History Files

Please help the History Files

Contributed: 84

Target: 400

Totals slider

The History Files still needs your help. As a non-profit site, it is only able to support such a vast and ever-growing collection of information with your help, and this year your help is needed more than ever. Please make a donation so that we can continue to provide highly detailed historical research on a fully secure site. Your help really is appreciated.



Ancient Egypt

Tutankhamun's Mummified Lion

by Paul Rincon, 14 January 2004

Archaeologists in 2004 announced that they had uncovered the first example of a lion mummified by the ancient Egyptians, in the tomb of the woman who helped rear the Pharaoh Tutankhamun.

Although the breeding and burial of lions as sacred animals in Egypt is mentioned by ancient sources, to date no one had found a mummified specimen. The male lion was amongst the largest known to science and its bones showed that it lived to an old age in captivity.

Details of the discovery were published in the scientific journal Nature. The lion was found in a tomb at Saqqara in northern Egypt which belonged to Maia, wet nurse to Tutankhamun, who was buried about 1430 BC

However, in the last centuries BC, the tomb was re-used for the burial of humans and then animals - mostly mummified cats. French archaeologists Alain Zivie, Cecile Callou, and Anaick Samzun unearthed the remains of the big cat in November 2001. It comprised the virtually complete skeleton of a lion (Panthera leo) which was once mummified.

Bred for mummification

Analysis of the teeth, particularly the wear on them, showed that the lion lived to be very old and must have been kept in captivity. Alan Lloyd, professor of classics and ancient history at the University of Wales, Swansea, pointed out the fact that the lion was a creature which had a long association with the ruler of Egypt.

The pharaoh was thought of as a lion and as having the qualities of a lion. The qualities the Egyptians were interested in, of course, were martial. In the last few centuries BC, Egypt was being invades by waves of outsiders, from Persia, Nubia (which today comprises parts of Sudan and Egypt), and Greece.

The surge of interest in animal cults may be the ancient Egyptians' way of asserting their identity in the presence of these newcomers. This should be regarded as an expression of Egyptian nationalism, according to Professor Lloyd. In addition to cats, the Egyptians also mummified dogs, birds, snakes, and monkeys.

Mummified lion

The mummified lion and the archaeological team behind the discovery (click or tap on image to read more on a separate page)

Cats and dogs

Inscriptions suggest that lions were bred in special animal precincts and were buried in sacred cemeteries. But to date none had been found. Professor Lloyd said he had heard rumours in the early 1970s of a mummified lion being found in Egypt. However, the person excavating the lion apparently was not interested in it and the location of the find was lost.

Again towards the end of the last millennium BC, the site at Saqqara where the lion was buried was dedicated to the feline goddess Bastet. The lion was found lying on a rock with its head turned north and its body orientated towards the east.

  I think this should be regarded as an expression of Egyptian nationalism

Prof Alan Lloyd, University of Wales  


Some images and original text copyright © BBC or affiliates. Reproduction is made on a 'fair dealing' basis for the purpose of disseminating relevant information to a specific audience. No breach of copyright is intended or inferred.