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European Kingdoms

Ancient Greece

 

 

 

Athens

The site that later became Athens was occupied from at least as early as 5000 BC. The first signs of habitation were found at the Cave of Schist. By the sixteenth century BC the settlement had become an important centre of Mycenaean civilisation, and a major fortress existed at the site. Much of Greece remained under Minoan domination until around the fifteenth century BC, at which point its Mycenaean inhabitants gained independence and established a series of powerful city states of their own.

At the end of this period, by the twelfth century BC, Athens became the bolt-hole for those Mycenaeans who remained in Greece, possibly along with a population of Pelasgians, while the rest of the country was invaded by the barbarian Dorians from the north. Athens found itself cut off by this invasion, as the rest of Greece (and the Middle East) entered a dark age. The city endured an impoverished culture, retaining only a local sphere of influence and limited trade until the end of the dark age.

Once a full recovery was underway in the eighth and seventh centuries, Athens was able to trade with the Phoenician city states, and with Syria as a whole, with papyrus being imported from there and locations being used in stories about the Greek gods. The Greeks imported the Phoenician alphabet and eastern artistic influences, and were firmly a part of the trade system of the region. By this time they had ditched their (semi-legendary) kings and were well on the way to creating the world's earliest-known democracy.

fl c.1500 BC

Actaeus

First king of Attica, which was inherited by Cecrops.

Cecrops I

Half-man half-serpent. Regarded as the first king of Athens.

c.1470 BC

During his reign of fifty-six years, Crecops is credited with deifying Zeus, adopting Athena as the patron goddess of the city, and introducing literacy and marriage. During this period, Greece is still under the domination of the Minoans, but the volcano at the heart of the island of Thera erupts around this time, ending Minoan dominance of the Mycenaeans. The various Mycenaean city states begin to dominate not only Greece but the islands of the Aegean and Crete itself.

Erysichthon

Son. Predeceased his father and did not rule.

Cranaus

Athens' wealthiest citizen. Reigned for 9 or 10 years.

Cranaus is deposed by Amphictyon who is in turn deposed by Erichthonius. Amphictyon is the son of Deucalion, who apparently flees to Athens to escape a flood. His son marries a daughter of Cranaus.

Amphictyon

Son-in-law. Usurped the throne. Ruled 10 or 12 years. Deposed.

Erichthonius / Erichthonios

Brother. Drove out Amphictyon.

Pandion I

Son.

Erechtheus

Son. His grandson was Menestheus, king of Athens.

Cecrops II

Son. Ruled for 40 years.

c.1300/2600 BC

Pandion II

Father of Lycus of Lycia in Greek mythology, and of Aegeus.

Metion

Seized the throne.

Upon the death of Pandion II (a legendary king who is perhaps confused with an earlier namesake in his possible dating to circa 2600 BC), Metion seizes the throne. The four sons of Pandion wrest back control of Athens and divide control of the city state between them, with Aegeus becoming king. One of the brothers, Lycus, is also claimed as the founder of Lycia.

Aegeus / Aigeus / Aegeas / Aigeas

Son of Pandion. King of Athens, and father of Theseus.

Medea, the abandoned wife of Jason of Iolkos, flees to Thebes and then Athens, where she marries King Aegeus. When his son, Theseus, returns Medea leaves for Kolkis, where she kills her usurper uncle and restores her father to his throne.

Aegeus and the Oracle
Aegeus consults the Oracle at Delphi for advice regarding his lack of a male heir

fl c.1200 BC

Theseus

Son. Aged 70, raped the teenaged Helen of Sparta.

1200 - 1140 BC

Mycenaean power is gradually eroded by the invading Dorians from the north, with domination coming by about 1140 BC. The surviving Ionic-speaking Mycenaeans gather and flourish in Athens, or in conquered Mediterranean territories which probably include Phillistia.

fl c.1183 BC

Menestheus

Son of Peteus, son of Orneus, son of Erechtheus.

c.1193 - 1183 BC

Agamemnon of Mycenae calls to arms the forces of his allied Achaean kingdoms, including Athens, to take part in the Trojan War. Menestheus, king of Athens since Theseus travelled to the Underworld, takes fifty black ships in support of the siege of Troy but seems to be rather shy of being involved in the fighting himself. After the war is over, he sails to Mimas and then Melos, where he becomes king, ruling jointly over that and Athens until his death.

Demophon

Son of Theseus. Fought in the Trojan War.

Oxyntes

Son.

Ampheidas

Son. Reigned for 1 year.

Thymoetes

Brother. The last descendant of Theseus to rule.

c.1126 - 1089 BC

Melanthus

Former king of Messenia. Succeeded or overthrew Thymoetes.

c.1089 - 1068 BC

Codros / Codrus

Last king.

Codros sacrifices himself to prevent an oracle regarding the Doric conquest of the city from coming true. In doing so, he preserves the Mycenaean bloodline that survives in Athens when all of Greece has fallen to the Dorians. His heirs become hereditary Archons, or lords, of Athens, with his son, Medros, the first of these.

Hereditary Archons of Athens
c.1068 - 753 BC

The first step towards establishing the earliest known democracy (although the Athenians of the time were not to know that this is where their actions would lead them) was the abolition of the kingship around 1068 BC. In its place the position of archon, or lord, of Athens was created. In other Greek cities the position was that of the chief magistrate, but in Athens it was a life role, and the power held was virtually equivalent to that of a king. Medros, the son of the last king, became the first archon.

1068 - 1048 BC

Medon

Son of Codros. First hereditary archon.

1048 - 1012 BC

Acastus

1012 - 993 BC

Archippus

993 - 952 BC

Thersippus

952 - 922 BC

Phorbas

922 - 892 BC

Megacles

c.900 BC

Iron Age burials from this point onwards, in the Kerameikos and other locations, are often richly provided for and demonstrate that Athens has already become one of the leading centres of trade and prosperity in the region. This may be due to its secure stronghold on the Acropolis and its access to the sea which give it a distinct advantage over inland cities such as Sparta and Thebes.

892 - 864 BC

Diognetus

864 - 845 BC

Pherecles

845 - 825 BC

Ariphron

824 - 797 BC

Thespieus

796 - 778 BC

Agamestor

778 - 755 BC

Aeschylus

755 - 753 BC

Alcmaeon

Last hereditary archon.

753 BC

The post of hereditary archon is abolished in favour of an elected system.

Elected Archons of Athens (Classical Period)
753 BC - 148 BC

The virtual kingship of the previous archons was abolished in favour of an elected official. Initially the term of office was ten years, and the individuals who held office under these terms are known as the decennial archons. In 683 BC the term of office was limited to just one year, the annual archons, with each candidate being selected from amongst the members of the Areopagus council. The polemarch headed the city's defensive forces, while the archon basileus handled the religious duties, including the ceremonial functions remaining from the former kingship.

753 - 743 BC

Charops

First of the decennial archons.

c.750 BC

By this time the Greek world has largely taken shape as a collection of city states, often at war with one another, but also feeling certain common ties of language, religion, and customs.

743 - 733 BC

Aesimides

733 - 723 BC

Clidicus

723 - 713 BC

Hippomenes

713 - 703 BC

Leocrates

703 - 693 BC

Apsander

693 - 683 BC

Eryxias

Last of the decennial archons.

682 - 681 BC

Creon

First of the annual archons.

681 - 680 BC

Lysiades

680 - 679 BC

Tlesias

679 - 671 BC

?

Eight archons, names unknown.

671 - 670 BC

Leostratus

670 - 669 BC

?

Name unknown.

669 - 668 BC

Pisistratus

668 - 667 BC

Autosthenes

667 - 664 BC

?

Three archons, names unknown.

664 - 663 BC

Miltiades

663 - 659 BC

?

Four archons, names unknown.

659 - 658 BC

Miltiades

658 - 645 BC

?

Thirteen archons, names unknown.

645 - 644 BC

Dropides

644 - 639 BC

?

Five archons, names unknown.

639 - 638 BC

Damasias

638 - 634 BC

?

Four archons, names unknown.

634 - 633 BC

Epaenetus

633 - 632 BC

?

Name unknown.

632 - 631 BC

Megacles

Subdued an attempted coup.

632 BC

Cylon (or Kylon or Kulon) is an Athenian noble and previous Olympic Games winner. He attempts a coup with support from Megara, of which his father-in-law, Theagenes, is tyrant. The coup is opposed, and Cylon and his supporters take refuge in Athena's temple on the Acropolis. Cylon and his brother escape, but his followers are cornered and killed by the archons, led by Megacles. This is the first reliably datable event in Athenian history.

Athenian black figure pottery
Athenian black figure pottery began to be created around 630 BC

631 - 624 BC

?

Seven archons, names unknown.

624 - 623 BC

Aristaechmus

623 - 621 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

621 - 620 BC

Draco

Reformed the city's legal code.

621/620 BC

During the 39th Olympiad, and as a partial result of the attempted coup of 632 BC, Draco reforms the laws of Athens, establishing a legal code which replaces the previous system of oral law and blood feuds with court-enforceable laws. The laws are viewed as being harsh, hence the term 'draconian', but are generally welcomed by the people who are no longer at the mercy of nobles who could make up the law as they saw fit.

620 - 615 BC

?

Five archons, names unknown.

615 - 614 BC

Heniochides

614 - 605 BC

?

Nine archons, names unknown.

605 - 604 BC

Aristocles

604 - 600 BC

?

Four archons, names unknown.

600 - 599 BC

Critias

599 - 597 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

597 - 596 BC

Cypselus

596 - 595 BC

Telecles

595 - 594 BC

Philombrotus

594 - 593 BC

Solon

593 BC

The nobles of Athens have been growing increasingly worried by the expanding body of complaints from the commoners of Athens. Solon is given extraordinary powers to reform the state and ease the tensions between the different classes. He passes economic and political reforms that lay the foundations for the city's later greatness.

593 - 592 BC

Dropides

592 - 591 BC

Eucrates

591 - 590 BC

Simon

590 - 589 BC

The city is briefly in a state of anarchy, probably as tensions continue to grow between the classes. This is despite Solon's reforms which have eased the situation somewhat but not removed it.

589 - 588 BC

Phormion

588 - 587 BC

Philippus

587 - 586 BC

?

Name unknown.

586 - 585 BC

Another period of anarchy grips the city and no archon is elected during it.  Fighting takes place between the Hill (peasants on small farms), Shore (artisans and traders), and Plain (nobles) factions.

585 - 582 BC

?

Three archons, names unknown.

582 - 581 BC

Damasias

581 - 580 BC

Damasias

Second term of office. Expelled.

580 - 578 BC

Damasias is expelled during his second term of office. During a renewed spell of anarchy in Athens, a committee of ten fulfils the role of archon in 580-579 BC, but apparently it fails to survive beyond that. The city remains ungoverned until 578 BC.

578 - 577 BC

?

Name unknown.

577 - 576 BC

Archestratidas

576 - 570 BC

?

Six archons, names unknown.

570 - 569 BC

Aristomenes

569 - 566 BC

?

Three archons, names unknown.

566 - 565 BC

Hippocleides

565 - 561 BC

?

Four archons, names unknown.

561 - 560 BC

Comeas

561 BC

Fighting in Athens continues between the Hill (peasants on small farms), Shore (artisans and traders), and Plain (nobles) factions. Eventually, the leader of the hill faction, Peisistratus, gains the upper hand. Athens falls under his rule as tyrant (although tyrant should be used in the Greek sense, not its modern sense). Peisistratus dominates Athens as a benevolent dictator, and becomes highly popular thanks to making the city very wealthy and powerful.

561 - 556 BC

Peisistratus / Pisistratus

Tyrant. Expelled, but returned the following year.

560 - 559 BC

Hegestratus

First archon elected under the tyrant's rule.

559 - 558 BC

Hegesias

558 - 556 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

556 - 555 BC

Hegesias

556 - 555 BC

Peisistratus is briefly expelled, but returns the following year, regaining control over Athens.

Peisistratus coins
Two coins issued during the tyranny of Peisistratus in Athens

555 - 550 BC

Pisistratus

Restored tyrant. Expelled for the second time.

555 - 554 BC

Euthidemus

554 - 548 BC

?

Six archons, names unknown.

c.550 - 546 BC

Peisistratus is expelled again, but once again returns to regain his control of Athens, this time four years later. At the third attempt he fully establishes his, apparently benevolent, dictatorship of the city.

548 - 547 BC

Erxicleides

547 - 546 BC

Thespius

546 - 528 BC

Pisistratus

Restored as tyrant for the second time.

546 - 545 BC

Phormion

545 - 535 BC

?

Ten archons, names unknown.

536 - 535 BC

Phrynaeus

535 - 533 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

533 - 532 BC

Thericles

532 - 528 BC

?

Four archons, names unknown.

528 BC

Peisistratus dies peacefully and is succeeded by his two sons, who apparently rule jointly. They continue their father's policies, at first successfully, but Hipparchus begins to abuse his power.

528 - c.510 BC

Hippias

Son and successor to Peisistratus as tyrant. Assassinated.

520 - c.514 BC

Hipparchus

Brother. Co-tyrant. Overthrown.

528 - 527 BC

Philoneus

527 - 526 BC

Onetorides

526 - 525 BC

Hippias

525 - 524 BC

Cleisthenes

Grandson of the king of Sicyon.

524 - 523 BC

Miltiades

523 - 522 BC

Calliades

522 - 521 BC

Pisistratus

521 - 518 BC

?

Three archons, names unknown.

518 - 517 BC

Hebron

517 - 511 BC

?

Six archons, names unknown.

c.514 BC

Hipparchus is assassinated by Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who earn themselves the title of the Tyrannicides. In retaliation, Hippias has them executed, but he becomes bitter, and his rule takes a turn towards increased cruelty.

c.511 - 510 BC

Hippias is overthrown with the help of Sparta, and the beginnings of Athenian democracy begin to be established. A radical politician of the aristocratic class, named Cleisthenes, takes charge and begins to establish democracy in the city.

511 - 510 BC

Harpactides

First independent archon since 561 BC.

510 - 509 BC

Scamandrius

509 - 508 BC

Lysagoras

508 - 507 BC

Isagoras

508 BC

Cleisthenes

Competed with Isagoras. Expelled by Cleomenes I of Sparta.

508/507 BC

The populace of Athens creates the world's first democracy. Although it is copied by other Greek cities, it is the best recorded of them all, and the most stable. It is handled on a very restricted basis, with women and anyone without two Athenian-born parents ineligible to vote. In fact, the position of women in this democracy is surprisingly low. It is possible that the world's first face veil is invented for women in Athens.

School of Athens by Rafael
The School of Athens by Italian Renaissance artist Rafael (1483-1520)

While the date of 508 BC (or 507 BC) is given here, there is a great deal of uncertainty about the precise moment at which Athenian democracy emerges, with dates between 510-500 BC being given. As it is known that Cleisthenes champions this radical political reform in the face of the increasingly hard rule of the tyrant Pisistratus, it seems appropriate to place it here.

507 - 506 BC

Alcmeon

506 - 504 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

504 - 503 BC

Acestorides

503 - 501 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

501 - 500 BC

Hermocreon

500 - 499 BC

Smyrus

499 BC

Athens sends troops to aid the Ionian islands in their rebellion against Persian hegemony. This dangerous move leads to two Persian invasions of Greece itself, the first coming in 490 BC.

499 - 498 BC

Lacratides

498 - 497 BC

?

Name unknown.

497 - 496 BC

Archias

496 - 495 BC

Hipparchus

495 - 494 BC

Philippus

494 - 493 BC

Pythocritus

493 - 492 BC

Themistocles

Archon and pre-eminent Athenian.

492 - 491 BC

Diognetus

491 - 490 BC

Hybrilides

490 BC

Following the Persian reconquest of Salamis and in response to the Athenian support of the Ionian Revolt, Darius I invades mainland Greece. Athens is sacked, but only after its citizens withdraw safely, and subsequently the invaders are defeated by Athens and Plataea at the Battle of Marathon in August or September of the year. During this period, Callimachus and Miltiades are strategoi for Athens.

490 - 489 BC

Phaenippus

489 - 488 BC

Aristides the Just

488 - 487 BC

Anchises

487 - 486 BC

Telesinus

486 - 485 BC

Ceures

485 - 484 BC

Philocrates

484 - 483 BC

Leostratus

483 - 482 BC

Nicodemus

483 BC

A rich seam of lead is found to the south of Athens. Silver is located within this seam, making Athens suddenly a very rich city. It also becomes a very slave-rich society, as workers are needed to dig the mines.

482 - 481 BC

?

Name unknown.

481 - 480 BC

Hypsichides

480 - 479 BC

Calliades

480 - 479 BC

FeatureInvading Greece in 480 BC, the Persians subdue the Thracian tribes (except for the Satrai, precursors to the Bessoi) and the Macedonians. Then the vast army of the Persian King Xerxes makes its way southwards and is swiftly engaged by Athens and Sparta in the Vale of Tempe. The Persians are subsequently stymied by a mixed force of Greeks - which includes Athenians, Corinthians, Helots, Mycenaeans, Thebans, and Thespians - led by Sparta under King Leonidas at Thermopylae. (These events are depicted somewhat colourfully - but no less impressively for that - in the 2007 film, 300.)

Athens, as the leader of the coalition of city states known as the Delian League, fights the Persian navy at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis, the latter being a resounding Greek victory. It leaves much of the Persian navy destroyed and Xerxes is forced to retreat to Asia, leaving his army in Greece under Mardonius (with the naval battles being shown to superb graphic effect in the 2014 sequel film, 300: Rise of an Empire, although it does contain a great many historical inaccuracies). As a reward for his support of Xerxes during the war, the exiled Demaratus of Sparta is granted a satrapy of his own in Pergamum, whilst Queen Artemisia I of Caria is sent to Ephesus to care for the sons of Xerxes. The following year, Mardonius meets the Greeks in a final battle. The Spartans, now at full strength, lead a pan-Greek army at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC which decisively defeats the Persians and ends the Greco-Persian War.

480 - 400? BC

The northern coastal region of the Persian satrapy of Katpatuka is carved off to form a new province called Pontus. The exact date at which this occurs is unknown, but it is an established fact by the time of Xenophon of Athens in the first half of the fourth century BC.

479 - 478 BC

Xanthippus

Father of Pericles.

478 - 477 BC

Timosthenes

477 - 476 BC

Adimantus

476 - 475 BC

Phaedon

475 - 474 BC

Dromoclides

474 - 473 BC

Acestorides

473 - 472 BC

Menon

472 - 471 BC

Chares

471 - 470 BC

Praxiergus

470 - 469 BC

Demotion

469 - 468 BC

Apsephion

468 - 467 BC

Theagenides

468 - 459 BC

Athens wrests Lycia from the Persians, and it is perhaps this Athenian acquisition of more territory which prompts Admitos of Epirus to oppose Themistocles (the former archon) and his command of Athenian affairs. The issue is rested upon the peaceful death of Themistocles.

Themistocles
The Athenian politician and general Themistocles (archon in 493-492 BC) helped build up the city's navy so that it was a force to be reckoned with when the Persians invaded Greece - thanks to this the Athenian Admiral Cimon was able to defeat the Persians on the banks of the River Eurymedon in Pamphylia in 465 BC

467 - 466 BC

Lysistratus

466 - 465 BC

Lysanias

465 - 464 BC

Lysitheus

Sophanes fulfils the role of strategos (military general).

464 - 463 BC

Archedemides

463 - 462 BC

Tlepolemus

Cimon fulfils the role of strategos.

462 - 461 BC

Conon

Assassinated.

461 - 460 BC

Euthippus

460 - 459 BC

Phrasicles

460 BC

The First Peloponnesian War, between Athens and Sparta, begins. Pleistoanax of Sparta advocates peace, but in 446 BC he is charged by the Spartans with taking a bribe, probably from Pericles of Athens. This is allegedly to encourage him to withdraw from the plain of Eleusis in Attica after leading the Peloponnesian forces there following the withdrawal of Euboea and Megara from the Athenian empire. As a result of the charge he is exiled. His father is regent in his stead. In fact, Pericles had probably been offering good peace terms. In 428 BC, Pleistoanax is recalled and restored in obedience to the advice of the Delphic oracle.

459 - 458 BC

Philocles

458 - 457 BC

Habron

457 - 456 BC

Mnesitheides

456 - 455 BC

Callias

Later involved in the Peace of Callias (447 BC).

455 - 454 BC

Sosistratus

454/453 BC

An Athenian army under the command of Myronides marches into Thessaly, being joined by allied Boeotians and Phocians along the way. The campaign is partly in revenge for losses suffered in a previous campaign, but also by a wish to restore Orestes to his native city. Orestes' late father had been an Athenian ally. The campaign ends without a result, and the Athenians return home along with Orestes.

454 - 453 BC

Ariston

453 - 452 BC

Lysicrates

453 - 438 BC

The Parthenon is constructed on the Acropolis ('high city' or citadel) in Athens as a symbol of the city's power in the Aegean. The costs of construction are paid for from the treasury of the Delian League of independent city states which Athens has commandeered (both the treasury and the league, turning it into the Athenian empire). It is during this period, guided by the legendary orator Pericles, that Athens achieves the height of its power and influence.

452 - 451 BC

Chaerephanes

451 - 450 BC

Antidotus

450 - 449 BC

Euthydemus

449 - 448 BC

Pedieus

448 - 447 BC

Philiscus

447 BC

The Peace of Callias brings the Greco-Persian Wars to an end. The treaty is named after the head of a wealthy Athenian family who is sent to conclude it with Artaxerxes I of Persia. To differentiate him from his grandfather and grandson who share the same name, this statesman is known as Callias II (archon in 456-455 BC).

447 - 446 BC

Timarchides

c.440s BC

'Some years' after the expedition by Myronides of 454 BC, Pericles of Athens summons a conference of all the Greeks to confer about the shrines destroyed by the Persians during the invasion of 480-479 BC. Among those invited to attend are the Thessalians, the Phthiot Achaeans (one of the few direct mentions of Phthia itself), the Oetaeans and the Malians. However, opposition by Sparta causes the project to be abandoned.

446 - 445 BC

Callimachus

445 - 444 BC

Lysimachides

445 BC

The First Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta comes to an end as peace is agreed. In the same year (or in 443 BC), Pericles is elected strategos after the assassination of Ephialtes. He holds the post continuously until 429 BC.

444 - 443 BC

Praxiteles

443 - 442 BC

Lysanias

443 - 429 BC

Pericles is a strategos for Athens for this period. His death in 429 BC brings this unusually long post to an end, but it has overseen a decline in the power of the archons in favour of the strategoi.

442 - 441 BC

Diphilus

441 - 440 BC

Timocles

440 - 439 BC

Morychides

439 - 438 BC

Glaucinus

438 - 437 BC

Theodorus

437 - 436 BC

Euthymenes

436 - 435 BC

Lysimachus

435 - 434 BC

Antiochides

434 - 433 BC

Crates

433 - 432 BC

Apseudes

432 - 431 BC

Pythodorus

431 - 430 BC

Euthydemus

431 - 404 BC

The Second Peloponnesian War pitches Athens against Sparta in all-out war as resentment grows at the Athenian dominance of Greece. Fortunes swing either way for several years.

Athenian inscription fragment
A fragment of an Athenian inscription dated about 425 BC which contains part of a list of archons, in this case six of them from the 520s BC

430 - 429 BC

Apollodorus

429 - 428 BC

Epameinon

428 - 427 BC

Diotimus

427 - 426 BC

Eucles

426 - 425 BC

Euthynus

425 - 424 BC

Stratocles

424 - 423 BC

Isarchus

423 - 422 BC

Aminias

422 - 421 BC

Alcaeus

421 - 420 BC

Aristion

420 - 419 BC

Astyphilus

419 - 418 BC

Archias

418 - 417 BC

Antiphon

417 - 416 BC

Euphemus

416 BC

Part of Athens' strategy during the Second Peloponnesian War is to capture the Corinthian colony of Syracuse. The expedition to achieve that is sent off in this year. The expedition has also been requested by the Elymi of Sicily to help in their ongoing struggle against the colony of Selinus.

416 - 415 BC

Arimnestus

415 - 414 BC

Charias

414 - 413 BC

Tisandrus

413 - 412 BC

Cleocritus

412 BC

During the Second Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, the failure of the former city and its allied corps of Messapian archers to take the Corinthian colony of Syracuse and the subsequent loss of thousands of troops almost brings the city and its empire to its knees. The Athenian strategoi are executed in Sicily, but the city is able to agree a beneficial trade deal with Macedonia to supply it with copious amounts of wood with which to rebuild the fleet.

412 - 411 BC

Callias

411 - 410 BC

Mnasilochus

Died in office.

411 BC

Sparta's acquisition of Persian gold sees the Athenian fleet starved of huge numbers of freelance rowers and soldiers, giving Sparta dominance both on land and, for the first time, at sea. Athens is defeated in the Second Peloponnesian War and Sparta is established as the greatest Greek power.

Writing at this time about the colonies of Graecia Magna, the reliable Greek historian Thucydides of Alimos (close to Athens), mentions the Siculi. He says that groups of Siculi still occupy the Italian mainland in his time. It is possible, given their close links in the past with the Itali (and therefore their close cousins the Morgetes), that both peoples could be Siculi in all but name.

410 - 409 BC

Glaucippus

409 - 408 BC

Diocles

408 - 407 BC

Euctemon

407 - 406 BC

Antigenes

406 BC

Construction of the Temple of the Erechtheum on the Acropolis in Athens is completed. It derives its name from a shrine dedicated to the legendary Greek hero, Erichthonius, and is possibly built by Mnesicles.

406 - 405 BC

Callias

405 - 404 BC

Alexias

404 - 403 BC

Pythodorus

Not recognised during Sparta dominance of Athens.

404 - 403 BC

Following Athens' total defeat in the Second Peloponnesian War, Sparta sets up the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants, which is naturally pro-Spartan and which oversees the exile of many prominent citizens. Pythodorus is not recognised as archon at a time when there is a high level of disenchantment with democracy. However, democracy is restored the following year, 403 BC, by a group of exiles led by General Thrasybulus.

403 - 402 BC

Eucleides

Athenian democracy is restored.

402 - 401 BC

Micon

401 - 400 BC

Xenaenetus

401 BC

A revolt against the Persian king is led by Cyrus, satrap of Asia Minor. He mobilises an army which also consists of ten thousand Greek mercenaries to attack his brother. Defeat leads to his death in October 401 BC at the Battle of Cunaxa.

Accompanying the many Greeks on this campaign is Xenephon, a notable Greek writer from Athens. He notes that (the now-Persian) Ecbatana is much smaller than the generous estimate given by Herodotus some half a century before him. Xenephon offers a very credible three hundred metres for each of the outer sides, and even claims that it has no walls other than that around the citadel at the very top of the hill. What Herodotus had termed walls (fortifications) could simply be painted terraces, foundations for the road, spiralling up around the hill and leading up to the palace, which at this time is certainly walled and is accented in gold. If the area around the outside of the hill where the road begins its rise is counted as part of the 'city' then its size would come much closer to Herodotus' claims.

400 - 399 BC

Laches

399 - 398 BC

Aristocrates

399 BC

Following the distress of suffering utter defeat in the Second Peloponnesian War, the type of disturbing free speech that the philosopher, Socrates, has long championed can no longer be tolerated. He is tried and condemned to death, with charges of mocking the gods being brought against him. His sentence is to drink poison. His pupil, Plato, later writes him into history as the world's first martyr to free speech.

398 - 397 BC

Euthycles

397 - 396 BC

Souniades

396 - 395 BC

Phormion

395- 394 BC

Diophandus

395 - 387 BC

At the start of the Corinthian War, Sparta fights against a coalition of four allied states; Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos; all initially backed by Persia and all riled by Sparta's imperialistic treatment of the rest of Greece.

394 - 393 BC

Ebulides

393 - 392 BC

Demostratus

392 - 391 BC

Philocles

391 - 390 BC

Nicoteles

391 BC

With the aid of Athens, Evagoras of Salamis leads a successful revolt against Persia and temporarily makes himself master of the island of Cyprus.

Coins issued by Evagoras
Two sides of a coin issued by Evagoras during his Athenian-supported rebellious reign

390 - 389 BC

Demostratus

389 - 388 BC

Antipatrus

388 - 387 BC

Pyrgion

387 - 386 BC

Theodotus

386 - 385 BC

Mystichides

387 BC

The Corinthian War against Sparta ends with the Peace of Antalcidas. Athens loses Lycia to the Persians and gives up its support of the Persian-occupied Ionian islands, but the period of peace allows the city to rebuild its defences and begin a resurgence of its former role as a power in Greece.

385 - 384 BC

Dexitheus

384 - 383 BC

Dietrephes

383 - 382 BC

Phanostratus

382 - 381 BC

Evandrus

381 - 380 BC

Demophilus

380 - 379 BC

Pytheas

379 - 378 BC

Nicon

378 - 377 BC

Nausinicus

377 - 376 BC

Calleas

376 - 375 BC

Charisandrus

375 - 374 BC

Hippodamas

374 - 373 BC

Socratides

373 - 372 BC

Asteius

372 - 371 BC

Alcisthenes

371 - 370 BC

Phrasicleides

371 BC

In an effort to solve the problem of post-Peloponnesian War conflicts, a pan-Greek conference is called. However, the arrogant Agesilaus II of Sparta picks a fight with Thebes. His fellow Spartan king, Cleombrotus, leads the allied Spartan-Peloponnesian army of about 700 Spartans and 1,300 allies (some reluctant) against a Theban army three times their number under Epaminondas at the Battle of Leuctra. Cleombrotus' death and the utter defeat of his army leads to the Helots being freed and Spartan dominance in Greece being ended forever.

370 - 369 BC

Dyscinitus

369 - 368 BC

Lysistratus

368 - 367 BC

Nausigenes

367 - 366 BC

Polyzelus

366 - 365 BC

Ciphisodorus

365 - 364 BC

Chion

364 - 363 BC

Timocrates

363 - 362 BC

Charicleides

362 - 361 BC

Molon

362 BC

Athens and Sparta, together with the Eleans and the Mantinaeans, are defeated by the Thebans at the Battle of Mantinea. The battle is fought on 4 July, with the Thebans being supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotian League. The Spartan defeat paves the way for Macedonian supremacy later in the century.

361 - 360 BC

Nicophemus

360 - 359 BC

Callimides

359 BC

The pretender to the Macedonian throne, Argaeus, attempts to secure the throne with Athenian support. The rightful king, Philip, persuades the Athenians not to interfere. Argaeus gathers his supporters, along with some freelance Athenians, and attempts to capture the capital by force but is repulsed. While retreating back to his headquarters at Methone, he is ambushed by Philip and defeated. He either dies during the fighting or is executed afterwards.

359 - 358 BC

Eucharistus

358 - 357 BC

Ciphisodotus

357 - 356 BC

Agathocles

356 - 355 BC

Elpines

355 - 354 BC

Callistratus

354 - 353 BC

Diotemus

353 - 352 BC

Thudemus

352 - 351 BC

Aristodemus

351 - 350 BC

Theellus

350 - 349 BC

Apollodorus

349 - 348 BC

Callimachus

348 - 347 BC

Theophilus

347 - 346 BC

Themistocles

346 - 345 BC

Archias

345 - 344 BC

Ebulus

344 - 343 BC

Lyciscus

343 - 342 BC

Pythodotus

342 - 341 BC

Sosigenes

341 - 340 BC

Nicomachus

340 - 339 BC

Theophrastus

339 - 338 BC

Lysimachides

338 BC

Philip II of Macedonia defeats the Greek states at the Battle of Chaeronea and gains overlordship over all of Greece, including Athens, Corinth and Sparta. Athens and other city states join the Corinthian League (or Hellenic League) which is formed by Phillip to unify the military forces at his command so that he can pressure Persia.

Phillip II of Macedonia
With his conquest of Greece, Phillip II laid down the foundations for the Hellenic empire

338 - 337 BC

Xaerondas

337 - 336 BC

Phrynichus

336 - 335 BC

Pythodilus

335 - 334 BC

Evaenetus

334 - 333 BC

Ctisicles

333 - 332 BC

Nicocrates

332 - 331 BC

Nicites

331 - 330 BC

Aristophanes

330 - 329 BC

Aristophon

329 - 328 BC

Ciphisophon

328 - 327 BC

Euthicritus

327 - 326 BC

Hegemon

326 - 325 BC

Chremes

325 - 324 BC

Andicles

324 - 323 BC

Hegesias

323 - 322 BC

Ciphisodorus

323 BC

Upon the death of Alexander his two successors are retained as figureheads while the empire is governed by Alexander's powerful generals. Perdiccas, the leading cavalry commander, is the first general to rule, carrying the title 'Regent of Macedonia', first with Meleager, head of the infantry officers, as his lieutenant, but alone after he has him murdered. The Corinthian League is subsequently dissolved (in 322 BC).

322 - 321 BC

Philocles

321 - 320 BC

Archippus

320 - 319 BC

Neaechmus

319 - 318 BC

Apollodorus

318 - 317 BC

Archippus

317 - 316 BC

Demogenes

317 BC

Demetrius Phalereus is installed as governor by Cassander of Macedonia. The democratic system enjoyed by Athens is subsumed during this period.

317 - 307 BC

Demetrius Phalereus

Macedonian governor.

316 - 315 BC

Democleides

 315 - 314 BC

Praxibulus

314 - 313 BC

Nicodorus

313 - 312 BC

Theophrastus

312 - 311 BC

Polemon

311 - 310 BC

Simonides

310 - 309 BC

Hieromnemon

 309 BC

The Fourth War of the Diadochi breaks out, with Ptolemy of Hellenic Egypt initially claiming Corinth among his territories.

309 - 308 BC

Demetrius

308 - 307 BC

Charinus

307 - 306 BC

Anaxicrates

307 - 306 BC

At the start of his reign as an Antigonid king, Demetrius I frees Athens from the rule of Cassander of Macedonia and Ptolemy of the Lysimachian empire. Demetrius Phalereus is expelled and the city's democratic system is restored.

306 - 305 BC

Coroebus

305 - 304 BC

Euxenippus

304 - 303 BC

Pherecles

 303 BC

During the Fourth War of the Diadochi, Corinth switches hands, with Cassander of Macedonia securing Greece for himself.

303 - 302 BC

Leostratus

302 - 301 BC

Nicocles

 301 BC

The Fourth War of the Diadochi ends in the death of Antigonus of Phrygia at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. The final borders between the former general of Alexander the Great are generally agreed and peace of a kind is established.

Battle of Ipsus
The Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC ended the drawn-out and destructive Wars of the Diadochi which decided how Alexander's empire would be divided

301 - 300 BC

Clearchus

300 - 299 BC

Hegemachus

299 - 298 BC

Euctemon

298 - 297 BC

Mnesidemus

297 - 296 BC

Antiphates

296 - 295 BC

Nicias

295 - 294 BC

Nicostratus

294 - 292 BC

Olympiodorus

Served two terms of office.

292 - 291 BC

Philippus

291 - 290 BC

Cimon

290 - 289 BC

Aristonymus

289 - 288 BC

Charinus?

288 - 287 BC

Xenophon?

287 - 286 BC

Diocles

286 - 285 BC

Diotimus

285 - 284 BC

Isaeus

284 - 283 BC

Euthius

283 - 282 BC

Nicias

282 - 281 BC

Ourius

281 - 280 BC

Gorgias

280 - 279 BC

Sosistratus?

279 - 277 BC

Celtic tribes are arriving in the Balkans by this time. The third campaign by Celts attacks a Greek force of 40,000 at Thermopylae, which is under the command of an Athenian named Callippus. Then they advance to Delphi in 278 BC where they are routed by the massed Greek army, and then suffer a further, crushing defeat at the hands of the Antigonid King Antigonus II in 277 BC. They retreat from Greece and pass through Thrace to enter into Asia Minor, although a small contingent (around 20,00 people, half of whom are warriors) under the leadership of Liutarius and Leonnarius already seems to have made the journey in 278 BC, with the rest merely following a now-established route in their wake.

279 - 278 BC

Anaxicrates

278 - 277 BC

Democles

277 - 276 BC

Euboulus?

276 - 275 BC

Olbius

275 - 274 BC

Philippides?

274 - 273 BC

Glaucippus

273 - 272 BC

?

Name unknown.

272 - 271 BC

Telocles?

271 - 270 BC

Pytharatus

270 - 269 BC

Peithidemus

269 - 268 BC

Diogeiton

268 - 267 BC

Menecles

267 - 266 BC

Nicias

267 - 261 BC

The Chremonidean War is fought between a coalition of Greek city states led by Athens and Sparta for the restoration of their independence from Macedonian influence, aided by the Ptolemaic Egyptians who are naturally threatened not only by Macedonia's apparently peaceful rule of Greece, but by its friendship with the Seleucid empire.

Antigonus II Gonatas Coin
A coin showing the face of the Macedonian king, Antigonus II Gonatas

266 - 265 BC

Hagnias?

265 - 264 BC

Philocrates

264 - 263 BC

Diognetus

263 - 262 BC

Antipatrus

262 - 261 BC

Arrheneides

261 - 260 BC

Cleomachus

261 BC

The Chremonidean War comes to an end when Athens is captured by Antigonus II of Macedonia and Sparta also agrees peace terms. Peace and prosperity are restored throughout Greece.

260 - 259 BC

Polystratus?

259 - 258 BC

?

Name unknown.

258 - 257 BC

Antiphon?

257 - 256 BC

Thymochares?

256 - 255 BC

Alcibiades?

255 - 254 BC

Euboulus

254 - 253 BC

Philostratus?

253 - 252 BC

Lysitheides?

252 - 251 BC

Lyceas?

251 - 250 BC

Callimedes

250 - 249 BC

Antimachus

249 - 248 BC

Thersilochus

248 - 247 BC

Polyeuctus

247 - 246 BC

Hieron

246 - 245 BC

Diomedon

245 - 244 BC

Theophemus

244 - 243 BC

Philoneus

243 - 242 BC

Cydenor

242 - 241 BC

Eurycleides

241 - 240 BC

Lysiades

240 - 239 BC

Athenodorus

239 - 238 BC

Lysias

238 - 237 BC

Pheidostratus

237 - 236 BC

Cimon

236 - 235 BC

Ecphantus

235 - 234 BC

Lysanias

234 - 233 BC

Phanostratus?

233 - 232 BC

?

Name unknown.

232 - 231 BC

Jason

231 - 230 BC

?

Name unknown.

230 - 229 BC

Phanomachus?

229 - 228 BC

Heliodorus

228 - 227 BC

Leochares

227 - 226 BC

Theophilus

226 - 225 BC

Ergochares

225 - 224 BC

Nicetes

224 - 223 BC

Antiphilus

223 - 222 BC

?

Name unknown.

222 - 221 BC

Archelaus

221 - 220 BC

Thrasyphon

220 - 219 BC

Menecrates

219 - 218 BC

Chaerephon

218 - 217 BC

Callimachus?

217 - 216 BC

?

Name unknown.

216 - 215 BC

Hagnias

215 - 205 BC

During the Second Punic War, Philip V of Macenonia allies himself to Carthage. To avoid a possible reinforcement of Hannibal by Macedonia, Rome dispatches a force to tie down the Macedonians in the First Macedonian War.

215 - 214 BC

Diocles

214 - 213 BC

Euphiletus

213 - 212 BC

Heracleitus

212 - 211 BC

Philinus?

211 - 210 BC

Aeschron

210 - 209 BC

?

Name unknown.

209 - 208 BC

Callaeschrus

208 - 207 BC

Ancylus?

207 - 206 BC

Pantiades?

206 - 205 BC

Callistratus?

205 BC

The First Macedonian War ends indecisively with the Treaty of Phoenicia. Even though it is only a minor conflict, it opens the way for later Roman military intervention in Greece.

Philip V of Macedonia
This silver tetradrachm bears the head of Philip V of Macedonia

205 - 204 BC

Euandrus?

204 - 203 BC

Apollodorus

203 - 202 BC

Proxenides

202 - 201 BC

Euthycritus?

201 - 200 BC

Nicophon?

200 - 196 BC

The Second Macedonian War is triggered by apparently falsified claims by Pergamum and Rhodes of a secret treaty between Macedonia and the Seleucid empire. Rome launches an attack on Macedonia.

200 - 199 BC

Dionysius?

199 - 198 BC

Philon?

198 - 197 BC

Diodotus

197 BC

After a spell of indecisive conflict, Philip V of Macedonia is defeated at the Battle of Cynoscephalae, while his general, Androsthenes, is defeated near Corinth. The Macedonian army is drastically reduced in size as a result of the defeat, and Philip's standing as an important Greek king is greatly diminished. Corinth becomes the capital of the Achaean League of Greek states.

197 - 196 BC

Sositeles

196 - 195 BC

Charicles

195 - 193 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

193 - 192 BC

Phanarchides

192 - 191 BC

Diodotus

191 - 190 BC

?

Name unknown.

190 - 189 BC

Hippias?

189 - 188 BC

Isocrates?

188 - 187 BC

Symmachus

187 - 186 BC

Theoxenus

186 - 185 BC

Zopyrus

185 - 184 BC

Eupolemus

184 - 183 BC

Sosigenes?

183 - 182 BC

Hermogenes

182 - 181 BC

Timesianax

181 - 180 BC

Telesarchides

180 - 179 BC

Dionysius?

179 - 178 BC

Menedemus

178 - 177 BC

Philon

177 - 176 BC

Speusippus

176 - 175 BC

Hippacus

175 - 174 BC

Sonicus

174 - 173 BC

?

Name unknown.

173 - 172 BC

Alexandrus?

172 - 171 BC

Sosigenes

171 - 170 BC

Antigenes

170 - 169 BC

?

Name unknown.

169 - 168 BC

Eunicus

168 - 167 BC

Xenocles

167 - 166 BC

Nicosthenes?

166 - 165 BC

Achaeus

165 - 164 BC

Pelops

164 - 163 BC

Charias?

163 - 162 BC

Erastus

162 - 161 BC

Poseidonius

161 - 160 BC

Aristolas

160 - 159 BC

Tychandrus

159 - 158 BC

Diocles?

158 - 157 BC

Aristaechmus

157 - 156 BC

Anthesterius

156 - 155 BC

Callistratus

155 - 154 BC

Mnestheus

154 - 153 BC

Epaenetus?

153 - 152 BC

Aristophantus?

152 - 151 BC

Phaedrias?

151 - 150 BC

Andreas?

150 - 148 BC

Andriscus of Corinth leads a popular uprising against Rome in the Fourth Macedonian War.

150 - 149 BC

Zeleucus?

149 - 148 BC

Micion?

148 - 147 BC

Lysiades?

148 BC

The Achaean League of Greek states is destroyed by Rome, and Greece and Macedonia are annexed to the republic, being incorporating into newly-created Roman provinces.

Elected Archons of Athens (Roman Period)
148 BC - AD 275

The popular uprising of Andriscus of Corinth which created the Fourth Macedonian War was put down by Rome. The Latin republic subsequently established a permanent residence in Greece. Understandably unhappy with this turn of events, the Achaean League of Greek states rose up against the Roman presence and was swiftly destroyed for its pains. Rome also destroyed Corinth as an object lesson and annexed Macedonia, incorporating it into the Roman province of Macedonia.

Although comparatively little is known about many of the archons, this position and the other two, polemarch (heading the city's defensive forces), and archon basileus (handling the religious duties, including ceremonial functions that formerly belonged to the king) remained in place.

147 - 146 BC

Archon

A personal name or simply the title itself?

146 BC

Following the conquest of the Achaean League of Greek states by Rome, Athens now falls fully under Latin control, although the post of archon continues to hold a certain level of authority.

Roman Agora
Roman building work in the Agora area of Athens

146 - 145 BC

Epicrates

145 - 144 BC

Metrophanes

144 - 143 BC

Hermias?

143 - 142 BC

Theaetetus

142 - 141 BC

Aristophon

141 - 140 BC

Pleistaenus?

140 - 139 BC

Hagnotheus

139 - 138 BC

Apollodorus

138 - 137 BC

Timarchus

137 - 136 BC

Heracleitus

136 - 135 BC

Timarchides

135 - 134 BC

Dionysius

134 - 133 BC

Nicomachus

133 - 132 BC

Xenon

132 - 131 BC

Ergocles

131 - 130 BC

Epicles

130 - 129 BC

Demostratus

129 - 128 BC

Lyciscus

128 - 127 BC

Dionysius

127 - 126 BC

Theodorides

126 - 125 BC

Diotimus

125 - 124 BC

Jason

124 - 123 BC

Nicias

Died in office.

123 - 122 BC

Demetrius

122 - 121 BC

Nicodemus

121 - 120 BC

Phocion?

120 - 119 BC

Eumachus

119 - 118 BC

Hipparchus

118 - 117 BC

Lenaeus

117 - 116 BC

Menoites

116 - 115 BC

Sarapion

115 - 114 BC

Nausias

114 - 113 BC

Pleistaenus

113 - 112 BC

Paramonus

112 - 111 BC

Dionysius

111 - 110 BC

Sosicrates

110 - 109 BC

Polycleitus

109 - 108 BC

Jason

Returned to office.

108 - 107 BC

Demochares

107 - 106 BC

Aristarchus

106 - 105 BC

Agathocles

105 - 104 BC

Heracleides

104 - 103 BC

Diocles?

103 - 102 BC

Theocles

102 - 101 BC

Echecrates

101 - 100 BC

Medeius

100 - 99 BC

Theodosius

99 - 98 BC

Procles

98 - 96 BC

Argeius

Archon for two successive terms.

96 - 95 BC

Heracleitus

95 - 94 BC

Diocles?

Returned to office.

94 - 93 BC

Isocrates?

93 - 92 BC

Callias

92 - 91 BC

Menedemos?

91 - 88 BC

Medeius

Returned to office. Archon for three successive terms.

88 - 87 BC

During the civil war in Italy, Athens revolts against Roman rule and no archon is elected during the period in which Lucius Cornelius Sulla crushes the Greeks. Subsequent Roman civil wars damage Greece even further in this century.

87 - 86 BC

Philanthes

86 BC

Athens is annexed by the Roman republic. Sulla levels most of the city's buildings and fortifications, fortunately excluding many civic buildings and monuments.

86 - 85 BC

Hierophantes

85 - 84 BC

Pythocritus

84 - 83 BC

Aeschraeus?

83 BC

Towards the end of the Roman civil war, Athens is captured again by the troops of General Lucius Cornelius Sulla.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Lucius Cornelius Sulla, dictator of the Roman republic

83 - 82 BC

Seleucus?

82 - 81 BC

Herecleodorus?

81 - 80 BC

Apollodorus?

80 - 78 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

78 - 77 BC

Zenion?

77 - 75 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

75 - 74 BC

Aeschines

74 - 73 BC

?

Name unknown.

73 - 72 BC

Nicetes?

72 - 71 BC

?

Name unknown.

71 - 70 BC

Aristoxenus?

70 - 69 BC

Criton?

69 - 67 BC

?

Two archons, names unknown.

67 - 66 BC

Theoxenus?

66 - 65 BC

Medeius?

65 - 62 BC

?

Three archons, names unknown.

62 - 61 BC

Aristeius

61 - 60 BC

Theophemus

60 - 59 BC

Herodes

59 - 58 BC

Leucius

58 - 57 BC

Calliphon

57 - 56 BC

Diocles

56 - 55 BC

Cointus

55 - 54 BC

Aristoxenus or Aristodemus

54 - 53 BC

Zenon

53 - 52 BC

Diodorus

52 - 51 BC

Lysandrus

51 - 50 BC

Lysiades

50 - 49 BC

Demetrius

49 - 48 BC

Demochares

48 - 47 BC

Philocrates

47 - 46 BC

Diocles

46 - 45 BC

Apolexis

45 - 44 BC

Polycharmus

44 - 43/43-42 BC

Diocles Azenieus

Archon in one of these periods. The other archon is unknown.

42 - 41 BC

Euthydomus

41 - 40 BC

Nicandrus

40 - 39 BC

Philostratus

39 - 38 BC

Diocles Meliteus

38 - 37 BC

Menandrus

37 - 36 BC

Theopeithes

36 - 35 BC

Asclepiodorus

35 - 34 BC

?

Name unknown.

34 - 33 BC

Pammenes?

33 - 32 BC

Cleidamus?

32 - 31 BC

Epicrates?

31 - 30 BC

Polycleitus Phlyeus?

30 - 29 BC

Architemus?

29 - 26 BC

?

Three archons, names unknown.

27 BC

Caesar Augustus organises southern Greece as the province of Achaea, which includes Athens. His accession ends the period of instability and civil war within the Roman territories, finally bringing peace and prosperity to Greece.

26 - 25 BC

Dioteimus Alaieus

25 - 21 BC

?

Four archons, names unknown.

21 - 20 BC

Demeas Azenieus

20 - 19 BC

Apolexis

19 - 16 BC

?

Three archons, names unknown.

16 - 15 BC

Pythagoras

15 - 14 BC

Antiochus

14 - 13 BC

Polyainus

13 - 12 BC

Zenon

12 - 11 BC

Leonides

11 - 10 BC

Theophilus

10 - 9 BC

?

Name unknown.

9 - 8 BC

Nicias Athmoneus?

8 - 7 BC

Demochares Azanieus?

7 - 6 BC

?

Name unknown.

6 - 5 BC

Xenon Phlyeus ?

5 - 4 BC

Apolexis Philocratous ex Oiou?

4 - 3 BC

Aristodemus?

3 - 2 BC

Nicostratus?

2 - 1 BC

Demochares Azenius?

1 BC - AD 1

Anaxagoras?

AD 1 - 2

Areius Paianieus?

2 - 3

Cedeides?

3 - 4

Menneas?

4 - 5

Polyainus Marathonius?

5 - 6

Polycharmus Azenius?

6 - 7

Theophilus?

7 - 24

?

Seventeen archons, names unknown.

24 - 25

Charmides

25  - 26

Callicratides

26 - 27

Pamphilus

27 - 28

Themistocles Marathonius

28 - 29

Oinophilus

29 - 30

Boethus

30 - 36

?

Six archons, names unknown.

36 - 37

Rhoemetalcas the Younger

37 - 38

Polycritus

38 - 39

Zenon

39 - 40

Secoundus

40 - 45

?

Five archons, names unknown.

45 - 46

Antipatrus the Younger Phlyeus

46 - 49

?

Three archons, names unknown.

49 - 50

Deinophilus

50 - 53

?

Four archons, names unknown.

c.53

Hierotheos the Thesmothete (a junior archon) is reputedly the first head of the Christians of Athens. Instructed by the Apostle Paul, he is baptised and ordained by him about this year. The Roman Church has yet to be established, making this appointment an important one in the spread of the new religion.

Hierotheos the Thesmothete
Hierotheos the Thesmothete may have been the very first head of the early Christian population of Athens

53 - 54

Dionysodorus

54 - 55

?

Name unknown.

55 - 56

Conon

56 - 61

?

Five archons, names unknown.

61 - 62

Thrasyllus

62 - 64

?

Two archons, names unknown.

64 - 65

Gaius Carreinas Secundus

65 - 66

Demostratus

66 - 91

?

Twenty-five archons, names unknown.

91 - 92

Titus Flavius Domitianus

Roman Emperor (81-96).

92 - 93

Trevilius Rufus

93 - 94

?

Name unknown.

94 - 95

Octavius Theion

95 - 96

Octavius Proclus

96 - 97

Aeolion

97 - 98

?

Name unknown.

98 - 99

Coponius Maximus Agnoösius

99 - 100

Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus

100 - 101

Flavius Stratolaus Phylesius

101 - 102

Claudius Demophilus

102 - 103

Flavius Sophocles Sounieus

103 - 104

Flavius Pintenus Gargottius

104 - 105

Flavius Conon Sounieus

105 - 107

?

Two archons, names unknown.

107 - 108

Flavius Alcibiades Paeanieus

108 - 109

Julius Antiochus Philopappus

Died in office.

108 - 109

Laelianus

Completed term of office for Julius Antiochus.

109 - 110

Cassius Diogenes

110 - 111

Flavius Euphanes

111 - 112

Gaius Julius Cassius Steirieus

112 - 113

Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus

Roman Emperor (117-138).

113 - 114

Deëdius Secundus Sphettius

114 - 115

?

Name unknown.

115 - 116

Publius Fulvius Mitrodorus Sounieus

116 - 117

Flavius Macreanus Acharneus

117 - 118

?

Name unknown.

118 - 119

Maximus Agnoösius

119 - 126

?

Seven archons, names unknown.

126 - 127

Claudius Herodes Marathonius

127 - 128

Gaius Memmius Peissandrus Colytteus

128 - 131

?

Three archons, names unknown.

131 - 132

Claudius Philogenus Visseieus

132 - 133

Claudius Domitianus Visseieus

133 - 134

?

Name unknown.

134 - 135

Antisthenes

135 - 138

?

Three archons, names unknown.

136

After perhaps being a philosopher, Hyginus of Athens becomes Pope.

138 - 139

Praxagoras Thoricius

139 - 140

Flavius Alcibiades Paianieus

140 - 141

Claudius Attalus Sphettius

141 - 142

Publius Aelius Phileas Meliteus

142 - 143

Aelius Alexandrus Phalereus

143 - 144

Publius Aelius Vibullius Rufus

144 - 145

Syllas

145 - 146

Flavius Arrianus Paianieus

146 - 147

Titus Flavius Alcibiades Paeanieus

147 - 148

Soteles Philippus Estiaeothen

148 - 149

Lucius Nummius Ieroceryx Phalereus

149 - 150

Quintus Alleius Epictetus

150 - 151

Aelius Ardys

151 - 152

Aelius Callicrates

152 - 153

Lucius Nummius Menis Phalereus

153 - 154

Aelius Alexandrus III

154 - 155

Praxagoras Meliteus

155 - 156

Popillius Theotimus Sounieus

156 - 157

Aelius Gelus II

157 - 158

Lycomedes

158 - 159

Titus Aurelius Philemon Philades

159 - 160

Tiberius Claudius Lysiades Meliteus

160 - 161

P Aelius Themison Pammenes Azenieus

161 - 162

Lucius Memmius Thoricius

162 - 163

Pompeius Alexandrus Acharneus

163 - 164

Philisteides Peiraieus

164 - 165

Pompeius Daidouchus

165 - 166

Sextus Phalereus

166 - 167

Marcus Valerius Mamertinus Marathonius

167 - 168

Anarchy grips the region, probably due to the first invasion of Germanic peoples across the Danube under the leadership of the Marcomanni. They penetrate into Italy and force Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius to spend the rest of his life campaigning in the Danube region to contain the problem.

Roman defensive tower
Emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius had concentrated on defining the Roman empire's borders, defending the territory they had. That would have included building watch towers along the limes in the Danube region which the Marcomanni managed to break through

168 - 169

Tineius Ponticus Besaieus

169 - 170

The repercussions of instability in the region rumble on, with no archon being elected for this period.

170 - 171

Tiberius Memmius Phlaccus Marathonius

171 - 172

Again, no archon is elected for this period, although the anarchy is finally brought to an end.

172 - 173

Biesius Peison Meliteus

173 - 174

Sallustianus Aeolion Phlyeus

174 - 175

Aurelius Dionysius

175 - 176

Claudius Heracleides Meliteus

176 - 177

Aristocleides Peiraieus

177 - 178

Scribonius Capiton?

178 - 179

Flavius Stratolaus Phylasius

179 - 180

Athenodorus Agrippas Iteaius

180 - 181

Claudius Demostratus Meliteus

181 - 182

Daedouchus

182 - 183

Marcus Munatius Maximianus Ouopiscus

183 - 184

Domitius Aristaius Paionides

184 - 185

Titus Flavius Sosigenes Palleneus

185 - 186

Philoteimus Arcesidemou Eleousius

186 - 187

Gaius Fabius Thisbianus Marathonius

187 - 188

T Claudius Bradouas Atticus Marathonius

188 - 189

L Aelius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus

Roman Emperor (180-192).

189 - 190

Menogenes

190 - 191

Gaius Peinarius Proclus Agnousius

191 - 192

?

Name unknown.

192 - 193

Gaius Helvidius Secundus Palleneus

193 - 199

?

Six archons, names unknown.

199 - 200

Gaius Quintus Imerus Marathonius

200 - 203

?

Three archons, names unknown.

203 - 204

Gaius Cassianus Steirieus

204 - 209

?

Five archons, names unknown.

209 - 210

Flavius Diogenes Marathonius

210 - 212

?

Two archons, names unknown.

212 - 213

Aurelius Dionysius Acharneus

213 - 220

?

Seven archons, names unknown.

220 - 221

Titus Flavius? Philinus

221 - 222

Aurelius Melpomenus Antinoeus

222 - 230

?

Eight archons, names unknown.

230 - 231

Cassianus Hieroceryx Steirieus

231 - 233

?

Two archons, names unknown.

233 - 234

Vib. Lysandrus

234 - 235

Epictetus Acharneus

235 - 240

?

Five archons, names unknown.

240 - 241

Cassianus Philippus Steirieus

241 - 254

?

Thirteen archons, names unknown.

254 - 255

Lucius Flavius Philustratus Steirieus

255 - 262

?

Seven archons, names unknown.

262 - 263

Publius Herennius Dexippus?

May also have served as Archon Basileus.

263 - 264

?

Name unknown.

264 - 265

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus

Roman Emperor (253-260).

265 - 274

?

Nine archons, names unknown.

267 - 268

A general barbarian invasion takes place across the Roman frontier. The barbarian coalition includes Goths, Heruli, and Peucini Bastarnae, all of which form a force that sails along the Black Sea coast to Tomis in Moesia Inferior. They attack the town but are unable to take it. Sailing on, they are frustrated twice more, at Marcianopolis (Devnya in modern Bulgaria) and Thessalonica in Macedonia. Athens is sacked by the Heruli, with all its public buildings being burned down. The lower city is plundered and the Acropolis is damaged. The city is subsequently re-fortified to the north of the Acropolis, leaving some ancient areas including the Agora now outside the city walls.

Heruli
Heruli warriors confronted by late Roman troops

274 - 275

Titus Flavius Mondon Phlyeus

275

After Titus Flavius Mondon Phlyeus no further archons are known, suggesting that the office is abolished. The possible reasons are unknown. There is no distinguishing event within the Roman empire, such as the accession of a new, powerful augustus, to tie in with this date. Athens is partially sidelined in Greece by the refounding of Byzantium as Constantinople, and the Eastern Roman empire rules the region until the fifteenth century, followed by the Turkish Ottoman empire. An independent modern Greek state is established by 1830, and Athens forms its capital city.