History Files


Middle East Kingdoms

Ancient Mesopotamia




MapFeatures for Ancient MesopotamiaAndarig / Anderiq

The Mari documents reveal the existence of a number of kings of Andarig. This was an important city on the Sinjar Plain in northern Mesopotamia for a short period after the fall of the kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia, but as yet its exact location is unknown. As a result, the history of the city and its ultimate fate is very uncertain. Opinion leans towards the idea that it was located at modern Tell Khoshi, the royal city and capital of Yamutbal. This was one of the larger cities in the region, over a hundred hectares in size, during the Early and Middle Bronze Ages, and can be dated back to the start of the third millennium BC.

c.1809 - 1776 BC

Andarig is probably a vassal state under the kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia. Following the death of its king, Andarig's rulers prove to be powerful regional replacements, dominating several cities.

c.1772? - 1770 BC

Qarni-Lim is strong enough to influence many of his neighbours, sometimes imposing rulers on states. He claims responsibility for handling the funeral of Turum-natki of Apum, and also places his two successors on the throne there - Haya-abum and Zuzu - before the city is briefly seized by Elam.

c.1770 - 1766 BC


Killed and beheaded, body dumped in the Habur.

c.1766 BC

Upon Qarni-Lim's mysterious death, Zimri-Lim of Mari is urged to take control of Andarig personally, but tries first to assess the situation. Meanwhile, Atamrum, king of Allahad, besieges the city of Razama with a force of Elamite and Eshnunnan troops under his command, but is ordered by Zimri-Lim to raise the siege. Although Atamrum is perhaps ranked highly in comparison to Zimri-Lim in regional correspondence now that Qarni-Lim has gone, it is clear whose authority carries the most weight.

Qarni-Lim's palace at Tell Leilan
The palace of Qarni-Lim at Tell Leilan displays the Andariq king's domination of the city

c.1765 - ? BC


Son of Warad-Sin. King of Allahad.

c.1765 BC

A little over a year after the death of Qarni-Lim, Atamrum assumes the throne of Andarig after being handed the city by Eshnunnan troops (who are presumably stationed there). Soon after he takes back the city of Apum from its Elamite rulers, and it remains under the control of Andarig during the reign of his son.

c.1764 BC

Zimri-Lim of Mari comes to the aid of Andarig in a regional dispute.

c.1761 BC

Andarig is besieged by Zimri-Lim of Mari, but in the same year Mari itself is crushed by Hammurabi of Babylon.

Himdija / Himdiya / Imidaya

Son and military leader.

Himdija inherits the throne from his father, and before his reign begins he conquers the city of Amaz. Often in conflict with his opposite number in Kurda, Hammu-Rabi, the two eventually make peace. Andarig's fate is unknown after this event, but Himdija is its last-recorded ruler. Northern Mesopotamia itself is in decline, with many cities being abandoned.