantino de Braganza

Viceroy. Oversaw occupation of Daman.

1561 - 1564

Dom Francisco Coutinho

Viceroy. Died in Goa.


Joao de Mendonca

1564 - 1568

Antonio de Norhonha

Died at sea while returning to Portugal.


All non-Christian priests are expelled from Goa on the orders of the Ecclesiastical Council.

1568 - 1573

Luis de Ataide

Viceroy. Goa under siege by Bijapur sultan.

1573 - 1576

Antonio Moniz Baretto

1576 - 1578

Diogo de Menezes

1578 - 1581

Luis de Ataide

Second term as viceroy. Died in Goa.

1581 - 1591

Fernao Teles de Menezes

1591 - 1597

Matias de Alburquerque


1597 - 1600

Dom Francisco da Gama


1600 - 1605

Aires de Saldanha


1605 - 1607

Martim Afonso de Castro

Viceroy. Died at Mallacca.

1607 - 1609

Alexiode Meneses

Archbishop of Goa. Said to have committed Inquisition atrocities.


Andre Furtado Mendonca

1609 - 1612

Rui Lourencode Tavora


1612 - 1617

Dom Jeronimo de Azevedo


1617 - 1619

Dom Joao Coutinho


1619 - 1622

Fernao de Alburquerque

1622 - 1628

Dom Fransisco da Gama

Second term as viceroy.

1628 - 1629

Luis de Brito e Meneses

Viceroy and bishop of Meliapore. Died in Cochin, Kerala.


Nuno Alvares Botelho

Governing Council.


Dom Lorencho da Cunha


Goncalo Pinto da Fonseca

1629 - 1635

Miguel de Norhonha


1635 - 1639

Pero da Silva

Viceroy. Died in Goa.

1639 - 1640

Antonio Teles de Meneses

1640 - 1644

Joao da Silva Telo e Meneses

Second term as viceroy. Died while returning to Portugal.

1644 - 1651

Filipe de Mascarenhas

1651 - 1652

Francisco dos Martires

Archbishop of Goa, part of the Governing Council.

1651 - 1652

Fransisco d'Melo e Castro

1651 - 1652

Antonio d'Sousa Coutinho

1652 - 1655

Vasco de Mascerrenhas



Vasco de Mascerrenhas is expelled in an internal coup by one Bras de Castro, part of a mutiny led by Father Mateus de Castro to overthrow Portuguese rule. Bras de Castro is arrested by Rodreigo Lobo da Silveira who then becomes the new governor.

1655 - 1656

Rodreigo Lobo da Silveira

Died in Goa.

1656 - 1661

Manuel Mascerenhas Homem

Governing Council.

1656 - 1661

Francisco d'Melo e Castro

Second term on a governing council.

1656 - 1661

Antonio d'Sousa Coutinho

Second term on a governing council.

1661 - 1662

Luís de Mendonça Furtado e Albuquerque

Governing Council.

1661 - 1662

Manuel Mascerenhas Homem

Second term on a governing council.

1661 - 1662

Dom Pedro de Lencastre


Bombay is given to England as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza upon the occasion of her marriage to Charles II of England.

1662 - 1666

Antonio d'Melo e Castro


1666 - 1668

Joao Nunes da Cunha

Viceroy. Died in Goa.

1668 - 1671

Antonio d'Melo e Castro

Governing Council.

1668 - 1671

Manuel Corte Real de Sampio

1668 - 1671

Luis de Miranda Henriques

1671 - 1676

Luis de Mendonca Furtado e Alburqueque

Viceroy. Died on the way back to Portugal.

1676 - 1678

Pedro de Almeida

Viceroy. Died in Goa.

1678 - 1681

Antonio Brandao

Archbishop of Goa and interim governor.

António Pais de Sande

Co-governor, but when is uncertain.

1681 - 1686

Francisco de Tavora


1683 - 1684

There is an attack on Goa by the Marathas under Sambhaji. Goa comes close to being captured, along with the viceroy, but the Moghul empire opens a new front in their war against the Marathas.

1686 - 1690

Dom Rodrigo da Costa

1690 - 1691

Dom Miguel de Almeida

Died in Goa.

1691 - 1692

Fernando Martins Mascarenhas Lencastre

Governing Council.

1691 - 1692

Agostinho da Anunciação

Archbishop of Goa.

1692 - 1697

Pedro Antonio de Meneses Norhonha

1697 - 1701

Antonio L Gonsalves da Camara Coutinho

1701 - 1702

Agostinho da Anunciação

Archbishop of Goa, part of the Governing Council.

1701 - 1702

Vasco Lima Coutinho

1702 - 1707

Caetano de Melo e Castro


1707 - 1712

Dom Rodrigo d'Costa

Second term as viceroy.

1712 - 1717

Vasco Fernandes Cesar de Meneses



Sebastiao de Andrade Pessanha

Archbishop of Goa.

1717 - 1720

Luis Carlos Inacio Xavier de Meneses


1720 - 1723

Fransisco Jose de Sampio e Castro

Viceroy. Died in Goa.


The Portuguese conclude a treaty with the Maratha King Shahu, undoubtedly through his able Peshwa.


Cristóvão de Melo

Interim governor.

1723 - 1725

Cristóvão de Melo

Governing Council.

1723 - 1725

Inácio de Santa Teresa

Archbishop of Goa.

1723 - 1725

Cristóvão Luís de Andrade

1725 - 1732

Joao de Saldanha da Gama



Cristóvão de Melo

Governing Council. Second term on governing council.


Inácio de Santa Teresa

Archbishop of Goa. Second term on governing council.


Tomé Gomes Moreira

1732 - 1740

Pedro de Mascarenhas


1737 - 1739

This year witnesses the start of the war between the Marathas and the Portuguese for Bassein. The Marathas attack Goa in 1739.

Shivaji Maharaj
Since Shivaji Maharaj created the Maratha empire in 1664, it had become an ever greater threat to Portuguese security in Goa

1740 - 1742

Luis Carlos Inacio Xavier de Meneses

Second term as viceroy. Died in Goa.


The Marathas are defeated at Bardez by Portuguese forces after the latter receive much-needed reinforcements. The Portuguese territory around Goa is extended over the next few decades (the Novas Conquistas), but Vasai remains in the hands of the Marathas.

1742 - 1744

Francisco de Vasconcelos

Governing Council.

1742 - 1744

Lourenço de Noronha

1742 - 1744

Luís Caetano de Almeida

1744 - 1750

Pedro Miguel de Almeida


1750 - 1754

Francisco Assis de Tavora

Viceroy. Executed in Portugal in 1759.

1754 - 1756

Luís Mascarenhas

Viceroy. Died in Goa.

1756 - 1757

António Taveira da Neiva Brum da Silveira

Archbishop of Goa, part of Governing Council.

1756 - 1757

João de Mesquista Matos Teixeira

1756 - 1757

Filipe de Valadares

1758 - 1765

Manuel de Saldanha Alburqueque

Viceroy. Moved residence to Panaji.


The viceroy takes up residence in Panaji while peace is finally concluded with the Marathas. The Portuguese fall out with the Jesuits in the same year, with the result that the Jesuit order is banned.


The Portuguese acquire Ponda, Sanguem and Quepem.

1765 - 1768

António Taveira da Neiva Brum da Silveira

Archbishop of Goa, part of Governing Council.

1765 - 1768

João Baptista Vaz Pereira

1765 - 1768

João José de Melo

1768 - 1774

João José de Melo

Governor, promoted to captain-general. Died in Goa.


The title 'Viceroy of the Indies' is abolished and replaced by 'Captain-General of the Indies' by royal proclamation. This is in recognition of the fact that a true vice-regency in India is now impossible, especially in the face of growing British power in the sub-continent.


Filippe de Valadares Sotomaior

Formerly on the governing council of 1756-1757.

1774 - 1779

José Pedro da Câmara

1779 - 1786

Federico Guilherme de Sousa


The Pinto family in Bardez conspire to overthrow Portuguese rule, ultimately unsuccessfully. Several territories are added by the Portuguese to their Goa territory, including Bicholim and Stari. These acquisitions are part of the general expansion known as the Novas Conquistas.

1786 - 1794

Francisco da Cunha e Meneses

Pernem, Ponda, Sangquem, Quepem,and Canacona are gained as part of the Novas Conquistas.

1794 - 1807

Francisco António da Veiga Cabral


The British blockade Goa, and successfully occupy the colony.

1799 - 1806

Sir William Clarke

Commander of British garrison.

1806 - 1807


Commander of British garrison.

1807 - 1811

Alexander Adams

Commander of British garrison.

1807 - 1816

Bernardo José da Silveira e Lorena

First of the new viceroys.

1812 - 1815

Britain has already established a governor-generalship which is increasing its control of large areas of India. Its forces also peacefully occupy Goa during this period to prevent the territory being taken by Napoleonic France while Britain fights as Portugal's close ally in the Peninsula War in Iberia.

The Inquisition is ended in Goa and representatives are sent to the House of Representatives in Lisbon. The British blockade is ended in 1813.

1816 - 1821

Diogo de Sousa

1821 - 1822

Manuel Godinho da Mira

Governing Commission.

1821 - 1822

Joaquim Manuel Correia da Silva e Gama

1821 - 1822

Gonçalo de Magalhães Teixeira

1821 - 1822

Manuel Duarte Leitão

1822 - 1823

Manuel Maria Gonçalves Zarco da Câmara

Governing Commission.

1822 - 1823

Fray Paulo de San Thomé de Aquino

1822 - 1823

António de Mello Souto Maior

1822 - 1823

João Carlos Leal

1822 - 1823

António José de Lima Leitão

1823 - 1825

Manuel Maria Gonçalves Zarco da Câmara

Formerly on governing commission, and governor until 1824.

1825 - 1827

Fray Manuel de San Galdino

Governing Commission.

1825 - 1827

Candido José Mourão Garcez Palha

1825 - 1827

António Ribeiro de Carvalho

1827 - 1835

Manuel Francisco de Portugal e Castro

Governor until 1830.


The Portuguese anti-Hinduism policy undergoes a dramatic rethink during a period in which Goa suffers several revolts and political protests. Religious freedom is granted to Hindus in return for a peaceful and stable colony. Bernardo Peres da Silva is the first Goan to be appointed 'Prefect', with the powers of a governor. However, just seventeen days after assuming the post, opposition from the Portuguese faction forces him to relinquish it after he is arrested and deported (or escapes) to British Bombay. A section of the Goan native army revolts, but this is soon crushed.


Bernardo Peres da Silva



Joaquim Manuel Correia da Silva e Gama

Chairman Provincial Committee.

1835 - 1836

João C da Rocha Vasconcellos

Chairmen of the Provisional Government.

1835 - 1836

Manuel José Ribeiro

1835 - 1836

Fray Constantino de Santa Rita

1836 - 1837

João Cabral de Estifique

Acting Governing Council.

1836 - 1837

António Maria de Mello

1836 - 1837

Joaquim António de Moraes Carneiro


José António de Lemos


António Mariano de Azevedo

1837 - 1838

Simão Infante de Lacerda de Sousa Tavares

First governor-general.

1838 - 1839

António Feliciano de Santa Rita

Acting Governing Council.

1838 - 1839

José António Vieira da Fonseca

1838 - 1839

José Cancio Freire de Lima

1838 - 1839

Domingo José Mariano Luiz


José António Vieira da Fonseca

Acting governor-general, formerly on the governing council.

1839 - 1840

Manuel José Mendes


José António Vieira da Fonseca

Acting Governing Council.


José Carneiro Freire de Lima


António João de Athaíde


Domingo José Mariano Luiz


José da Costa Campos


Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcellos

1840 - 1842

José Joaquim Lopez de Lima

Acting governor-general.


António Ramalho da Sá

Acting Governing Council.


José de Mello Souta Maior Telles


António João de Athaíde

Second term on the acting governing council.


José da Costa Campos

Second term on the acting governing council.


Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcellos

Second term on the acting governing council.

1842 - 1843

Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira

Panaji is made Goa's capital in 1843.

1843 - 1844

Joaquim Mourão Garcês Palha

1844 - 1851

José Ferreira Pestana

1851 - 1855

José Joaquim Januario Lapa


There is an uprising which is headed by Dipaji Rauji Sardesai. The Portuguese make peace with him and he is presented with a sword of honour along with being granted autonomy for his village.

Basilica of Bom Jesus in Goa
The Basilica of Bom Jesus is in Old Goa, the earliest capital of the Portuguese colony


Joaquim de Santa Rita Botelho

Acting Governing Council.


Luís da Costa Campo


Francisco Xavier Peres


Bernardo Hector da Silveira


Victor Anastacio Mourão Garcês Palha

1855 - 1864

António César de Vasconcellos Correia

1864 - 1870

José Ferreira Pestana

Second term as governor-general.

1870 - 1871

Januario Correia de Almeida

1871 - 1875

Joaquim José de Macedo e Couto

1875 - 1877

João Tavares de Almeida

1877 - 1878

António Sérgio de Sousa


Ayres de Oruellas e Vasconcellos

Acting Governing Council.


João Caetano da Silva Campos


Francisco Xavier Soares da Veiga


Thomas Nunes da Serva e Moura

Replaced Francisco Xavier Soares da Veiga.


António Sergio de Sousa


Eduardo Augusto Pinto Balsemão

1878 - 1881

Caetano Alexandre de Almeida

1881 - 1885

Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva

1885 - 1886

Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral

1886 - 1889

Augusto César Cardoso de Carvalho

1889 - 1891

Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses

1891 - 1892

Francisco Maria da Cunha

1892 - 1893

Francisco Teixeira da Silva

1893 - 1894

Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade

1894 - 1895

Elesbão José de Betencourt Lapa


An uprising is headed by Dadaji Rauji Rane Sardesai, who is deported to Timor (and dies there in 1906).

1895 - 1896

Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade

Second term as governor-general.


Afonso Henriques de Bragança


1896 - 1897

João António de Brissac das Neves Ferreira

1897 - 1900

Joaquim José Machado

1900 - 1905

Eduardo Augusto Rodrigues Galhardo

1905 - 1907

Arnoldo de Novais Guedes Rebelo

1907 - 1910

José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa


The Portuguese First Republic is declared on 5 October following a military coup which is organised and backed by republicans and socialists.

1910 - 1917

Francisco Manuel Couceiro da Costa


Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira

Acting governor-general.



Governing Council, name(s) unknown.

1917 - 1919

José de Freitas Ribeiro


Augusto de Paiva Bobelo da Mota

Acting governor-general.

1919 - 1925

Jaime Alberto da Castro Morais


Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira

Second term as acting governor-general.


An uprising by Mourya Sawant, Jhil Sawant and Quistillo, a native catholic toddy farmer, is defeated when a Negro regiment is brought in from Mozambique to quell the rebellion. Quistillo is shot dead, Mourya Sawant is beheaded and Jhil Sawant is imprisoned and deported to the Portuguese colony of Principe in West Africa, where he dies.

1925 - 1926

Mariano Martins

1926 - 1928

A coup is launched in Portugal on 28 May 1926 which results in a military dictatorship being instigated there. This also has major repercussions for Hindu rights and freedom in Goa from 1928.


Tito Augusto de Morais

Acting governor-general.


Acúrsio Mendes da Rocha Dinis

Acting governor-general.

1926 - 1929

Pedro Francisco Massano de Amorim


Alfredo Pedro de Almeida

Acting governor-general.

1929 - 1936

João Carlos Craveiro Lopes

1936 - 1938

Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes

1938 - 1945

José Ricardo Pereira Cabral

1945 - 1946

Paulo Bénard Guedes

Acting governor-general.

1946 - 1947

José Silvestre Ferreira Bossa

1947 - 1948

Fernando Quintanilha Mendonça Dias

Acting governor-general.


The dominion of India is formed on 15 August 1947 following the official handover of power by the British. Despite several requests to the Portuguese government to cede Goa to India. this remains a colony.


José Alves Ferreira

Acting governor-general.

1948 - 1952

Fernando Quintanilha Mendonça Dias

Second term as acting governor-general.

1952 - 1958

Paulo Bénard Guedes

Second term as governor-general.


The liberation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli is achieved by Indian forces.

1958 - 1962

Manuel António Vassalo e Silva

Governor-general in name only from 19 December 1961.


After fourteen years of demonstrations and strikes in favour of independence from Portugal, the colony in Goa is invaded by the Indian army and taken by force. It is annexed to India.

Indian troops enter Goa
Indian national troops enter Goa

1961 - 1962

Lt Gen Kunhi Raman Palat Candeth

Indian military governor between 19 Dec 1961-6 Jun 1962.


A stable Goa becomes part of the Indian democratic process, forming the smallest modern state in the new country.