History Files




The History Files

Terms of use

Use of the History Files website

Access to and use of the History Files websites (hereafter referred to as 'the site'), which are supplied and maintained by Kessler Associates, is provided subject to the terms that, by using the site you agree to be legally bound by these terms, which shall take effect immediately on your first use of the site. If you do not agree to be legally bound by all the following terms please do not access and/or use the site.

These terms may be altered at any time. Please review these terms regularly to ensure you are aware of any changes made. Your continued use of the site after changes are posted means you agree to be legally bound by these terms as updated and/or amended.

The History Files is a purely non-profit website dedicated to collecting together historical information on all periods and locations simply for the satisfaction of working on the subject. No fees will be paid for the use of external media or submitted items.

You may browse this site for information and data. You acknowledge, however, that this site contains information, data, photographs, graphics, and other materials that are protected by laws governing copyrights, trademarks, and other proprietary rights. Under no circumstances may you transfer or distribute site contents to third parties without prior permission. Permission will be granted in almost all cases.

Content rights

For the sake of simplicity the term 'images' refers to all photographs, drawings, maps, and any other non-textual items stored on the site.

All of the images on this website are copyright © Kessler Associates, P L Kessler, or their respective owners. Permission to use them has been sought where required, and when possible.

Images of paintings which were created before copyright law existed are in the public domain and may be re-used as required. Photographs whose purpose is to exactly reproduce the public domain art in question does not have the element of creativity which grants it copyright protection. (This was the basis of the decision in the Bridgeman v Corel case of 1999 which is used as a precedent.)

Anyone wishing to reproduce images for non-commercial use is requested to contact Kessler Associates. Please state your intended use and permission will almost always be granted as long as you include copyright/authorship details where applicable and a link back to the History Files website.

Those wishing to reproduce images or other material for commercial use must be aware that they must apply for prior written permission from Kessler Associates. Granting of that permission and potential incurred fees may depend upon the intended use of the material, and copyright issues may prevent such permission from being given.

Kessler Associates does not warrant that functions contained in the site's content will be uninterrupted or error free, that defects will be corrected, or that the site or the server that makes it available are free of viruses or bugs, although every effort is taken to make sure that this is indeed the case.

Intellectual property

The names, images and logos identifying Kessler Associates or third parties are subject to copyright, design rights and trade marks of Kessler Associates and/or third parties. Nothing contained in these terms shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel or otherwise any licence or right to use any trademark, patent, design right or copyright of Kessler Associates, or any other third party.


Where you are invited to submit any contributions to the site (including any text, photographs, graphics, video, or audio) you agree, by submitting your contribution, to grant Kessler Associates a perpetual, royalty-free, non-exclusive, right to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, play, make available to the public, and exercise all copyright and publicity rights with respect to your contribution and/or to incorporate your contribution in other works in any media now known or later developed for the full term of any rights that may exist in your contribution.

If you do not want to grant to Kessler Associates the rights set out above, please do not submit your contribution to the site.

By submitting your contribution to the site, you warrant that your contribution is your own original work and that you have the right to make it available to the site for all the purposes specified above. You are also required to waive any moral rights in your contribution for the purposes of its submission to and publication on the site and the purposes specified above.

Note that editorial control of your work may be exercised, and may involved the correcting of text to UK English and minor alterations being made to style and structure to bring your work into line with the general style of presentation used throughout the site. This is not a comment on your work but an effort to maintain cohesiveness throughout the site.


In recent years it has become a necessity, on occasion, to add a limited amount of advertising to the site. Where possible, this will be restrained, and will be clearly marked as advertising.

Paid promotion sample page

Feature pages which have been sponsored or which are part of an advertising agreement will be clearly marked with a label which states that the page 'includes paid promotion'. Any external links to a site or sites which is or are related to such promotional material will also be clearly highlighted as such.

Any fees which may be earned for advertising will be used to ensure the continued operation of the History Files website.


Kessler Associates does not bear any responsibility for the content of external websites to which links are provided within the site. Where possible, all external links are clearly marked as such.

These terms shall be governed by and interpreted in accordance with the laws of England and Wales.

Kessler Associates for the History Files.