There are many families in Maharashtra with the
surname Bhosale, but not all of them can trace their lineage to
the royal Bhosales (who were later the successors to the thrones
of Satara and Kolhapur). Their most famous son was Shivaji raje
Bhosale, also the progenitor of their aristocracy.
One of Shivaji's early known ancestors was his
great-grandfather, Babaji Bhosale. He was the headman of the
villages of Hingane Beradi and Diwalgaon in Pune district (or
Poona or Puna, in the modern state of Maharashtra ). His
sustenance mainly depended upon his farm fields and his income
as the headman of the villages .
Both Maloji and Vithoji had some friction with
the locals in their village, and shifted with their entire family
to Verul (Ellora in Aurangabad district, in Maharashtra). The land
there wasn't very conducive for farming and both the brothers
sought service in the army of Lakhujirao Jadhav (Lakhuji Jadhav
was a noble in the Nizamshahi army of Ahmednagar, his jagir being
Sindkhedraja in present day Buldhana, Maharashtra. He also claimed
lineage to the royal family of the Yadavas of Devagiri).
Due to their bravery, the brothers rose through
the ranks in Lakhuji's army .
Then the story goes this way, that in a 'Holi'
function (the festival of colours), Lakhujirao praised the
handsomeness of the young Shahaji, son of Maloji (from his wife
Umabai, from the family of the Nimbalkars of Phaltan, also serving
in the Nizamshahi. It is to be noted that Maloji was childless for
a long time and he had two sons, Shahaji and Sharifji, after
blessings from the Sufi saint Baba Shah Sharif and was therefore
named after the sufi saint).
Lakhujirao even mockingly said that the young
Shahaji and his little daughter Jijabai would make a fine couple.
But these words were taken too seriously by Maloji Rao Bhosale.
He proudly pointed out this incident in public, which irked
Lakhujirao Jadhav no end. An indignant Lakhuji Jadhav promptly
dismissed Malojirao from his services, after rebuking Maloji
for dreaming that the son of a 'shiledar' can marry the daughter
of a 'sardar' (a shiledar is just higher than a common soldier
in the hierarchy, and is someone who has his own sword and horse,
besides what is given to him by his master, while a sardar is a
noble - the author and historian, Vaidya, says that Lakhuji
declined to accept Shahaji as his son-in-law despite his wife's
Humiliated, Maloji retreated to his village
in Verul. Meanwhile he had also become the headman of his
(Maloji and his brother Vithoji served the
Nizamshah with distinction and received many 'mokasas' for the
maintenance of forces, and many villages and lands in Inam.
These were as follows: the three perganas (parganas) of Elur
(Verul), Derhadi and Kannarad. Kannarad was given with a 'kot'
and four 'kila' or forts, and included Jategau and Vakadi. The
towns were: 1. Pedgaon, now in ruins, eight miles from Shrigonda,
on the Bhima, with the Hemadpanti temples of Shiva and Rameshwar;
2. (Kasba) of Lasur pergana Gandapur, Adharsul pergana Ahmedabad,
and the villages of Porle (ditto), Pimpalvadi pergana Paithan
and Gaudagau or Ahmedabad. So far as we have ascertained,
Jategaon is in Karmala (Sholapur ), and Adharsul is near Yeola
The brothers spent the next few years tilling
their fields. Then one day Maloji noticed a snake coming out of
a hole in his field. As per popular superstitions, snakes are
said to guard hidden treasure, so Maloji began digging. To his
joy he found seven pots of gold coins. He wisely lodged them at
the house of a local banker named Punde at Chamargunda . He
called over his brother, and together they bought horses, saddles,
arms, tents and employed a thousand troops. With his small army,
Malojirao (and his brother Vithoji), aligned himself with his
in-laws, the Nimbalkars of Phaltan, and entered directly into
the service of the Nizamshah of Ahmednagar.
They participated in many a battle against the
Bijapuris and the Mughals (there were conflicts with the Mughals
during the early seventeenth century when Akbar's forces invaded
Ahmednagar), who were constantly at war, trying to gain each
others' territories. They fought under the command of the famous
Abyssinian general of Nizamshah, Malik Ambar, and his fellow
compatriot, Ranadaulla Khan (Khan i Zaman). That is where they
honed their skills in the art of warfare.
Malojirao also spent a large portion of his
newfound wealth in the construction of several temples, giving
alms to the poor and the Brahmins, and also for excavating a
large tank on the arid Shambhu Mahadev hill in the Satara
district. This brought him a lot of praise from the pilgrims
who flocked to this holy place.
The Bhosales had by now grown in stature in
the Nizamshahi court. The courtiers and the king had even
managed to persuade Lakhujirao Jadhav to give his daughter
Jijabai's hand in marriage to Malojirao Bhosale's son,
Shahaji, something to which Lakhuji reluctantly agreed.
Young Shivaji with his mother, Jijabai, in this statue at
 As per author historian C V
Vaidya, Babaji Raje Bhosale then was the feudal lord of Pande
Pedgaon and the same fief continued for a time in the possession
of Maloji. Indeed Maloji was still associated with Babaji in its
possession in 1596.He had two sons: Maloji Bhosale, the eldest,
and Vithoji, his younger sibling.
 Some derive the Bhosale name
from Bhose, a village in the Verul district where the family
first settled, and Bhosala means 'of or from Bhose village'.
Extract C V Vaidya.
 Source Rajwade Khmnd XV, No
 Source Sir Jadunath Sarkar.
After Malojirao's death, the army of the Bhosales
was commanded by his younger brother, Vithoji (Vithoji had eight
sons, 'four have been found to be in Mughal service at the beginning
of Shah Jahan's reign: Kheloji Parsuji, Maloji II, and Mambaji ).
Later, after Vithoji's death in 1623, the army was commanded by
Maloji's son, Shahaji Raje Bhosale .
Meanwhile, Malik Ambar, who had even humbled the
might of the Mughals, died in 1626. He was succeeded by his son,
Fateh Khan, as the next regent of the Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar.
Shahaji was deputed by Fateh Khan to raid East Khandesh against
an invading Mughal force, and Shahaji displayed great valour
Friction soon developed between Fateh Khan and his
king and Fateh Khan was placed under arrest. This was a time of
political intrigues amongst the various nobles of the Nizamshahi
court. Sensing the coming chaos, Lakhujirao Jadhav had left the
services of the Nizamshahi and had joined the Mughals (authors like
C V Vaidya have put forward the fight between the Bhosales and the
Jadhavs (as mentioned below in detail), and the subsequent siding
of Malik Amber with the Bhosales, as the cause for Lakhujirao's
disenchantment with the Nizamshahi and his desertion to the Mughal
Disenchanted, he soon returned to the Nizamshahi
court. However, the Nizam wasn't ready to forgive and forget, and
he murdered Lakhujirao along with his sons in the very court in
which they had once served. Angry at the treatment meted out to his
father-in-law, Lakhuji Jadhav, and his sons, Shahaji left the
Nizamshahi's services. He rebelled against the Nizamshahi and tried
to seize the country between Junnar and Ahmednagar. Later, he joined
the service of the Mughals. He served there for a year and half (from
the end of 1630 to June 1632), but finding little scope amongst the
largely predominant north Indian courtiers, he left and joined Adil
Shah I of Bijapur, who had been eyeing the brave warrior for a long
time (but Vaidya states that Shahaji's cousins had grown jealous of
him, and created bad blood between him and the rulers of the
Nizamshahi, hence Shahaji moved over to the Adilshahi camp).
There his courage impressed Adil Shah I and his
deputy Murar Jagdev. But Adil Shah I died within a year. He was
succeeded by his son, Adil Shah II. This Adil Shah was ill-disposed
towards his Hindu nobles and had Murar Jagdev murdered. Shahaji,
sensing the danger to his own life, left the services of Adil Shah
At some point in 1629, the Mughals were preparing
a renewed attack on the kingdom of Ahmednagar (after Khan Jahan
Lodi, the governor of the Deccan, had rebelled against the Delhi
court and had sought refuge in Ahmednagar). Scared, the Nizam Shah
(Burhan Nizam Shah) released Fateh Khan and made him regent again.
But this time Fateh Khan had his master murdered (Feb 1632) and
installed a puppet successor named Hussain Nizam Shah in his place.
Fateh Khan therefore became the de facto ruler of the
Nizamshahi kingdom. He even invited Shahaji Raje Bhosale to be
the commander of his forces. Shahaji accepted the offer.
Fighting the Mughals
Fateh Khan bought temporary peace by accepting
vassalage from the Mughals. But secretly he desired freedom from
the Mughal yoke. He simultaneously opened diplomatic channels
with the Deccan kingdoms of Bijapur and Golkunda in an attempt
to unite them against the Mughals.
The site of Shivaji's birthplace in Fort Shivneri, which at
the time was commanded by Vishwasrao, a relative of Shivaji's
 Source Sir Jadunath Sarkar -
Shahaji, the son of the up-and-coming Malojirao Bhosale
 It is certain that Maloji
died at about the end of 1528 or in the middle of 1606 as in a
sanad of 'ravan'. In 1529, we have the mention of Maloji as
being deceased and subsequent documents mention Vithoji alone.
Maloji is said to have been killed in the Battle of Indapur,
fought by the Nizamshahi forces against Bijapur. With Vithoji
dying some time afterwards, the leadership of the family fell
naturally to Shahaji, son of the elder Maloji, along with his
brother Sarfoji and his eight cousins (the sons of Vithoji).
Extract C V Vaidya.
When the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, discovered Fateh Khan's
duplicity, he ordered his general, Mahabbat Khan, to attack
Ahmednagar. The Mughals came down heavily on Fateh Khan and he was
soon defeated and captured. Fateh Khan and Hussain Nizam Shah were
sent as prisoners to Delhi, and Ahmednagar was formally annexed
to the Mughal empire.
But nobles like Shahaji Raje Bhosale refused to
submit to the Mughals. He rallied the forces of Ahmednagar under
him and installed the young Murtuza III (a descendent of the
Nizamshahi), as the successor to the throne. Shahaji acted as his
regent. He once again retrieved several captured districts from the
Mughals including North Konkan. He repossessed more than a quarter
of the old Nizamshahi territory with Bijapuri help (with a revenue
worth two million (or twenty lakh) 'Hun' coins), and even thwarted
Mughal attempts to seize Parenda. He ruled on behalf of the young
king for three long years.
This time the Mughals decided on another strategy.
Shah Jahan sent peace overtures to the Bijapur court. Both reached
a pact in which they decided to jointly invade Ahmednagar and split
the spoils of the war amongst themselves. Shahaji was isolated and
He finally accepted defeat and ceded his seven
earlier captured forts to the enemy in October 1636, and as per
the treaty he also entered into the service of Adilshah of Bijapur.
(It is said that earlier, Shahaji had protected Shah Jahan for
eight months in the Deccan when as a prince Shah Jahan had rebelled
against his father, Jahangir, and had sought refuge in the Deccan.
This prompted Shah Jahan to spare Shahaji's life and even press
Adil Shah to enlist Shahaji in his court.)
Shahaji was given the territory of Bangalur
(Bangalore in state of Karnataka ) as his jagir (estate). He was
also allowed to keep his estate of Pune and Supa.
Shivaji was born to Shahaji and his wife Jijabai,
during Shahaji's tumultuous period (Shivaji was born on 18 February
1630 as per Jedhe Shakavali and referenced by Tilak, Shiv Bharata,
and the Tanjore stone inscription, against another date given by
author and historian Grant Duff on the basis of the bakhars, who
gave Shivaji's date of birth as 3 May 1627). The birth occurred in
Fort Shivneri (which was under the care of Vishwasrao, a relative
of Shahaji's), while Shahaji himself was busy fighting the Nizamshahi
While Jijabai gave birth to Shivaji, at the fort
of Shivneri, Shahaji was on the run from his father-in-law, Lakhuji,
both being in opposite camps. For some time there had been friction
between Lakhuji and Shahaji. Maratha sardars were attending a Durbar
(court session) of the Nizamshah. While they were departing the
palace, each one trying to crowd out the others, the elephant of a
sardar named Khandagale became unruly and trampled some footmen to
death. Dattaji, son of Jadhavrao, attacked the elephant, and a
skirmish began between him and Khandagale, with the latter being
assisted by the sons of Vithoji. A duel ensued between Dattaji and
Sambhaji, son of Vithoji, in which Dattaji was killed. Lakhji
Jadhavrao, who had already departed, heard the terrible news of his
son's death and, infuriated, returned to attack Sambhaji. Shahaji
now went to the help of his cousin Sambhaji and a battle was fought
which saw Sambhaji killed. On hearing of this scuffle, the Nizamshah
himself came out, and, intervening, he separated the combatants.
Thus began that enmity between Jadhavrao and Shahaji, according to
Shiva-Bharata, which the Bakharkars have wrongly carried back to the
time of Shahaji's marriage with Jijabai.
A selection of Maratha swords, laid around a parrying shield
One result of this scuffle was that Jadhavrao
thought that the Nizamshah was unduly in favour of the Bhosales, and
he left his service and went over to the Moguls. This desertion was
taken advantage of by Adilshah, who invited the Moguls to attack the
Nizamshahi from the north while he attacked it from the south. A
battle was fought between the two sides at Bhatavadi in 1624. This
was the time when Shahaji found himself besieged by his
father-in-law, Lakhujirao, and he sent his pregnant wife to the
safety of Fort Shivneri where she gave birth to Shivaji. Shiva-Bharata
gives a detailed description of this battle and mentions by name the
many captains in the three armies, namely of Delhi, Bijapur and
Eventually Malik Amber obtained a signal victory
over the two allies, Muila Mahmad, Sar-Lashkar of Bijapur, being
killed and many captains of the Mogul and Bijapur armies being taken
prisoner. The Bhosales fought bravely on Malik Amber's side,
Sharifji (Shahaji's brother) being among the slain in the army of
Ahmednagar. This was Shahaji's first brilliant exploit on the
battlefield. The battle is referred to in a letter of Pedro, an
Italian traveller, dated 31 October 1624 which supports the account
of Shiva-Bharata and may therefore be taken to have been fought some
time in the middle of that year.
It is probable that at this time Shahaji received
as a reward the mokasas ('inams' means reward while 'jagirs' means
estates) of Poona and Supa, which were beyond the Bhima and which
were, as stated before, the subjects of frequent conflicts between
Ahmednagar and Bijapur. Shahaji was appointed Sar-Lashkar or general
in the Ahmednagar army. Shiva-Bharata relates that the sons of
Vithoji became jealous of Shahaji's greatness from this point. Malik
Amber seems to have supported Shahaji's cousins in the quarrel, as
it was in his interests to encourage disputes in the powerful
The tomb of Malojirao Bhosale, grandfather of Shivaji at Verul
Shahaji was dissatisfied and he retired
to Poona where he built a house for himself. From there he was
invited by Ibrahim Adilshah to enter his service and Shahaji with
his followers became an Adilshahi sardar. This is supported by a
document dated 19 December 1625, in which Shahaji is contemptuously
described as 'Shahaji Bhosala, Adilshahi'. Another document, a sanad
dated 28 July, describes him, however, as 'Meherban Shahaji Raje
Sarlashkar'. Both these documents relate to the Poona District and
show that in July 1625, Shahaji was a Sarlashkar or commander of
forces in the Nizamshahi and enjoyed the fief of Poona. In December
1625 he was in the Adilshah's service and Poona had been taken away
from him. Shahaji rendered important services to the Adilshah by
conquering Mudhoji of Phaltan and some refractory chiefs in Karnatic
and in Keral. He remained in the Adilshah's service from about
October 1625 to about the end of 1627.
From a document dated 10 January 1626, it
appears that he was then a Sarlashkar in the Adilshahi, and at his
request the Adilshah granted the desagata of Talebid and some rights
to the fort of Panhala to Sambhaji and Dharoji Mohite. These were
probably relatives of Shahaji's second wife who belonged to the
Mohite family. In May 1626 Malik Amber died and about a year or so
after Ibrahim Adilshah had also died. The former was succeeded by
his son Fattehkhan, who was favourably disposed towards Shahaji,
and the latter by Mahomed Adilshah who was a staunch Shia and an
Maratha axes, parrying shield, swords, and daggers
The change of policy initiated by the latter
shall be covered in due course; but Shahaji now thought it safe to
leave his service and go to the Nizamshah, his old master. He
received back his Poona mansab to which was apparently added Patas.
It also seems that the Nizamshahi was threatened at this time by
Shahjahan and Shahaji, being called by the Nizamshah, thought it
proper to join his old master. The Poona pergana with Patas was
given him again and he was sent against the advancing Mogul force.
Shahaji remained in this service till the fall of Nizamshahi in
1636, with the exception of a short interval, when he had gone
over to the Moguls (covered below) .
 Source for text on Shivaji's
birth to 1636 inclusive: C V Vaidya.
From Jijabai, Shahaji already had an elder son
in Sambhaji. When settled in Bangalore, Shahaji took on a second
wife called Tukabai, from the Mohite family. This act has been
attributed as the reason why Jijabai moved away, along with her son,
Shivaji, to their estate in Pune. But historians differ on this.
Some say that it was regular practice in those days for people
of higher social standing to have more than two wives, so Jijabai
couldn't possibly have been displeased on this account, and she
had agreed to move to Pune only to manage Shahaji's estates there
(because, as per the treaty with Bijapur, Shahaji wasn't to enter
the boundaries of the old Ahmednagar kingdom lest he decided to
rebel again). Sambhaji stayed on with his father Shahaji, and his
stepmother, Tukabai, while Shivaji grew up in the wild lands of
Pune under the care of his mother, Jijabai, and his guardian (and
the manager of his estates), Dadoji Kondeo.
Later, when Shivaji grew into manhood, he
challenged the very court of Bijapur, where his father Shahaji was
a courtier. In all probability Shahaji supported his son's activities,
due to which, for a brief period, Shahaji even had to face confinement
in Bijapuri prison. The Bijapuri forces even invaded Shahaji's estates
at Bangalore and Pune. But his brave sons, Sambhaji at Bangalore and
Shivaji at Pune, stoically repelled these attacks. Soon the Bijapur
court reached a compromise of sorts and Shahaji was released from
prison. During this period Sambhaji was killed, treacherously
murdered as historians say, by Afzal Khan, a fellow Bijapur courtier
and Shahaji's most bitter rival. But Shivaji had his revenge when he
killed Afzal Khan in an later encounter.
Shahaji's son Ekoji (or Vyankoji) from Tukabai
went on to establish the royal Bhosala dynasty at Thanjavur (in
Tamil Nadu state, south India). Shahaji died in an accident when
he was thrown from his horse. Shahaji died in 1665.
There are different versions of the Bhosale origins.
Some (including Shivaji) claimed descent from the Sisodiya clan of
Chittor, in Rajasthan, while one historian, Dr Ramchandra Dhere, has
even claimed their origins from the Hoysalas of Karnataka (Bhosale-Bhosala
being a distortion of Hoysala). But the Rajput theory seems better
Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was the founder of the
Some of the Bhosale genealogical claims are as
Note: From an enquiry by Pandit Sukhdeo Prasadji,
prime minister of Udaipur, it appears that "the name Bhosaji,
does not occur in their genealogical tables nor is it common among
Rajputs". It is probable that this name was inserted by
pedigree-writers to explain the surname .
Thanjavur stone inscription (surprisingly
very different from Maratha records)
Venkoji - Sharabhoji (came to southern India) -
Mahasena - Ekashiva - Ramachandra - Bhimaraya - Ekoji - Variha -
EkojI II - Brahmaji - Shahaji - Ambaji - Parasoji - Babaji -
Maloji - Shahaji - Ekoji or Vyankoji (first Maratha king of
The Jintikars of Gwalior give the following
Bakhtaji (came to southern India from the north) -
Nagoji - Ekoji/Vyankoji - Babaji - Maloji - ShahajI - Sambhaji
(elder brother of Shivaji) - Umaji - Parsoji (may not be a real
son) - Jintikar Bhosales.
Note 1: the 'Rajput Theory' puts forward an
alternative version of Shivaji's history, and this is available to
read via the link in the sidebar, right.
Note 2: As per the History of the Marathas
by C A Kincaid and Rao Bahadur D B Parasnis, Lakshman Singh was the
ancestor of the house of Udaipur. One of the family, Devrajji by
name, fled to the Deccan after a quarrel with the Rana of Udaipur.
There he and his descendants assumed the name of Bhosle from the
family fief of Bhosavat in Udaipur. Another story is that two
brothers, Kheloji and Malkamaji or Maloji, came together from
Udaipur to offer their services as free lances (hence the word
freelancer) to the king of Ahmadnagar. Khelkamaji or Kheloji died in
battle. Malkamaji was drowned while bathing in a river. Malkamaji's
son Babaji purchased the Patilki or headship of the village of Verul
near Daulatabad. Babaji had two sons, Maloji and Vithoji, who were
the real founders of the greatness of the Bhosle family.
All genealogies are pretty conflicting, but there
is a common lineage amongst all the Maratha genealogies, ie. from
Babaji to Maloji to Shahaji to Shivaji.
There is a lot of controversy about whether the
Bhosales were indeed descendents branching out from the famous rajput
clan of the Sisodias. The Sisodiyas in turn claim to belong to the
earliest of the ruling dynasties (the 'Suryavanshis' or descendents
of the Solar dynasty from Ishvaku and the Raghu vanshis of the
Ramayana) from ancient India. The Sisodiya clan boasts of great kings
like Rana Sangha and Rana Pratap and a connection from them to the
reviver of Hindu fortunes (Shivaji) after a long period of Islamic
rule is indeed remarkable.
It is alleged by many historians, such as Sir J Sarkar,
that Gaga Bhatt, the Brahmin from Benaras, contrived Shivaji's genealogy
for the Sisodiyas, in order to prove him a Kshatriya (warrior), when
in reality he was of the shudra (peasant) stock, so that he could be crowned
officially. But many historians including the contemporaries of Shivaji have
attested to the fact that Shivaji was indeed a Rajput Kshatriya. Some
of the notables amongst them were:
Shivabharata of Paramananda: Shivaji and Shahji
are of the Ikshvaku lineage, just like the Sisodiyas.
Parnalaparvata grahanakhyana states that Shivaji
is a Sisodia.
Hindi poet Bhushan speaks of the Bhosales being
In his letter to Sultan Adilshah, Shahji states
he is a Rajput.
Mughal historian Khafi Khan describes Shivaji as
a descendent of the ranas of Chittor. (Khafi Khan was a very harsh critic
of Shivaji and has even personalised his accounts, condemning Shivaji to
hell. Khafi Khan has claimed that though Shivaji's ancestors did come from
the family of ranas of Chittor, they (Dilip Singh) were their illegitimate
offspring. But Khafi Khan was a Islamic historian and most of his accounts
of Shivaji are very harsh and biased).
An intelligence dispatch by the East India Company
from 28 November 1659 reports: "Sevagy (Shivaji), a great rashpoote
(Rajput) issues forth from his fort of Rayguhr (Raigad) to strike blows on
the emperor, Duccan, Golconda and the Portuguese".
Tod and Ojha, who had access to the Rajput records,
claimed that as per those records there is a mention of the Bhosles
descending from Ajay Singh, the uncle of Vir Hammir.
Radha Madhava Vilasa Champu by the poet Jayarama
(written in the court of Shahaji at Banglur, 1654) describes Shivaji as
descending from the Sisodias of Chittor. Jayarama's poetry was
composed much before Shivaji's coronation.
The fort of Raigad which was the base of Shivaji in 1659
Note: We find that this same Rajput descent has been
mentioned by Jayaram who, years before Shivaji's coronation, wrote a
poem on Shahaji. Therein he says that Shahaji was descended from Dalip,
born in the family of the Rana who was the foremost among all kings of
the earth. This Dalip was, we find, a grandson of Lakshmanasen, rana
of Chitod, who came to the throne in 1303.
One of those sons of Ajay Singh, Sajjan Singh, founded
the Bhosale clan in Maharashtra.
Sajjan Singh was considered to be the patriarch of
the Nagpur Bhosales. According to the Chitnis bakhar, after the death
of Shivaji, (with his sons, Sambhaji under house arrest in Panhala
and Rajaram being absent), Sabaji Bhosale of Nagpur, who was serving
in Shivaji's army, performed the final rites for Shivaji, which is
possible only for a relative.
Moreover, Shahu, Shivaji's grandson was childless,
so he wanted to make one of the Nagpur Bhosales his successor (to
the Maratha throne of Satara), before finally settling for Rajaram's
descendent, as he was closer from amongst Shahu's kin. Again this can
be possible if the Nagpur Bhosales were indeed relatives of the
Bhosales of Satara.
From this it can be seen that there are several
reasons for the theory that Shivaji did indeed have Rajput genes
and those of the Sisodiyas in particular.
The fort of Devgiri, later known as Daultabad, eleven kilometres
north-west of Aurangabad
Duff, James Grant - History of the
Mahrathas, Exchange Press, Bombay
Kincaid, C A & Rao Bahadur D B Parasnis -
A History of the Maratha People, Humphrey Milford Oxford