History Files


Far East Kingdoms

Central Asia




Samanid Emirate
AD 820 - 1000

The Samanids took the Transoxiana region from the Tahrid governors of Khorasan in 820. From there they controlled the trade between Central Asia and the central Islamic caliphate, and these included the trade in Turkish slaves. The state grew to cover most of eastern Persia while the Buwayid amirs gained control of western Persia.

819 - 864

Saman Khoda

864 - 892

Nasr I

892 - 907

Ismail I


The Saffarid emirs in Khorasan are defeated by the Samanids and reduced in territory to Seistan in Persia, where they remain Samanid vassals. The Samanids install their own governors in the region.

Samarkand coin
Two sides of a typical Abbasid-era coin, with this one being nineteen millimetres in diameter issued in Samarkand, which was soon taken by the Samanids

907 - 914

Ahmad II

914 - 943

as-Sa'id Nasr II

943 - 954

Hamid Nuh I

954 - 961

Abdül-Malik I

961 - 976

Mansur I


Zabulistan is seized by a rebellious Samanid governor and a semi-independent Afghan kingdom is formed with its capital at Ghazni.

976 - 997

Nuh II


The Afghan city of Ghazni comes under the rule of the Yamanid dynasty, which becomes fully independent of Samanid control as it forms its own Ghaznavid sultanate, although it still pays lip service to its former masters.


Nuh II faces internal uprisings, as the emirate becomes more unstable, and the Ghaznavid ruler comes to his assistance. The rebels are defeated at Balkh and then Nishapur.

997 - 999

Mansur II



The Turkic Karakhanids depose Mansur II, allied with the Buwayids who are supreme in south-western Persia and Mesopotamia. The Karakhanids take possession of areas of Afghanistan.

999 - 1000

Abdül Malik II


Samanid power swiftly declines in the face of Buwayid supremacy, while the revolt of the Ghaznavids brings the emirate to an end.

1000 - 1005

Ismail II al-Muntasir



Ismail II, the last Samanid ruler, is assassinated after a five year struggle against the Karakhanids from the north. They, in turn, are immediately ousted by the Ghaznavids.