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European Kingdoms

Eastern Mediterranean


Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire
Dynasty of Theodosius (AD 395-457)

From the start, the capital of the newly-created Eastern Roman empire was based at Constantinople, dedicated by the emperor Constantine the Great in 330. First Arcadius, and then Theodosius II introduced changes to the equal rights as Roman citizens of the Byzantine Jews, gradually diminishing their position and standing.

Eastern Roman Emperor Basil II in iconography

(Information by Peter Kessler, and from External Link: History of the Byzantine Empire (Live Science).)

395 - 408


Son of Theodosius, last ruler of a unified Rome.


With the Roman empire finally having divided permanently between the Eastern Roman and Western Roman portions, a state of affairs has been acknowledged which has already existed in practise for many years.

In a reorganisation which takes place in the late fourth century (and probably very close to this division), Syria Palaestina is divided in three. The main aim is to give each governor a smaller and more solidly-organised defensive base. Together, all of these provinces are part of the newly-created Dioceses Orientis.

405 - 408

Arcadius is dominated by his praetorian prefect, Anthemius, who is the real power behind the throne.

Map of Central Asia - Turkic Expansion AD 300-600
Turkic origins are hard to pin down precisely, but the region around the Altai Mountains would seem to have served as a general incubator during their development, and the Romans would soon come to know them (click or tap on map to view full sized)

408 - 450

Theodosius II

Nephew of Honorius.

423 - 425

Upon the death of the Western Roman emperor, Honorius, his patrician elevates Johannes as emperor. Theodosius II elevates Valentinian III first to Caesar, then to co-emperor as Augustus.

In late 424, he sends Aëtius to the Huns to seek military help, but while Aëtius is away Johannes is betrayed and captured. Aëtius returns with a sizable Hunnic army, coming to an agreement which establishes the political landscape of the Western Roman empire for the next thirty years. The Huns are paid off and sent home, while Aëtius is promoted to magister militum.

Having sorted out the Huns, Theodosius II orders the Jewish Sanhedrin to be disbanded. Roman persecution continues off-and-on, while Jewish resentment continues to trigger various incidents which do little to help their case.

434 - 453

Although highly successful in his initial command of the Huns, Attila never takes his people into the Roman empire to settle among the rich villa estates. Instead he leads major incursions into Western Roman, Eastern Roman, and Goth territory.

450 - 457


m Pulcheria, granddaughter of Theodosius I.


Marcian is succeeded by Leo I, first emperor of the dynasty of Leo.

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