Manasseh was captured by the Assyrians and was
treated terribly. He humbled himself and repented, was forgiven and
served Yahweh for the rest of his life (II Chronicles 33:11-16). If
that was for the last fifteen years of his reign, then the first
forty years cover the period of destruction. Apparently it was not to
late for individuals to be forgiven but it was to late for the
nation to receive forgiveness and obtain earthly blessings (II Kings
'New' dating for the Israelite kings
In I Kings 20, Samaria under King Ahab defeated
Ben-Hadad, king of Aram Damascus, twice in two years, as a prophet
of God foretold him. It is argued here that this king of Aram Damascus
was Ben-Hadad I, and the years were, approximately, 904 and 903 BC.
Then, according to I Kings 22, three years passed
without war. However, in the same chapter Ahab fell in battle at
Ramoth-Gilead at the hands of the king of Aram (Ben-Hadad) which is
assigned an approximate 'new' date here of 899 BC.
Apparently, about twelve or thirteen years later,
there was another battle at Ramoth-Gilead, this one with Ahaziah of
Judah and Joram of Samaria ranged against Hazael of Aram Damascus
(the Damascene kings were also referred to as kings of Syria) (II
Kings 8:25-29). Therefore, King Hazael would have reigned from at
least the (Second) Battle of Ramoth-Gilead in the reigns of Ahaziah
of Judah and Joram of Samaria (II Kings 8:25-29) and through the
entire reign of Jehoahaz of Samaria (II Kings 13:22), probably for
a period of at least forty-five years.
Further kingly dating
Who is the King Hadad-ezer mentioned on the Kurkh
monolith of Shalmaneser III?
There is a King Hadadezer mentioned in the Old
Testament who battled against King David (II Sam 8 & 10, I Kings
11:23, and I Chron 18) but that was much too early to be the same
The new dating used here has the reign of Ahaziah
of Judah at 886-885 BC (as opposed to the usual dating of 843-842
BC), and the reign of Joram of Samaria at 898-886 BC (instead of the
usual 847-842 BC). The reign of Jehoahaz of Samaria would be 855-841
BC (instead of 814-800 BC), having begun in the twenty-third year of
the reign of Joash of Judah.
By using the same calculations, Hazael of Syria
would be on the throne around 886-840 BC (instead of 842-798 BC),
which would make him king of Syria at the time of the Battle of
Qarqar, therefore allowing Shalmaneser III to refer to him as
Hadad-ezer of Damascus.
This would also explain why Hazael (Hadad-ezer)
named his son Ben-Hadad (II Kings 13:24), meaning 'son of Hadad'.