The Parish Church of St Clement Eastcheap
is united with St Martin Orgar and sits on the very south-eastern
edge of King William Street, overlooking Cannon Street. It is one of
two St Clement churches in London which claims to be mentioned in
the rhyme, 'Oranges and Lemons', the less likely one being St Clement Danes
Westminster. A St Clement is first mentioned in 1067, possibly this
one, while its first definite reference dates from the reign of
Henry III (1216-1272).
The church was repaired in 1630, and beautified
three years later. The Great Fire of London in 1666 destroyed
it, and it was rebuilt in 1683-1687, probably by Christopher
Wren, although for once this was not recorded. In the 1830s, the
church was under threat of demolition, along with St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange
and St Benet Fink, but unlike those two, St Clement survived. The
church was heavily renovated in 1872 and minor Blitz damage repaired
St Martin Orgar stands on Martin Lane,
just south of St Clement, and very close to Cannon Street. The
church is referred to in 'Oranges and Lemons' in the line "'You owe
me five farthings', say the bells of St Martin's'. The first record
for the church seems to date no earlier than 1469, while in 1630 the
steeple was repaired. It was badly damaged by the Great Fire, with
only part of the nave and the tower surviving. It was not included
in the list of those to be repaired.
Instead, a group of French Protestants obtained
the lease for the church, repaired it, and used it as their place of
worship. Most of the remaining church was demolished in 1820, by
which time it had probably fallen into disuse. Only the tower
survived, and was rebuilt in 1851 to make it what it is today,
although its conversion into private residences may have occurred
later. The former churchyard also survives next to the tower.
St Laurence Pountney is on Laurence
Poultney Hill (formerly Candlewick Street), immediately west of
Martin Lane. First recorded in 1534, the dedication was for Lord
Mayor Sir John de Pulteney (1333-1334). He built a chapel in honour
of Corpus Christi and St John the Baptist adjoining the church, and
founded a college there for a master and seven chaplains. Both church
and college were destroyed by the Great Fire, and neither was rebuilt.
Today, only the churchyard remains.
All Hallows-the-Less formerly existed on
the southern side of what is now Upper Thames Street, approximately
under this modern footbridge at the bottom of Laurence Poultney
Hill. Also known as All-Hallows-upon-the-Cellar, it was built over
an arch which led down to the Thames and Cold Harbour House. Its
first mention is in 1240, and it was expanded in 1387 at the cost of
two neighbouring houses, but it was destroyed by the Great Fire and
not selected for rebuilding.
All Hallows-the-Great was also on the
south side of Upper Thames Street, just fifty metres (yards) or so
west of All Hallows-the-Less. It was first mentioned in a charter by
Gilbert, bishop of London (1100-1107), and apparently served seamen.
It was also known by various names: All Hallows the More, or Thames
Street, or in the Hay, or in the Ropery (the district in which it
lay). Destroyed in the Great Fire, it was rebuilt by 1684 and
demolished in 1894 for road widening.
St Mary Bothaw was on Dowgate
Hill, which connects Upper Thames Street to Cannon Street, and the
church overlooked the south side of Cannon Street itself. The
dedication developed from its being close to a berthage for ships on
the Thames, while the church also housed the tomb of the first lord
mayor of London, Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londenstane. The church was
destroyed by the Great Fire and not rebuilt, and the site is now
occupied by Cannon Street Station.
St John the Baptist upon Walbrook, first
mentioned in 1150, was opposite St Mary Bothaw, at the end of Cloak
Lane. 'Cloak', from the Latin 'cloaca', meant the open sewer which
ran down the street to empty into the Walbrook. The church was
destroyed by the Great Fire and not rebuilt. The railway station's
construction in 1866 swallowed most of the churchyard. The burials
were collected and re-interred in the vault beneath this monument
St Martin Vintry once stood in what is now
Whittington Gardens, between Upper Thames Street and the church of
St Michael Paternoster Royal on Queen Street. Its dedication comes
from its association with local vintners. The church was first
mentioned in the eleventh century, and it was rebuilt in 1399.
Restoration work was carried out in the mid-fifteenth century, but
the church was destroyed by the Great Fire and it was not one of
those selected to be rebuilt.