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Middle East Kingdoms

Ancient Anatolia

 

 

 

Armenia

Armenia has generally been regarded as being two regions: Greater Armenia lay to the east of the Euphrates, and Little, or Lesser, Armenia to the west of the river. Overall, Armenia is usually understood to have included north-eastern Turkey, the area covered by the modern republic of Armenia (the eastern part of ancient Armenia), and parts of Iranian Azerbaijan. Modern Armenia is the easternmost remnants of the former state(s).

According to legend, the Armenian kingdom was founded in the region of Lake Van by Haig or Haik, who was one of Noah's descendants. Two other legendary forefathers of the Armenians are Aram and Ara the Beautiful, both of whom may have been based on Aramu, potentially the first king of Urartu. Modern scholars believe that the Indo-European Armenians crossed the Euphrates and entered Anatolia in the eighth century BC. Migrating into the Khaldian state which was called Urartu by the Assyrians, they intermarried with the local people and formed an homogeneous nation by the sixth century BC. This not only inherited influences from Urartu, but from earlier populations; Mushki or Mušku (possibly, but not certainly, Phrygians who penetrated into the upper Tigris from the twelfth century BC), Luwians, and Hurrians. The kingdom they created extended north and west into land around the Black Sea which had previously been the home of the Kaskans and the kingdom of Kummuhu.

(Additional information from External Link: Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA.)

1115 - 590 BC

Following the collapse of the Hurrian empire of Mitanni and the state of Ishuwa, the Assyrian empire rules much of the south of the later Armenian region until the empire is destroyed in 612 BC, while Nairi and Urartu rule much of the north between them. The Indo-European Armenians arrive in the eighth century BC, filtering into Nairi and Urartu and intermarrying with the people they find there.

590 - 549 BC

The region that later forms Armenia is under the control of Media. The Armenians themselves have by now formed an homogenous nation from their own people and the remnants of the Urartuan kingdom. Their kings, the Orontids, govern locally.

549 - 331 BC

A Persian satrapy governs the region.

331/0 - 323 BC

The satrapy is conquered by Alexander the Great's Greek empire.

323 - 320? BC

Armenia is governed by Neoptolemus, one of Alexander's generals.

323 - 320? BC

Neoptolemus

Greek satrap of Thrace.

320 - 228 BC

It becomes part of the Seleucid empire of Seleucus I and his descendants.

321 - 260 BC

Orontes III

Murdered.

302 BC

Orontes moves the capital from Armavir to Yervandashat.

fl 301 BC

Ardoates

301 BC

The Macedonian satrap of Cappadocia, Amyntas, is killed when Ariarathes II of Cappadocia and Ardoates invade. Ariarathes recovers his uncle's throne and restored the native dynasty, but he is forced to accept the Seleucid empire as his overlord.

c.220 BC

Armenia is divided into Armenia and Armenia Sophene.

MapKingdom of Armenia

It took the Roman defeat of the Seleucid empire at the Battle of Magnesia to enable the Armenians the freedom of declaring their own independence. The declaration cut off some southern Georgian districts from the kingdom of Iberia.

(The list covering 628-806 plugs a gap that other lists miss. Some inconsistencies remain, and other gaps have been filled where possible from other sources.)

Artashesids
189 BC - AD 62

Native Armenian rulers.

(Additional information from Jewish War & Jewish Antiquities, Flavius Josephus, and from External Links: Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA, and Encyclopćdia Britannica, and Diodorus of Sicily at the Library of World History, and Appian's History of Rome: The Syrian Wars at Livius.org.)

c.220 - 210 BC

Unknown / Xerxes

212 - 209 BC

Having defeated his rebellious cousin in Anatolia, Antiochus III of the Seleucid empire concentrates on the northern and eastern provinces of the empire. Xerxes of Armenia is persuaded to acknowledge his supremacy in 212 BC, while in 209 BC Antiochus invades Parthia. Its capital, Hecatompylos, is occupied and Antiochus forces his way into Hyrcania, with the result that the Parthian king, Arsaces II, is forced to sue for peace.

c.210 - 170 BC

Artaxias

190 BC

Rome defeats the Seleucid empire at Magnesia. The Armenians declare their independence the following year under a native dynasty, the Artashesids.

164 BC

The Arsacids in the east have been gradually extending their control over the eastern lands of former Persia, and Antiochus IV of the Seleucid empire now campaigns against them. He recovers lost income from the region and forces the defector, Artaxias of Armenia, to recognise his suzerainty. Then he founds the city of Antioch on the Persian Gulf, sets out on an expedition to the Arabian coast and, at the end of 164 BC, dies of illness at Tabae (or Gabae, probably modern Isfahan) in Persis.

? BC

Artavazde / Artavasdes I

123 - 95 BC

Artavazde / Artavasdes II

90 BC

Artaxias, the new king of Iberia in Georgia, may have been a son of Artavastes'.

90 BC

Armenia Sophene is reabsorbed by Armenia.

95 - 55 BC

Tigranes I the Great

Son of Artavadze. Son-in-law of Mithridates VI of Pontus.

89 - 69 BC

Arsacid ruler, Mithradates the Great, launches an attack against the Seleucid empire with Aziz the Arab as his ally. The target is Antiochus X who is killed during the fighting. The weakened and distracted Seleucids also lose Harran to Armenia as Tigranes the Great conquers much of Syria between this point and 69 BC. The civil war at least would seem to be over - until Philip and Demetrius fight each other for the throne.

69 - 67 BC

FeatureThe imperialistic ambitions of King Tigranes lead to war with Rome, and a defeated Armenia becomes tributary to the republic following the campaigns of generals Lucullus (69 BC) and Pompey (67 BC). Seleucid Syria is lost and the Romans distinguish between Greater Armenia and Lesser Armenia, respectively east and west of the Euphrates. The latter is governed by proxy through Rome's client state, Cappadocia.

55 - 30 BC

Artavazde / Artavasdes III

49 - 47 BC

Upon Pompey's fall in 49 BC, Pharnaces, newly resurgent king of a reduced Pontus and Cimmerian Bosporus, takes advantage of Julius Caesar being occupied in Egypt, and reduces Kolkis, Armenia, and part of Cappadocia, defeating Domitius Calvinus at Nicopolis, whom Caesar subsequently sends against him. Kolkis becomes part of the kingdom, along with Lesser Armenia.

30 BC - AD 56

Competition between Rome and Parthian Persia affects Armenia, which is stuck in the middle of the two empires. The competition leads to the division of Armenia in AD 56.

30 BC

Alexander of Egypt

Armenia is protected by Rome.

30 BC

Artaxias II

Son of Artavadze II. Protected by Persia.

30 BC

Alexander of Egypt

Restored. Armenia is protected by Rome.

30 - 20 BC

Artaxias II

Restored. Protected by Persia.

20 - 12 BC

Tigranes III

Brother. Protected by Rome.

12 - ? BC

Tigranes IV

Protected by Persia.

? - 2 BC

Artavazde IV

Protected by Rome.

2 - 1 BC

Eratus

Brother of Tigranes IV. Protected by Persia.

1 BC - AD 2

Ariobarzane of Atropatene

Protected by Rome.

AD 2 - 11

Artavazde V

Son.

11 - 14/15

Eratus

Restored.

15 - 16

Vonones

King of Persia c.7-12. Protected by Rome.

16 - 18

Roman interregnum with Vonones as nominal ruler. During this period, in AD 17, the aged Archelaus of Cappadocia angers the Emperor Tiberius. Archelaus is summoned to Rome where he dies, possibly of natural causes (or suicide). Tributary Cappadocia now becomes a Roman province while Armenia and Lesser Armenia are recombined and handed to the elder son of Polemon I, Artaxias III, who rules it as a client king. Cilicia is handed to Archelaus' own son to rule as another client king.

18 - 34

Zenon of Pontus / Artaxias III

Son of Polemon I Pythodoros of Pontus. Protected by Rome.

34 - 35

Arsaces of Armenia

Son of Artabanus II of Persia. Protected by Persia.

35

Orodes of Armenia

Brother. Pretender.

35 - 37

Mitridates

Brother of Pharasmanes King of Iberia. Protected by Rome.

37 - 42

Orodes

Gains the throne. Protected by Persia.

42 - 51

Mitridates

Restored. Protected by Persia.

51 - 53

Radamisto

Son of Pharasmanes King of Iberia. Protected by Rome.

51

Tiridates I

Son of Vologeses I of Persia. Protected by Rome.

53 - 54

Radamisto

Restored. Protected by Rome.

54 - 58/9

Tiridates I / Trdat

Restored.

56

Tiridates, a Parthian prince, is placed on the throne without Rome's agreement, and Rome and Persia go to war. Armenia is divided by the war into (Greater) Armenia, Armenia Sophene and Little, or Lesser Armenia.

58 - 59

Rome occupies Armenia.

59 - 62

Tigranes V of Capadoce

Protected by Rome.

c.60

Lesser Armenia is annexed by Rome.

Map Arsacids
AD 62 - 386

The Arsacids were formerly a branch of the Parthian Persian rulers of the same name. They became a distinct Armenian dynasty who had their treasure-house and burial-place at Ingalova, formerly within the Bronze Age state of Hayasa-Azzi. Information about their rule is patchy in places.

(Additional information by Brigitta Davidjants.)

62 - 72

Tiridates II of Armenia / Trdat

Brother of Vologeses I of Persia.

63

Rome and Persia fight to a stalemate in Armenia. Rome annexes Armenia Sophene and negotiates a peace treaty with Persia whereby Tiridates lays down the crown and travels to Rome to have Nero personally hand it back as a Roman - and not Persian - gift to the Armenian princes. Armenia is protected by Persia 62-63, and by Rome 63-72.

Christianity is introduced very soon afterwards, although it doesn't become the official religion until the fourth century; Armenia is reckoned to be the oldest Christian state.

c.70

An attack by the warlike Alani tribe to the north of the Black Sea defeats an Armenian force.

72 - ?

Axidares

Son of Pacorus II of Persia. Protected by Rome.

? - 114

Parthamasiris

Brother. Protected by Persia.

114 - 118

Armenia is officially annexed as a Roman province by Trajan. Although Hadrian soon hands it back to be governed by nominal Parthian Arsacid rulers, it remains under indirect Roman control until the third century AD.

118 - ?

Vologases I

Protected by Rome.

? - 140/44

Aurelios Pocoros

c.140/144 - 161

Sohemo

161 - 163

Pakoros

163 - 180?

Sohemo

Second rule.

180 - 191

Vologases II / Valarsaces

Son of Sanatrik. This period of rule is not always mentioned.

189

Vologases' son, Rev, becomes ruler of the kingdom of Iberia in Georgia.

191? - 197

Sanatrik

197

Vologases II / Valarsaces

Restored?

197 - 238

Tiridates III / Khosrov I / Trdat

Son.

238 - 252

Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanids, comes to power in Persia and overruns Armenia. The subsequent persecution of Christians creates innumerable martyrs and kindles nationalism among the Armenians.

252 - 283

Artavazde VI

Protected by Persia.

283 - 330

Tiridates IV / Trdat

Son of Crosroes. Initially protected by Rome.

301

In response to the Sassanid attacks and after being informed that Roman Emperor Diocletian has negotiated with the Sassanids to the detriment of the Armenians, King Tiridates is converted to Christianity by St Gregory the Illuminator. According to legend, the conversion is due to the miraculous convalescence of the king from madness. Very soon Christianity is officially adopted as Armenia's state religion. By joining the Roman Church, the state becomes the world's first Christian nation.

330 - 339

Khosrov II the Small

339 - c.350

Tigranes VII

Son.

c.350 - 368

Archak II

Son.

368 - 370

Persia occupies Armenia.

368 - 369

Cylax (Zig)

Persian governor.

368 - 369

Artaban (Karen)

Persian governor.

369 - 370

Vahan Mamikonian

Persian governor.

369 - 370

Merujan Ardzruni

Persian governor.

370 - 374

Pap

Son of Archak II.

374 - 378

Varazdat

Grandson of Tigranes VII.

378 - 379

Queen Zarmandukht

Wife of Pap.

378 - 379

Enmanuel Mamikonian

Provisional governor.

379 - c.380

Persia controls Armenia. A joint government is formed consisting of the Persian marzban (governor), Queen Zarmandukht, and Enmanuel Mamikonian.

c.380 - 384

The joint government continues without the Persian governor.

384 - 389

Archak III

Son of Zarmandukht. m Vardandukht, dau of Mamikonian.

384 - 386

Valarchak

Co-ruler. m dau of Sahak Bagratuni.

387 - 389

The kingdom is partitioned between Persia and Rome. Rome gains Lesser Armenia to the west of the Euphrates while Persia gains Greater Armenia to the east. Archak III is granted the throne of Lesser Armenia, while another member of the Arsacid family gains Greater Armenia's throne. Attempts at independence are short-lived, as Armenia becomes the constant prey of Persians, Byzantines, Red Huns, White Huns, tribal Khazars, and Arabs.

Kingdom of Greater Armenia (Persarmenia)
AD 387 - 1064

The Arsacids continue to rule eastern Armenia, but with an increasing Persian dominance which eventually removes all Armenian governance.

387 - 392

Khosrov III

Arsacid.

387 - 390

Zik

Regent.

392 - 414

Vram Shepuh

Brother of Khosrov III.

414 - 415

Khosrov III

Second rule.

415 - 421

Shahpur

Heir of Perse.

421

Narses Djidjrakatsi

Provisional governor.

421 - 423

Local independent governors rule.

423 - 428

Artaxes IV

Son of Vram Shepuh.

Marzban (Persian Governors)
AD 428 - 590

428 - 442

Veh Mihr Shahpur

442 - 451

Vasak

King of Siunik.

451 - 465

Adhur Hordmidz (Adrormizd)

465 - 481

Adhur Guschnasp (Ardervechnasp)

481 - 482

Sahak Bagratuni

482

General Mihran

Military occupation.

482 - 483

Vahan Mamikonian

Provisional governor.

483

General Zarmihr Karen

Military occupation.

483 - 484

Shahpur of Rayy

484 - 505/10

Vahan Mamikonian

Second rule. Provisional governor 484-485.

505/10 - 509/14

Vard Mamikonian

Brother.

509/14 - 518

Guschnasp Vahram

Dates uncertain.

518 - 548

Mjej Gnuni

548 - 552

Tan Shapur

552 - 554

Guschnasp Vahram

Second rule?

554 - 558/60

Tan Shapur

Second rule.

558/60 - 564

Varazdat

564 - 572

Sunen

572

Vardan Mamikonian

Provisional governor.

572

Mihran Mihrevandak

Military governor.

572 - 573

Vardan Mamikonian

573

Golon Mihran

Military governor.

573 - 577

Vardan Mamikonian

577 - 580

Tham Khusru

580 - 581

Varaz Vzur

581 - 582/88

Aspahbadh Pahlev

582/88 - 588/89

Frahat

588/89 - 590

Hrattin

590

Byzantium gains power in western Armenia but this causes the fragmentation of the kingdom. Persian control continues in the east, in a reduced Marzban.

Persian Marzban of Dwin
AD 590 - 628

590 - 591

Mouchel Mamikonian

Governor.

591

Hamaraker

Governor.

591 - 603

Unknown governors

603 - 611

Sembat Bagratuni

611 - 613

Chahrayanpet

Governor in the east.

611 - 613

Chahen Vahmanzadhaghan

Governor in the west.

613 - 616

Parsayenpet

616 - 619

Namdar Guchnasp

619 - 624

Charaplaken (Sarablagas)

624 - 627

Rozbihan

627 - 628

Persian rule in Armenia comes to an end with the Byzantine war of Heraclius to recover the parts of Byzantium recently occupied by the Persians. The defeat of the Sassanids fortuitously frees Armenia.

A small subdivision remains in the Persian Marzban of Eastern Armenia, while the Byzantines rule the greater (western) portion of Armenia.

Persian Marzban of Eastern Armenia
AD 628 - 646

628 - 634

Varaztirots Bagratuni

634 - ?

Unknown governors

646

Armenia is fully reunified under Byzantine control.

Governors of Western Armenia
AD 627 - 646

627 - 635

Mzhezh / Mjej Gnuni

635 - 638

David Saharuni

638 - 643

Several 'Nakharar'

643 - 645

Theodoros Rechtuni / Toros

645 - 646

Varaztirots Bagratuni

646

Armenia is fully reunified under Byzantine control.

Governors of Western Armenia
AD 646 - 705

646 - 653

Theodoros Rechtuni / Toros

Returned to power.

646 - 653

Sembat I Bagratuni

Co-governor.

652 - 653

The Islamic empire begins to threaten the region. Aided by the Byzantines, Armenia defends itself, but the Arab campaign continues northwards into the Caucuses under General Salman. He concentrates on the towns and settlements of the western coast of the Caspian Sea and on defeating the Khazars. A description of this campaign is based on a manuscript by Ahmed-bin-Azami, and it mentions that '...Salman reached the Khazar town of Burgur... He continued and finally reached Bilkhar, which was not a Khazar possesion, and camped with his army near that town, on rich meadows intersected by a large river'.

This is why several historians connect the town with the proto-Bulgarians. The Arab missionary Ahmed ibn-Fadlan also confirms this connection, as he mentions that during his trip to the Volga Bulgars in 922 he sees a group of 5,000 Barandzhars (balandzhars) who had migrated a long time ago to Volga Bulgaria. He also encounters a group of people who may tentatively be identified with the Venedi.

653 - 654

Theodoros Rechtuni / Toros

Returned to power.

654

Mouchel Mamikonian / Mushegh

654

Maurianos

654 - 655

Theodoros Rechtuni / Toros

Returned to power.

655

Maurianos

Returned to power.

655

Theodoros Rechtuni / Toros

Returned to power.

655 - 661

Hamazasp Mamikonian

661 - 685

Grigor Mamikonian / Gregory I

686 - 690

Achot Bargatuni / Ashot II

Ashot I is unknown.

690 - 691

Nerseh Kamsarakan

691 - 695

Sembat II Bagratuni

Son of Vanaztirots Bagratuni.

695

The Islamic empire gains power in Armenia.

695 - 696

Abd Allh Hatim al-Bahili

696 - 705

Sembat II Bagratuni

Restored. Independent.

705 - 885

The Byzantines are expelled and the Armenians subjugated by the Islamic empire. A small Armenian principality eventually retains some nominal independence for the state.

Principality of Armenia
AD 732 - 782

732 - 745

Ashot III Bagratuni

745 - 746

Gregory II Mamikonian

746 - 750

Ashot III Bagratuni

Second rule.

750 - 751

Gregory II Mamikonian

Second rule.

751 - 755

Mushegh II Mamikonian

Brother.

751 - 754

A period of Islamic occupation occurs as the Abassids overthrow the Umayyad caliphs.

754 - 761

Sahak Bagratuni

Lord of Taron

761 - 772

Sambat VII Bagratuni

772 - 780

Interregnum.

780 - 785

Tachat / Tadjat Antzevari

785 - 806

Interregnum, leading to Bagratid rule.

Kingdom of Greater Armenia (Bagratids)
AD 806 - 1045

In the early 800s, Byzantium slowly recovered from the first wave of Islamic expansion, as well as from other enemies. Perhaps not coincidentally, shortly after the death of the powerful Empress Irene, Armenia also began to recover. Becoming independent, the large state in eastern Anatolia enjoyed nearly two centuries of independence. Armenia became a Christian ally of Constantinople against Islamic threats, but eventually became a victim of the Byzantine recovery. The later Macedonian emperors, perhaps a little obsessed with regaining this 'lost' portion of the empire, foolishly wasted strength reducing Armenia that would have been better spent against more threatening targets. Gagik II, invited to Constantinople, was imprisoned on his arrival.

(Additional information from the Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis, Farhad Daftary.)

806 - 826

Ashot IV

826 - 855

Smbat VIII

830 - 852

Bagarat II

856 - 890

Ashot I

885

Armenia is recognised as being independent by the Abbasid caliph, Ahmad al Mutamid.

890 - 914

Smbat I

Captured by the Amir of Azerbaijan in AD 913. Died in captivity.

915 - 928

Ashot II

928 - 951

Abas

940

Armenia briefly submits to Ali I Sayfud Dawla, founder of the splinter Hamdanids of Aleppo

951 - 977

Ashot III

977 - 989

Smbat II

989 - 1019

Gagik I

1020 - 1041

Smbat III

1020 - 1040

Ashot IV

1042 - 1045

Gagik II

Invited to Constantinople and imprisoned.

1045 - 1064

Armenia is occupied by Byzantium, a domination which lasts barely twenty years.

1064

Armenia is conquered by the Seljuqs.

1080

Prince Reuben sets up the Lesser Armenian state west of Greater Armenia.

1137

The pro-Armenian policies of the Fatamid vizier, Bahram, in Egypt provoke a military revolt led by Ridwan, the new governor of Gharbiyya. Bahram is forced out of office, and after the failure of his own revolt in Qus, he is granted permission by Caliph al Hafiz to retire to a monastery where he remains until 1139. Then al Hafiz recalls him to al Kahira (Cairo) and entrusts him with the responsibilities of the vizierate, without officially appointing him to the post, until his death in 1140.

1386 - 1394

The Chaghatayid conqueror, Timur, seizes Greater Armenia from his power base in Persia and massacres a large part of the population.

1405 - 1828

Timur dies and the Ottoman Turks, whom Timur had defeated in 1402, invade Armenia and by the sixteenth century hold all of it. Some of this territory is quickly captured from the short-lived Ak Qoyunlu White Sheep emirate. Under Ottoman rule the Armenians, although often persecuted and always discriminated against because of their religion, nevertheless acquire a vital economic role. Constantinople and all other large cities of the Ottoman empire gain colonies of Armenian merchants and financiers. Eastern Armenia is chronically disputed between Turkey and Persia.

Map of Anatolia and Persia c.AD 1475
The White Sheep emirate, or Ak Qoyunlu confederation, at its height controlled a great area of territory, stretching from Azerbaijan in the north to the Persian Gulf and eastern Iran (click on map to show full sized)

1489

Cyprus is handed over to the republic of Venice by Queen Caterina, although the kingdom, and those of Armenia and Jerusalem, continues to be claimed by the House of Savoy through Duke Charles I, relative and successor to the titles of the deposed Queen Charlotte.

1795 - 1796

The new shah of Persia, Agha Mohammad, has put an end to the dynastic struggles at home and now mounts a campaign to re-strengthen Persian positions in Dagestan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. He also launches a devastating attack on Georgia which sees Tiblisi destroyed and from which the kingdom never recovers. However, Georgia's agreement with Russia means that Catherine the Great launches the Persian Expedition of 1796. Georgia is cleared of Persians with little trouble, but with Azerbaijan also seemingly captured, the empress' sudden death means that her son, Paul, is free to cancel the expedition (resulting in a sense of injustice amongst many officers involved).

1826 - 1828

The Russo-Persian War is the last major military conflict between the Russian and Persian empires, and the first time the two have fought each other since the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813. Shah Fath Ali is still desperate for increased foreign subsidies, and is advised by British agents to reconquer the territories that have been lost to Russia. On 28 July 1826, a 35,000-strong Persian army is led across the border by Abbas Mirza, invading the khanates of Talysh and Karabakh. The khans surrender their main cities to the Persians. However, Russian military power proves too much for them and eastern Armenia is taken before Persia agrees peace terms, bolstered in part by the start of the Russo-Turkish War. Russia makes Eastern Armenia a province (it subsequently also becomes known as Russian Armenia). The western section is still held by Turkey.

Eastern Armenia
AD 1828 - 1991

Eastern Armenia was only a section of Armenian territory, the easternmost remnants of the ancient Armenian kingdom which was fragmented in AD 590 and which was subsequently controlled by various regional powers. This eastern section had long been controlled by the Persian empire until the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828. Russian military might was too much for the Persians so, although they started the war, Russia ended it by invading Eastern Armenia and holding onto it.

(Additional information by Brigitta Davidjants, and from External Link: BBC Country Profiles.)

1878

Parts of Western Armenia are taken by Russia from Turkey.

1894 - 1915

The attempted extermination of the Armenians within the Ottoman empire is put into action under Sultan Abd al-Hamid II. It is sporadically resumed, notably from 24 April 1915, when the Armenians are accused of aiding the Russian invaders during the First World War. Over 600,000 Armenians are killed by Turkish soldiers or die of starvation during their forced deportation to Ottoman-controlled Syria and Iraq. The Armenians rise in revolt at Lake Van (traditional location at which the Armenian state had been founded), which they hold until relieved by Russian troops.

1917 - 1920

Following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, in November 1917 the Caucasus is permitted the right to form an independent state. The Federative Democratic Republic is proclaimed in April 1918, with the Armenian First Republic a part of this. But this arrangement lasts all of a month as old tensions between Georgians, Armenians, and Turkic-speaking Azeris resurface. As the Russian Civil War draws to a conclusion, Soviet Russia invades Armenia and the new Azerbaijan state, incorporating both of them into the USSR.

1921 - 1922

Russia and Turkey establish their respective borders with one another and the remaining independent Armenian lands fall forcibly under Russian control. This is Eastern Armenia, now the only surviving fragment of the ancient state. In 1922, Armenia is formally incorporated into the USSR.

1932 - 1933

Less than a decade of Stalin's economic changes, plus the imprisonment of millions of people in correctional labour camps, and a brutal reorganisation of agricultural practices, results in a catastrophic famine throughout the Soviet empire. The breadbasket of Europe, Ukraine, is especially badly hit, with the famine being known as the Holodomor, 'extermination by hunger'. Other Soviet states also suffer, such as Armenia, but perhaps not quite as badly.

Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin, who was born in Georgia, led the Soviet Union away from its initial idealistic concept of equal citizenship for all and instead instituted a brutal regime of fear

1988

Encouraged by the new Soviet policy of openness ('glasnost'), Armenians begin to campaign for Nagorno-Karabakh, to be united with Armenia. This is a region with a predominantly Armenian population which is located inside the borders of the neighbouring Soviet republic of Azerbaijan. In December of the same year an earthquake strikes northern Armenia, killing 25,000 people and leaving hundreds of thousands homeless. The relief effort is slow and chaotic. The Metsamor nuclear plant is closed down after the earthquake highlights safety concerns.

1990 - 1991

Armenia declares its independence from the crumbling Soviet Union on 23 August 1990. Upon the final collapse of communist Russia in 1991 the Armenian state becomes the independent 'Republic of Armenia', and remains Christian. It adopts a democratically-elected presidential system of government with multi-party elections. Its first president elects to join the Russian-dominated Commonwealth of Independent States.

Modern Armenia
AD 1991 - Present Day

The modern republic of Armenia is the surviving easternmost remnants of the much greater ancient state of Armenia. Its capital is Yerevan, which was founded in 782 BC as the citadel of Erebuni by the Urartuan King Argishti I. Landlocked, Armenia is bordered to the west by Turkey, to the north by Georgia, to the east by Azerbaijan, and at its southern tip by Iran along the River Araks. It also has an Azerbaijani exclave between that southern tip and the rest of the Iranian border up to the Turkish border, following the course of the River Araz (the Araks again). This is the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan in Azerbaijani), while Armenia itself claims the Nagorno-Karabakh region which lies well inside the main Azerbaijani border.

Armenia's history is long and complicated. Its people first formed an independent state in the second century BC, although they had occupied areas of territory around Lake Van since their migration there in the eighth century BC. The Armenian kingdom was formed of two main regions - Greater Armenia which lay to the east of the Euphrates, and Little, or Lesser Armenia to the west of the river. It survived through fluctuating fortunes until the eleventh century, after which it became a trophy of the Byzantine empire, the Seljuq Turks, Persia, and the Ottomans. In 1828, Russia acquired Eastern Armenia from Persia and turned it into a province, while the Ottomans held onto the larger western section (the empire's modern Turkish successor still holds much of it). The creation of Russian-controlled Armenia created the basis for the modern state.

The conflict over the predominantly Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh overshadowed Armenia's return to independence in 1991, and the state remains the subject of a trade blockade, imposed by neighbouring Turkey and Azerbaijan. Relations with Turkey are virtually non-existent anyway, until it recognises that the killing by the Ottoman empire of Armenians between 1915 and 1917 amounted to genocide, which Turkey strongly disputes. Armenia is also not entirely happy with its equally small neighbour to the north, Georgia, as it blames this state for being loyal to Turkey in the fairly recent past. However, Armenia does have a free market economy and has benefited during the twenty-first century from trade links with the rest of Europe, the CIS, and also its southern neighbours. With a population of about three million, Armenia's history of territorial loss means that it has a diaspora of up to eight million people across the world, greatly outnumbering those Armenians who remain in modern Armenia.

(Additional information by Brigitta Davidjants, and from External Links: BBC Country Profiles, and The Guardian, and The Economist.)

1991 - 1994

Although conflict had begun in 1989, full-scale war now breaks out as ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh fight for independence from Azerbaijan, supported by troops and resources from Armenia proper. On the ground the war is largely a success for Armenia, with Nagorno-Karabakh secured and a total of sixteen per cent of Azerbaijani territory captured overall. In 1994 a Russian-brokered ceasefire is put in place to end outright hostilities in Nagorno-Karabakh, but it fails to deliver any lasting solution. For the time being, the region is left as a self-proclaimed republic, with ethnic Armenian forces in control of Azerbaijani territory that surrounds Karabakh.

Nagorno-Karabakh War
The war over Nagorno-Karabakh lasted for just three years, but constant flare-ups and a marked increase in 2014 of border skirmishes signify that the problem is far from being resolved

2008

Presidential elections in Armenia have become increasingly bitter affairs, with allegations of corruption and vote-rigging a staple of every election. The results from this election show Serzh Sargsyan winning easily, but the opposition under Ter-Petrosyan raises fresh accusations of election-rigging. Protests by tens of thousands of supporters in Yerevan force the police and then the army to become involved. A state of emergency is declared and eight protestors die in confrontations, along with casualties being suffered by the army. Sargsyan is subsequently recognised as the legitimate president.

2009

The governments of Armenia and Turkey agree to normalise relations in October 2009, but ratification is stalled by new demands on both sides.

2015

In February, President Serge Sarkisian withdraws from parliament the landmark 2009 agreement with Turkey to restore diplomatic ties, citing citing the absence of political will on the Turkish side. Turkey has insisted that Armenia resolve the Nagorno-Karabakh situation first, while also refusing to admit that the mass killings of Armenians in the First World War had been anything other than an inevitable tragedy of war. It is also under pressure from its oil-rich Azeri allies not to aid Armenia in any way.

2016

The controversy continues surrounding Turkey's role in the killing of ethnic Armenians during 1915. The German parliament approves a resolution declaring that the mass killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks during the First World War is classed as genocide. Turkey bitterly opposes the Bundestag (lower house) resolution, and warns that it could hurt ties. Armenians continue to uphold the claim that up to 1.5 million of their people had been killed in the atrocities of 1915. Turkey says the toll had been much lower and rejects the term 'genocide'. The timing is awkward, as the European Union needs Turkey to help stem the migrant influx from Syria.