History Files History Files
Donate add-in

European Kingdoms

Eastern Europe



Now an independent state, Slovenia is situated in the upper north-west of the Balkans, bordering Hungary. The Slovenes are Slavs, closely related to the Croatians. The region had been occupied by Celtic tribes, the Boii, Carni and Latovici, before the arrival of the Romans. Following the collapse of the Roman empire, Slovenia followed the same path as its eastern neighbours, being controlled successively by the Huns (circa 400-460), and the Ostrogoths (circa 460-488), before undergoing Slav incursions during the late fifth and sixth centuries and falling to the Avars until circa 745. It was the Alpine Slavs who settled eastern portions of Friulia in the sixth century who are thought to have been the ancestors of the Slovenians. Then the Bavarii ruled (circa 745-788), followed by the Carolingian Franks (788-843), Germany (843-907), Hungary (907-955), and then back to Germany as part of Carinthia until the territory was established as a margraviate.

Margraves of Slovenia

1054 - 1070

Ulrich I

1070 - 1090

Poppo I

Some uncertainty about the rule of Poppo I & II.

1090 - 1093

Poppo II

1093 - 1108

Poppo III

1108 - 1269

The margraviate passes to the Patriarchate of Aquileia.


With the accession of Ottokar the Great, king of Bohemia-Moravia, Slovenia is effectively merged back into Carinthia.


On 6 October, a 'Southern-Slav' kingdom is declared by the Serb, Croat, and Slovene subjects of the Austro-Hungarian empire. This includes the Kosovo region (liberated in 1913), Bosnia, Herzegovina & Monte Negro. Serbia is the dominant member of the new Yugoslavia and views much of the territory as being part of a traditional 'Greater Serbia'.


On 25 June, Croatia, Istria, and Slovenia leave Yugoslavia and declares themselves independent republics. The Serbs begin a war which lasts until 4 August 1995. Croatian and Slovenian independence is secured and recognised by Europe.