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Near East Kingdoms

Ancient Anatolia


Kingdom of Armenia Sophene
c.220 - 90 BC

Armenia Sophene was a short-lived division of Armenia proper, and one which seems to be very poorly documented. It was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in territory which, in the second millennium BC had been part of the state of Ishuwa and following that the neo-Hittite state of Kummuhu.

c.220 BC

Armenia is divided into Armenia and Armenia Sophene.

c.220 - 212/1 BC


Satrap of Greater Armenia, Sophene & Commagene. Murdered.

211 - ? BC


190 BC

Rome defeats the Seleucids at Magnesia. The Armenians declare their independence the following year with the main kingdom being ruled by a native dynasty, the Artashesids.

c.170 BC


? - ? BC

An unknown number of rulers.

? - 90 BC


90 BC

Armenia Sophene is reabsorbed by Armenia.

AD 56

Tiridates, a Parthian prince, has been placed on the throne of Armenia without Rome's agreement, and Rome and Parthia go to war. Rome enjoys some initial success and manages to impose its own vassal ruler in the form of Tigranes V, while placing another vassal in command of Armenia Sophene. However, in the winter of AD 62 Vologases I of Parthia manages to surround a Roman army near Rhandeia (on the Arsanias, a tributary of the Euphrates) and forces it to capitulate.

c.56 - 63


Protected by Rome.


With Armenia all but a Parthian territory, Rome is forced to accept an Arsacid ruler in the form of Tiridates II. He travels to Rome in AD 66 to receive the crown in person from Emperor Nero. However, Rome ensures it has its portion of the spoils by annexing Armenia Sophene and Little, or Lesser Armenia.

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