History Files


Middle East Kingdoms





The Black Sheep Emirate / Qara Qoyunlu
AD 1375 - 1469

The Qara Qoyunlu were Turkmen vassals of the Jalayirids in eastern Anatolia. They became independent in 1389, after the Jalayirids had been overrun by the Timurids who conquered Persia.

1375 - 1389

Qara Muhammed Turmish

1389 - 1400

Qara Yusuf

1400 - 1406

The emirate is overrun and governed by Timur, Mongol founder of the Timurid dynasty in Persia.

Map of the Timurid empire AD 1400
Timur effectively recreated the ancient Persian empire through his various conquests over the course of almost forty years, subduing many competing clans and khanates that would begin competing again after his death (click on map to show full sized)

1406 - 1420

Qara Yusuf

Regained power.


The emirate captures Baghdad from the Persian Timurids, ending their control in Iraq.

1420 - 1438



The Black Sheep conquer their former overlords, the Jalayirids.

1438 - 1467

Jahan Shah

Killed by the White Sheep emir.

1451 - 1453

Jahan Shah ends the loyalty of his emirate with the fracturing Timurids in Persia. He besieges Qum and Sava with overwhelming forces which the main Timurid ruler, Babur Ibn-Baysunkur of Khorasan, is unable to face. Most of Persia is taken by 1452, including Ray, with the last section, Abarquh, falling in 1453.


The Black Sheep Turkmen invade Khorasan from Persia. They capture Gurgan and defeat the ruler, Ibrahim, outside Astarabad (modern Gorgan). Now assisted by his father, Ibrahim is again defeated and is forced to flee. The Black Sheep take Herat on 28 June 1458, but withdraw soon afterwards.


Abu Sa'id of Transoxiana completes his conquest of much of Khorasan and eastern Iran, agreeing with Jahan Shah to divide Iran (Central Persia) between the two of them.


White Sheep Emir Uzun Hassan is responsible for the death of the powerful Jahan Shah. He threatens to overwhelm the entire Black Sheep emirate, despite it receiving assistance from the Timurid ruler, Abu Sa'id, in Transoxiana.

1467 - 1469

Hassan Ali


1467 - 1469

Following the death of Jahan Shah, his son, Hassan Ali, continues to be supported by Abu Sa'id of Transoxiana. Despite this, in 1468, the Black Sheep emirate is conquered by the White Sheep emirate. Abu Sa'id is captured in the Azerbaijan mountains in 1469 while on campaign against the White Sheep emirate, and Abu Said is subsequently executed.