History Files

Please help the History Files

Contributed: 175

Target: 400

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The History Files still needs your help. As a non-profit site, it is only able to support such a vast and ever-growing collection of information with your help, and this year your help is needed more than ever. Please make a donation so that we can continue to provide highly detailed historical research on a fully secure site. Your help really is appreciated.





The History Files

Terms of use

Updated 12 July 2024

Use of the History Files website

Access to and use of the History Files websites (hereafter collectively referred to as 'the site'), which are supplied and maintained by Kessler Associates, is provided subject to the terms that, by using the site you agree to be legally bound by these terms, which shall take effect immediately on your first use of the site. If you do not agree to be legally bound by all the following terms please do not access and/or use the site.

These terms may be altered at any time. Please review these terms regularly to ensure you are aware of any changes made. Your continued use of the site after changes are posted means you agree to be legally bound by these terms as updated and/or amended.

The History Files is a purely non-profit website dedicated to collecting together historical information on all periods and locations simply for the satisfaction of working on the subject. No fees will be paid for the use of external media or submitted items.

You may browse this site for information and data. You acknowledge, however, that this site contains information, data, photographs, graphics, and other materials which are protected by laws governing copyrights, trademarks, and other proprietary rights. Under no circumstances may you transfer or distribute site contents to third parties without prior permission.

Permission will be granted in almost all cases.

Content rights

For the sake of simplicity the term 'images' refers to all photographs, drawings, maps, and any other non-textual items stored on the site. All text-based content is referred to simply as 'content'.

All images on the site are copyright © Kessler Associates, P L Kessler, or their respective owners. Permission to use them has been sought where required, and when possible.

Images of paintings which were created before copyright law existed are in the public domain and may be re-used as required. Photographs whose purpose is to exactly reproduce the public domain art in question does not have the element of creativity which grants it copyright protection. (This was the basis of the decision in the USA's Bridgeman v Corel case of 1999 which is used as a precedent.)

Anyone wishing to reproduce images for non-commercial use is requested to contact the History Files and/or Kessler Associates. Please state your intended use and permission will almost always be granted as long as you include copyright/authorship details where applicable and a link back to the History Files website.

Those wishing to reproduce images or other material for commercial use must be aware that they must apply for prior written permission from Kessler Associates. Granting of that permission and potential incurred fees may depend upon the intended use of the material, and copyright issues may prevent such permission from being given.

Kessler Associates does not warrant that functions contained in the site's content will be uninterrupted or error free, that defects will be corrected, or that the site or the server which makes it available are free of viruses or bugs, although every effort is taken to make sure that this is indeed the case.

Intellectual property

The names, images and logos identifying Kessler Associates or third parties are subject to copyright, design rights and trade marks of Kessler Associates and/or third parties. Nothing contained in these terms shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel or otherwise any licence or right to use any trademark, patent, design right or copyright of Kessler Associates, or any other third party.


You may not access or use, or attempt to access or use, the site to take any action which could harm the site itself or a third party.

You may not use the site in violation of applicable laws, including export controls and sanctions, or in violation of ours or any third party's intellectual property or other proprietary or legal rights. You further agree that you will not attempt (or encourage or support anyone else's attempt) to circumvent, reverse engineer, decrypt, or otherwise alter or interfere with the site, or any content on the site, or make any unauthorised use of the site.

Without the prior written consent of the History Files and/or Kessler Associates (in electronic mail format, at least), you shall not:

1) access any part of the site, content, data, or information for which you have no permission or authorisation to access or for which such access has been revoked

2) use robots, spiders, scripts, service, software, or any manual or automatic device, tool, or process which is designed to data mine or scrape the content, data or information from the site, or otherwise use, access, or collect the content, data, or information from the site using automated means

3) use the content for the development of any software program including, but not limited to, training a machine learning or artificial intelligence (AI) system

4) use services, software, or any manual or automatic device, tool, or process which is designed to circumvent any restriction, condition, or technological measure which controls access to the site in any way, including overriding any security feature or bypassing or circumventing any access controls or use limits of the site

5) cache or archive the content (except for a public search engine's use of spiders for creating search indices)

6) take action which imposes an unreasonable or disproportionately large load on our network or infrastructure

7) do anything which could disable, damage, or change the functioning or appearance of the site, including the presentation of advertising.


Where you are invited to submit any contributions to the site (including any text, photographs, graphics, video, or audio) you agree, by submitting your contribution, to grant the History Files and Kessler Associates a perpetual, royalty-free, non-exclusive, right to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, play, make available to the public, and exercise all copyright and publicity rights with respect to your contribution and/or to incorporate your contribution in other works in any media now known or later developed for the full term of any rights which may exist in your contribution.

If you do not want to grant to the rights set out above, please do not submit your contribution to the site.

By submitting your contribution to the site, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to the site for all the purposes specified above. You are also required to waive any moral rights in your contribution for the purposes of its submission to and publication on the site and the purposes specified above.

Note that editorial control of your work may be exercised, and may involved the correcting of text to match the site's grammatical and spelling usage and minor alterations being made to style and structure to bring your work into line with the general style of presentation being used throughout the site. This is not a comment on your work but an effort to maintain cohesiveness throughout the site.


In recent years it has become a necessity to add a limited amount of advertising to the site.

Where possible, this will be restrained, and any pages which carry full-page advertising copy will be clearly differentiated from standard pages, as shown below.

Advertising sample page

Feature pages in the general site itself which have been sponsored or which are part of an advertising agreement will - as far as is possible - clearly be marked, either with an 'advertising' tag or with a label which states that the page 'includes paid promotion' or an external link.

Any external links to a site or sites which is or are related to such promotional material will - where possible - also clearly be highlighted as such.

On full advertising pages like the one shown above, there will be no warnings about external links as the entire page layout is designed to show that the page is not standard, and that it contains none of the history-related material which would normally be expected across the site.

The History Files site, Kessler Associates, and any of their associates or direct affiliates are not responsible for the content of advertisements on the site or for the external, non-History Files sites to which they may connect.


Index of live advertising pages


Any fees which may be earned for advertising will be used to ensure the continued operation of the History Files website.

As of 2023 the History Files site is also an Ezoic certified publisher, although such advertising is region-specific.





Kessler Associates does not bear any responsibility for the content of external websites to which links are provided within the site. Where possible, all external links are clearly marked as such.

These terms shall be governed by and interpreted in accordance with the laws of England and Wales.

Kessler Associates for the History Files.