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European Kingdoms

Eastern Europe


Shumen Fortress in Bulgaria

Features / Lists



Enver Hoxha of Albania


A mountainous Adriatic coastal territory, this former kingdom has a capital at Tirana.

A suburb of Sarajevo in 1995

Bosnia & Herzegovina

This dual state inside a single border was formed out of medieval origins as a pre-Ottoman kingdom.

Sofia in Bulgaria, 1944


The Black Sea coastal state of Bulgaria was founded as a post-tribal kingdom around AD 681.

Croatia's post-2020-earthquake town of Petrinja


This Slavic state with a long early medieval history covers the Dalmatian coast and a mountainous inland.

Kosovo's Decani Monastery


Hard-won independence from Serbia still means regular conflict with its own ethic Serbs.

Moldova's capital city


Finding independence during the collapse of the USSR, Moldova still envisages union with Romania.

Montenegro achieves independence in 2006


Reborn as a republic in 2006, Montenegro was an independant principality until 1918.

Statue of Alexander the Great in North Macedonia

North Macedonia

One of the newest states in the Balkans, its compromise name had to be agreed with Greece.

Ex-King Michael of Romania


Formed out of several medieval regions, this state suffered post-war dictatorship prior to democracy.

Modern Serbia's city centre


Once the centre of a southern Slav kingdom, Serbia is now adjusting to life as an independent republic.

Maribor on the River Drava in Slovenia


A former medieval margraviate, Solvenia is thriving as a modern European state.

Ruins of a Russian tank in Transnistria


This seperatist region relies on Russian support to maintain independence from Moldova.

Photo © Chasing the Donkey.com