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European Kingdoms

Eastern Mediterranean


Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire
Rival Eastern Emperors in Trebizond (AD 1204-1461)

In AD 395, the Roman empire finally split permanently, creating formal Eastern Roman and Western Roman empires, acknowledging what had existed in practise for many years.

Claimants to the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) throne set up rival powerbases, including this one in the Pontic Greek cities and regions of Trebizond, Sinope, and Paphlagonia. Trebizond was the last of the Byzantine territories to fall to the Ottoman empire, earning it the occasional title of the last Greek empire.

Eastern Roman Emperor Basil II in iconography

(Information by Peter Kessler, and from External Link: History of the Byzantine Empire (Live Science).)

1204 - 1222

Alexius I Comnenus

1222 - 1235

Andronicus I Gidus

1235 - 1238

John I Axuch

1238 - 1263

Manuel I

1263 - 1266

Andronicus II

1266 - 1280


1280 - 1297

John II

1297 - 1330

Alexius II

1330 - 1332

Andronicus III

Retook Epirus.


Manuel II

1332 - 1340


1340 - 1341

Irene Palaeologina

1341 - 1342

Anna Comnena

Also ruled for a short time in early 1341.



First rule.

1342 - 1344

John III

1344 - 1349



1349 - 1390

Alexius III

1390 - 1416

Manuel III

1416 - 1429

Alexius IV

1429 - 1459

John IV

1459 - 1461

David Komnenos


Trebizond falls to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II when Emperor David Komnenos surrenders. Coming eight years after the fall of Constantinople, it marks the final end of the Eastern Roman empire.

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