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European Kingdoms

Northern Europe

 

Estonia (Eesti) (Aestii)
Incorporating the Alempois, Harria, Revalians, Sakalans, Setos, Sosols, & Vironians

The Early Baltics were gradually recovering from the retreat of the continental glaciers at the end of the most recent ice age when the first hunter-gatherers arrived in what would become Estonia, around 9000 BC. Habitation for several millennia proved to be sparse and temporary. At the beginning of the third millennium BC, Ugric-speaking people migrated in from the east, descendants of Uralic-speakers around the Ural Mountains. They quickly came to dominate a swathe of territory between modern Finland and the eastern side of the Urals. Those who settled between Lake Peipsi and the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland provided the ancestors of the Finno-Ugric Estonians.

FeatureBetween about 2500-2000 BC, another wave of migrant tribes arrived in the region from the south. These were the Indo-European proto-Balts, ancestors of the Balt tribes. They brought with them cattle breeding and rudimentary tillage skills (field cultivation only flourished from the sixth or fifth century BC thanks to the advent of the Iron Age). Perhaps not long after the arrival of the Balts, the Vistula Venedi began dominating the entire course of that river. Germanic tribes migrating to the southern Baltic coast in the first centuries BC and AD pushed the Balts into southern Estonian lands (for more detail on the early formation of Estonia, see the feature link, right).

In the first century AD, Roman writers referred to the people of the eastern Baltic Sea as Aestii, meaning 'east men'. However, these are described as being like Suevi, although they speak like Britons. That classes them very distinctly as northern or eastern Celts: Belgae or Venedi rather than Finno-Ugric tribes which the Romans would certainly have noted as being different. Even so, the name Aestii is frequently attached to the early Estonians and would seem to have provided the origin of 'Estonia', possibly through the later Germanic conquest of the region.

During the first millennium AD, three important cultural regions emerged: northern Estonia, southern Estonia, and western Estonia, together with the islands. The origins of the modern Estonian counties were formed during this period, and these regions maintained their own security and looked after their own interests. The main county in the north was Rävala. Its main settlement was near a castle called Lindanise (Kolyvan in Rus sources) which was used mainly as a defensive refuge, although it may have traded with Scandinavian and Russian states from around AD 1000 onwards.

By 1170 some of the native tribes could be identified by name, such as the Alempois of central Estonia (roughly the south-western part of Järva County plus parts of eastern Pärnu County), the Harria in the north (namesakes of Harju County), the Osilians and Rotalians (of Saaremaa and Läänemaa), the Revalians (namesakes of Rävala County), the Sakalans (with a centre in Viljandi, who are believed to be the Sosols of the Old East Slavonic chronicles of the Rus), the Ugaunians or Unguenois (the Estonian name for what the early Rus referred to as the Chudes), and the Vironians around modern Viru (which consisted of five clans by 1219). The Seto ethnic group in the south-eastern corner of Estonia and the north-west of the modern district of Pskov differed appreciably from the rest, possibly constituting an ethnically distinct group. Each tribal region (or parish once Christianity had been introduced) in Estonia was headed by a council of elders.

Seto People of Estonia

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information by Gediminas Kiveris and Merit Pai, from Life in Estonia, from The History of the Baltic Countries, Zigmantas Kiaupa, Ain Mäesalu, Ago Pajur, & Gvido Straube (Eds, Estonia 2008), from Eric's Chronicle, from the 15th Yearbook of the Estonian Learned Society in Sweden, 2010-2014 (Eesti Teadusliku Seltsi Rootsis aastaraamat XV. 2010-2014), Ants Anderson (Ed, Stockholm, 2015), from Guide to Castles in Estonia, Mart Helme (Kunst, Estonia, 2003), from The Four Oldest Churches of Tallinn (Morgan Studio, Estonia, 2006), and from External Links: Archaeology: The First Vikings, and The Balts, Marija Gimbutas (1963, previously available online thanks to Gabriella at Vaidilute, but still available as a PDF - click or tap on link to download or access it), and Rurik of Novgorod and the Varangian DNA, and History of Estonia (Country Studies), and The Missionary Man: Archbishop Anders Sunesen and the Baltic Crusade, 1206-21, Torben K Nielsen (Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier 1150-1500, Routledge, 2001, available via Taylor Francis).)

1st century AD

The Roman historian Tacitus mentions the Aestii. He says, '...they worship the Mother of the gods. They wear, as emblem of this cult, the masks of boars, which stand them in stead of armour or human protection and ensure the safety of the worshipper even among his enemies. They seldom use weapons of iron, but cudgels often. They cultivate grain and other crops with a patience quite unusual among lazy Germans'. This alone suggests that he is not referring to Estonians as they are well clear of any Germanic settlements.

Map of European Tribes
The Finno-Ugric tribes of the first centuries BC and AD sat largely to the north-east of the continental Germanic tribes and east of those in southern Scandinavia (click or tap on map to view at an intermediate size)

He continues: 'Nor do they omit to ransack the sea; they are the only people to collect the amber - glaesum is their own word for it - in the shallows or even on the beach [more a practice of Latvians, Lithuanians, and Prussians than Estonians]. Like true barbarians, they have never asked or discovered what it is or how it is produced. For a long time, indeed, it lay unheeded like any other jetsam, until Roman luxury made its reputation. They have no use for it themselves. They gather it crude, pass it on unworked and are astounded at the price it fetches...'

The Roman Iron Age is a relatively peaceful period in Estonia and Latvia. Only a few hill forts of later periods have yielded some finds which date to this period, suggesting that the few strongholds are used rarely and only in times of need. The aforementioned Germanics, located along the southern Baltic coast, eventually migrate towards the Roman empire, leaving tracts of land either depopulated for a time or entirely empty.

254

By this time, the Suevi have formed a wide-ranging confederation of tribes that are all known individually but which are counted as being Suevi. The vast number of tribes included in the confederation include the Aestii, Angles, Aviones, Buri, Cotini, Eudoses, Gutones, Hermunduri (who have virtually ceased to exist as a recognisable independent people), Langobards, Lugii (a name applied to several tribes: the Harii, Helisii, Helveconae, Manimi, and Naharvali), Marcomanni, Marsigni, Quadi, Naristi, Nuitones, Osi, Reudigni, Semnones, Sitones, Suardones, Suiones (Swedes), and the Warini.

At some point between the third and fifth centuries AD, the ancestors of the later Vironians settle the area around the present theatre hill in Rakvere. The settlement is protected by a stronghold which is erected on Vallimägi. It remains active until Estonia is conquered by crusaders, after which it is rebuilt in stone.

c.500

Describing a Europe of about AD 500, the Old English poem Widsith mentions several Germanic peoples, not all of whom can be properly identified, alongside more obvious peoples such as the Angles, Burgundians, Danes, Finns, Geats, Jutes, and Ostrogoths. A King Caelic is mentioned for the Finns, a presumed reference to Kaleva or Kalev, a national figure for both Finland and Estonia.

Kalevipoeg
The Estonian artist, Oskar Kallis, depicted Kalevipoeg in his traditional form of a giant, perhaps mixed with a little Viking, in this pastel from 1915, but the giants of legend are usually accepted as being descriptive forms of earlier, pre-Christian peoples

The national epic of the later nation state of Estonia, Kalevipoeg (Son of Kalev), tells of a time in which Christianity is pushing Kalev and his pagan sons to the edges of society where they stubbornly resist conversion and are eventually ostracised completely.

early 6th century

An Aestii mission visits the court of the Ostrogothic king of Italy, Theodoric the Great, bringing with it gifts of amber. This occurs in the middle of a kind of golden age for the Finno-Ugric and Baltic peoples, as they experience a period of relative wealth and prosperity earned through strong trading contacts.

c.600

The Finnic-speaking tribes of the Baltic coast are beginning to change. They share the strong trading connections of their Baltic neighbours (such as Lats and Lithuanians), but possibly experience some conflict as a result.

Around this time, the Ungenois people of southern Estonia erect a fortress by the name of Tarbatu on the eastern side of the Dome Hill (Toomemägi - approximately where the Astronomical Observatory now stands). Presumably this is in response to an external threat, probably to their newly-acquired wealth. In fact, the threat may be the Balts themselves. The numerous Baltic tribes are currently ruled by powerful chieftains and landlords, a system which remains in place until the beginning of recorded history in the region.

Among the Baltic tribes the Prussians and Couronians continue to play leading roles. In the previous century or so, the Lets have expanded their territory to cover much of what is now northern Latvia, replacing the previously dominant Finno-Ugric tribes there, the early Estonians. The Finno-Ugric Livs remain in position, though, so that they are eventually absorbed into Latvia.

Map of the Baltic tribes around AD 1000
By about AD 1000 the final locations of the Baltic tribes were well known by the Germans who were beginning their attempts to subdue and control them, although the work would take a few centuries to complete and the Lithuanians would never be conquered by them (click or tap on map to view full sized)

early 7th century

King Ingvar, son of Eystein, ventures into Estonia to pillage from the 'eastern pirates' in retribution for attacks on Sweden. When he arrives at an unidentified place named Stein, he is attacked by a great Estonian army which had been assembled much further inland. The Estonians overwhelm the Swedish force and Ingvar falls. The surviving Swedes withdraw and Ingvar is buried in a mound on the Estonian shore.

The problem of 'Eastern Vikings' as they come to be known, will only escalate. It is primarily the coastal strip of Courland (now in Latvia) and the island of Saaremaa which are home to these 'pirates', with them proving to be every bit as militaristic as their Scandinavian Viking opponents.

700 - 750

Two ships filled with Viking warriors who have been killed in battle are uncovered by archaeologists on the island of Saaremaa in 2008. The carefully stacked remains of thirty-three men have been buried in the ship that had brought them from Scandinavia to Saaremaa more than a century before the Vikings are thought to have been able to sail across such distances. They are almost certainly Swedes who have been conducting a raid but have been defeated by the island's determined defenders - a sign of many battles to come.

Map of Eastern Europe AD 862-882
Viking remains found on Saaremaa
Two ships were filled with Viking warriors who were killed in battle between AD 700-750, proof of a Viking raid more than a century before the Vikings are thought to have been able to sail such distances, while above is a map displaying early Rus strongholds, with one bordering Estonian lands (click or tap on map to view full sized)

862

Viking interest and exploration into the Slavic lands to the east of the Baltic states has been building up for some time. According to tradition, in this year a Kven Viking named Rurik founds the 'Rus' state with his headquarters at Novgorod and with a population that is made up of eastern Slav, Finno-Ugric, and Baltic people. His brothers Sineus (Signiutr) and Truvor (Thorwardr) govern the Slav centres at Beloozero (modern Belozersk) and Izborsk (bordering the Eesti) respectively (see map, above).

900s

The ancient Iru stronghold which lays not far from the later city of Tallinn is abandoned by the ancestors of the later Harrian Estonians in favour of a new fortress on the mound of Toompea (the high hill about the later Old Town (Vanalinn) area of Tallinn). The new fortress is not a permanent residence, but is a place in which to take refuge in times of trouble.

1030 - 1061

The Ungenois centre around Tartu is occupied for a short time after it is conquered by Prince Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev in 1030. Tribute is possibly paid until 1061, when a Kievan chronicle notes that Yuryev is burned down by another tribe of Ugaunians (Chudes in the Slavic language).

That act could be the culmination of increasing resistance against the Kievans. In 1060 they launch a military campaign against a tribe which the Old East Slavic chronicles call the Sosols, believed to be the Sakala people to the west of the Ungenois. They too are forced to pay tribute. In 1061 they rise up against the Kievans to destroy the Kievan fortress of Yuryev (either contradicting the claim that this is done by the Ungenois or, possibly, in alliance with them even though the two are usually inimical to one another). The Sosols at least then go on to threaten Pskov on the eastern edge of Seto territory.

Sviatopolk I 'the Accursed'
Yaroslav of Novgorod was the lone survivor of the attempted massacre of he and his many brothers by another of them - Sviatopolk (shown here) - who was killed by Yaroslav himself after just four years in command

1154

The world atlas by the Arabic geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi is commissioned by the Norman king of Sicily, Roger II. It contains an entry for a place which is normally identified as Tallinn, describing it as a small town with a large stronghold.

1167

FeatureIn the course of forming the bishopric of Lund in Sweden, the monk Falco of France is appointed bishop of Estonia. It appears that an Estonian-born monk with the clearly Germanised name of Nicolaus von Jeroschin is appointed to be his assistant, although their attempts to establish Christianity in Estonia are not especially successful in the early days of such attempts. However, it does seem that they establish at least one chapel, that of Saha.

1167 - ?

Falco / Fulco Ocist

Bishop of Estonia for the bishopric of Lund in Sweden.

1170

Denmark is fast rising as a great military and merchant power, and it is in its interest to end the Estonian and Couronian pirate attacks which threaten its Baltic trade. These come from the island of Ösel (Saaremaa, the richest area of Estonia) and the later province of Courland respectively, and the people of both of them are known collectively as the notorious Eastern Vikings. To that end, a Danish fleets now makes an attack against Estonia. In this year an intense two-day battle at sea ensues off the coast of the island of Gotland (although three days of fighting is also given).

By now, some of the Finnic tribes which later make up the state of Estonia can clearly be identified, such as the Alempois (central Estonia), Harria (in the north), Ugaunians or Ungenois (Chudes or Chuds to the early Rus), Sakalans (in the south-west), and Vironians (modern Viru in the south). Each tribe, or parish, in Estonia is headed by a council of elders.

Tallinn (Reval)
Unlike this much later representation of pre-industrialisation Tallinn, the early city was little more than a defensive structure on the dome hilltop and a small settlement at its base

c.1185

Sverris saga says that King Sverre's brother, Erik, spends three years around 1185 looting Estonian coastal areas and then sails back to Svitjod in Svealand, to King Knut Eriksson of the Swedes, to whom he is related. Svitjod would seem to be Sigtuna, the most important centre in Svealand.

1187

FeatureThe 'pagans of the Eastern Sea' (Estonians of Saaremaa, Couronians, and Sambians (Zembs) of Old Prussia) conquer Sigtuna, the most important town of the Swedes, which they then burn down. The Swedish Eric's Chronicle of 1335 blames the Finnish Karelians for the attack. More recently, Professor Kustaa Vilkuna has suggested that the raid is in revenge for Sigtuna's merchants having intruded upon Kven fisheries on the River Kemijoki and the hunting grounds of the Karelians. The medieval naming of a settlement in the village of Liedakkala by the River Kemijoki as 'Sihtuuna' may be additional confirmation of this.

1194 & 1197

Danish fleets makes a second attack on Estonia in 1194, and a third attack follows in 1197. The efforts probably fail to end the problem of raiding by 'Eastern Vikings', leading to more direct action in 1206.

c.1200

The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia describes a clearly non-Slavic tribe called the Vindi (German Winden, English Wends). They live in Courland and Livonia, clearly as the northernmost remnants of the Venedi. The tribe's name is preserved in the River Windau (in Latvian this is the Venta), which has the town of Windau (the Latvian Ventspils) at its mouth. It is also preserved in Wenden, the old name for the town of Cēsis in Livonia.

Wends
A personification of the early Wends was presented by a gospel book of 990 which showed them as the Sclavinia (early Slavs, of which the westernmost groups were known as Wends), plus Germania, Gallia, and Roma, all of whom were bringing tribute to Holy Roman emperor Otto III

At the start of the second millennium, there are two countries or people occupying this region, called Ventava (the Ventspils area) and Vanema to its east. It is unclear whether these are names that relate to the Venedi or not, although given the location it seems likely. In possibly opposition to this is the fact that 'vene' words are in common use across the north both today and two thousand years ago, and even further south (witness the Vindilici of Raetia and the Veneti of Italy). Even the modern Estonian word for Russians is 'Vene', suggesting that the word existed before the Russians, perhaps being used to denote previous neighbours in the same territory.

1201 - 1202

Bishop Albert from Bremen in Germany lands in the Baltics with his followers at the mouth of the River Väina and founds the Livonian town of Riga (in modern Latvia). Europeans are becoming hungry for land at this point, and others follow the lead set by the German bishops in invading the pagan Baltic territories. In 1202 Bishop Albert founds the Order of the Knights of the Sword for the purposes of conquest and Christianisation in the Baltics. This marks the beginning of the Northern Crusade.

1206

The Danish king, Valdemar II, and Archbishop Andreas Sunonis (Anders Sunesen), launch a raid on Ösel (Saaremaa). The islanders are forced to submit and the Danes build a fortress there, but they can find no volunteers to man it. Relinquishing their brief occupation of the island, they burn the fortress and leave the island.

However, they lay claim to Estonia as their possession, which claim the Pope recognises. Andreas Sunonis (Sunesen), archbishop of Lund, is granted the position of governor of Ösel and Estonia itself, despite having no territory to govern. His position - as vice regent of North Estonia is confirmed in 1219.

Livonian Knights
The Livonian Knights - otherwise known as the Livonian Brethren of the Sword, the Order of the Knights of the Sword, or more simply as the 'Order' or 'Brethren' - did the dirty work of extinguishing resistance to the German crusaders and their imposition of order on the Estonian and northern Balt tribes

1208 - 1210

The Estonian counties fight various battles to regain lost land from invading forces, ending in their biggest victory at the River Ümera. It is around this time that a particular Estonian chief (or 'elder', a more accurate term for the role played by the leaders of each parish) emerges from Lehola (land of the Sakalans in the central-south of modern Estonia).

One of the very few elders to be named at any period, Lembitu makes an attempt to unite the various Finnic tribes in Estonia to fight against the Order of the Knights of the Sword and German crusaders. He raises an army which numbers several thousands and raids south and east, reaching Pskov in the territory of Novgorod, below Lake Peipsi. The Unguenois and Sakalans also fight their own separate battles, primarily against Riga and Novgorod.

c.1210 - 1217

Lembitu

Estonian chief from Lehola (Sakalans). Killed in battle.

fl 1212

Meeme / Meme

Estonian chief of the Sakalans.

1215 - 1217

Lembitu's stronghold at Suure-Jaani is taken by Germans and Lembitu himself is imprisoned. By 1217 he is released, only to raise a new Estonian army of around six thousand. That army is defeated and Lembitu is killed at the Battle of St Matthew's Day on 21 September 1217, along with Wottele and Maniwalde of the Sakalans.

? - 1217

Wottele

Estonian chief of the Sakalans. Killed in battle.

? - 1217

Maniwalde

Estonian chief of the Sakalans. Killed in battle.

1217 - ?

Unnepeve

Estonian chief of the Sakalans.

1219

A Danish fleet arrives, led by Valdemar II. On 15 June, he attacks the trading town (which will later become Tallinn, meaning 'Danish City') and the fortress which sits on the hill above it called Lindanäs. The battle is a hard-fought one and the Danes are close to admitting defeat when, according to tradition, a red cloth with a white cross falls from the sky, inspiring them to fight on and conquer the town.

The Danish capture of Tallinn in 1219
This painting contains a somewhat romantic depiction of the Battle of Lyndanisse and the discovery of what would be accepted as the Danish national flag, falling from the sky (Archbishop Andreas Sunonis of Lund, soon to be vice-regent of North Estonia, advises the seated King Valdemar II about the victory to come)

The Danes adopt the flag as their own, and it remains the world's oldest national flag. They also establish a stone castle on Toompea, the dome of rock overlooking Tallinn. Valdemar appoints Bishop Andreas Sunonis as the first regent of Tallinn (and North Estonia).

In the same year the Order of the Knights of the Sword raid Vironian lands, aided by contingents of recently christened Lets, Livs, Sakalians, Ugaunians, and 'Jervians' (presumably people of the Alempois). The raid continues for five days, killing and pillaging Vironian people and settlements, before several elders - including Kyriavan and Thabelin - request a truce. Kyriavan admits - without having much of a choice - that he is ready to accept the Christian god. The other Vironian elders also accept Christianity and the German crusaders take the customary hostages in the form of the sons of elders to ensure that the truce is maintained.

? - 1224

Kyriavanus / Kyriavan

Estonian chief of the Vironians. Surrendered to Danes.

? - 1224

Tabelinus / Thabelin of Pudiviru

Estonian chief of the Vironians. Hanged for pro-Germanism.

1220 - 1226

Despite the Danes having conquered Lindanäs in northern Estonia, their control certainly does not extend to western Estonia. Neither does that of Livonia to any great extent, as the fiercely independent and powerful 'Vikings' of Saaremaa are still a force to be reckoned with. Now they cross the Moonsund with a great host and liberate Rotalia County in western Estonia from the people of Svealand, who have conquered Lihula Castle. How long they remain there is unclear, but the fight against the Swedes continues in 1226 when the men of Saaremaa sail back home from Svealand with a great deal of loot and a large number of prisoners.

Vastseliina Castle in Estonia
Vastseliina Castle (now in Võrumaa in Estonia but in the thirteenth century still part of Livonia to the south of the Vironians) was finally destroyed by the Russians during the Great Northern War which ended in 1721

1224

Tabelinus of the Vironians is hanged by the Danes for being suspected of becoming too pro-German in his allegiances, having already accepted baptism from them. The role of the elders is effectively terminated, as Danish and Livonian authority is confirmed in North Estonia and southern-central Estonia respectively.

Danish Governors of North Estonia & Vice-Regents of Tallinn
AD 1219 - 1346

Interest in the Baltics by the increasingly powerful states of Germany and Denmark during the twelfth century may have been generated in part by the continued raids by 'Eastern Vikings' on their ports and ships. These fierce and combative Couronians and Osilians (of Ösel, modern Saaremaa) harried the western states for decades before retaliatory raids grew into militaristic attempts at conquest. The Germans especially had already proven themselves capable of applying creeping subjugation on their less advanced eastern neighbours, as could be seen in the march of Lusatia and the North March. The Danes had already briefly occupied the island of Ösel in 1206, but had been forced to abandon their conquest due to a lack of volunteers to man the fortress they built there.

The Danes carried out a much more successful conquest in 1219 when they won a hard-fought battle to capture the stronghold of Lindanäs and the settlement at its foot. Then they set about taking over and securing all of North Estonia (Danish Estonia, or Estland) by force, while the rest of the Estonian lands were undergoing the same process from the south. What is now Estonia and Latvia quickly came to be governed by German prince-bishops in Courland, Dorpat, Ösel-Wiek, and Riga, while the Order of the Knights of the Sword conquered the rest of Latvia and central Estonia. The captured territory between Danish Estonia and independent Lithuania became known as Livonia.

The Scandinavian version of the name, 'Lindanisse', seems to be one of the oldest used for the city of Tallinn, although the Rus names of Koluvan and Ledenets pre-date the Danish conquest. The Danes quickly exchanged the name for Reval, from the name for the province in which the city lay - Revelia, or Rävala - presumably taken from the native Revalians rather than the other way around. That province was itself later merged into Harria province (modern Harju County).

The Danish king ruled directly (but in his absence), so he appointed a vice-regent in Tallinn to govern in his name (using the Latin title of capitaneus). The position carried with it the governorship of North Estonia, while a bishop was also appointed by the king to sit in Reval. Andreas Sunonis (the Latinised form of Anders Sunesen), archbishop of Lund and governor in name only of Ösel in 1206, was the first to hold office in Tallinn. The list of subsequent governors and vice-regents (mainly Danes or Danish-Estonians) has many gaps, however. Estonian history from this period is very sketchy in places. Danish forces in Estonia were never very strong, and the king himself rarely entered the province, except perhaps to pass through it on the way to a war elsewhere.

Seto People of Estonia

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information by Gediminas Kiveris and Merit Pai, from The History of the Baltic Countries, Zigmantas Kiaupa, Ain Mäesalu, Ago Pajur, & Gvido Straube (Eds, Estonia, 2008), from Eric's Chronicle, from the 15th Yearbook of the Estonian Learned Society in Sweden, 2010-2014 (Eesti Teadusliku Seltsi Rootsis aastaraamat XV. 2010-2014), Ants Anderson (Ed, Stockholm, 2015), from Guide to Castles in Estonia, Mart Helme (Kunst, Estonia, 2003), from The Four Oldest Churches of Tallinn (Morgan Studio, Estonia, 2006), from Guide to Churches in Estonia, Mart Helme & Peeter Säre (Kunst, Estonia, 2002), from Most Beautiful Manors and Castles, Valdo Praust (Grenader Grupp, Estonia, 2004), and from External Links: Life in Estonia (dead link) and Visit Estonia, and Encyclopaedia Britannica, and The Livonian War (Histrodamus), and History of Estonia (Country Studies), and The Missionary Man: Archbishop Anders Sunesen and the Baltic Crusade, 1206-21, Torben K Nielsen (Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier 1150-1500, Routledge, 2001, available via Taylor Francis), and World Statesmen.)

1219 - 1221

Andreas Sunonis

Archbishop of Lund. Former governor of Ösel (1206).

1221

Archbishop of Lund in Scania, Andreas Sunonis (the Latinised form of Anders Sunesen), has completed a spell of two years in his additional office as the first vice-regent of Tallinn and governor of North Estonia. He has played a key role not only in bringing enforced Christianity to the Estonian people, but had also been a key player in the Danish invasion of North Estonia in 1219. Now he concentrates entirely on his archbishopric in Scania until his death in 1228.

Tallinn's medieval city walls
The oldest sections of Tallinn's city wall - still largely extant - were built by the Danes in the thirteenth century (click or tap on image to view full sized)

1219 - 1227

Canute / Knud Valdemarsen

Duke of Reval. Bastard son of King Valdemar II of Denmark.

1219 - 1227

Over the course of the following eight years, North Estonia is slowly taken by force under Danish control. In 1220, following quarrels between the Danes and the Order of the Knights of the Sword over the precise borders between their conquests, Denmark agrees to submit the southern Estonian provinces of Sakala and Ugaunia (Dorpat) which are already under the control of the knights. Bishop Albert in Livonia officially submits to Denmark and North Estonia the provinces of Harria (Harju), Vironia (Viru), and Jerwia (Järva).

1227

The Danes are temporarily eclipsed in North Estonia when the Order of the Knights of the Sword conquers all of their territory from the heartland of their powerbase in central Livonia. Duke Canute and Archbishop Andreas are kicked out of the country by the resurgent Estonians (Canute's descendant, Bengt Algotsson, is created duke of neighbouring Finland in 1353).

The role of the Estonian elders on Ösel-Wiek is effectively terminated when that island is finally conquered. Ösel-Wiek is established as one of four bishoprics in Livonia. The territory is divided between the archbishop of Riga, the Order of the Knights of the Sword, and the city of Riga. Over the course of the next few years, the city of Riga loses its domain and the island remains under the governance of two landlords - the bishop of Saare-Lääne (Ösel-Wiek) and the Order.

Livonian Knights
This image is taken from a somewhat later, slightly romanticised depiction of the Order of the Knights of the Sword, but their general uniform is of the same style as that of the better-known European crusaders of the Near East

1233

FeatureThe area around the Dome Cathedral in Tallinn (see feature link) becomes the scene of a battle which takes place between the Order of the Knights of the Sword and pro-Papal vassals who want to create an ecclesiastical state. The bodies of defeated pro-Papal knights are piled at the alter of the cathedral after the battle spreads inside the church.

1233 - 1234

Johan Selig

A commander of the Order of the Knights of the Sword.

1236 - 1238

The Order of the Knights of the Sword is decimated by the Samogitians and Semigallians (two peoples who are situated between the Lithuanians and the Lats in what is now southern Latvia) at the Battle of Schaulen (Saule) in 1236.

The following year, what remains of the Order joins the Teutonic Knights as an autonomous branch in Livonia, now known as the Livonian Order, or Livonian Knights. While being subject to the grand master of the Teutonic Knights, the Livonian Knights continue to operate on their own behalf. Now unable to hold onto North Estonia securely, the parishes of Harria and Vironia are returned to the Danes under the terms of the Treaty of Stensby in 1238, which is mediated by the Pope. However, the Livonian Knights keep Jerwia and also have control of Ösel-Wiek.

1240 - 1242

Denmark attacks Novgorod to the east of its lands in North Estonia. Apart from teaching Novgorod a lesson and perhaps winning some territory, the Finno-Ugric Votians are also targeted as the Danes want their territory. Overall, though, the campaign fails to gain any territory at all. In fact, Novgorod is able to launch a reprisal attack which enters Livonian lands to the south of North Estonia.

Bishop Hermann of Dorpat and his Ungenois forces are defeated along with the Teutonic Knights on 5 April by the prince of Novgorod, Alexander Yaroslavitz Nevsky, during the Battle of the Ice on Lake Peipsi. This halts the eastwards advance of the German crusaders and fixes Dorpat's border along Peipsi, where it remains to this day (with later Soviet era modifications).

Tallinn's medieval city walls
The oldest sections of Tallinn's city wall - still largely extant - were built by the Danes in the thirteenth century (click or tap on image to view full sized)

1248

The city of Reval (modern Tallinn) is granted town privileges by Lübeck, founder of the Hanseatic League of trading ports. This allows it an elevated degree of self-governance and probably a decreased tax burden with the Danish king.

1248 - 1249

Saxo Aginsun

Died about 1249.

1249

Stigot Agison

Brother or son?

1254 - 1257

Saxo

1259

Jakob Ramessun

1260 - 1290

The Livonian Knights, along with the Teutonic Knights, are abandoned by their Estonian and Couronian vassals and defeated severely by the Samogitians at the Battle of Durbe in Livonia in 1260. As a result, numerous rebellions break out against the Teutonic Knights all across the Baltics, including military expeditions by the Lithuanians, and it takes around thirty years before complete control is regained.

Typical Lithuanian wooden castle
A typical Lithuanian wooden castle from a time in which the land was filled with them, approximately 450 in all, held by the nobility against the country's powerful enemies

1262

B-

Rest of name unknown.

1266

Woghen Palissun

1268 & 1270

The Danish fleet sails to Reval in 1268 and 1270 to ward off threats posed by the Lithuanians and Rus (probably of Novgorod). The rebellions by Estonians and Couronians in northern Livonia seem not to extend into North Estonia, but the political situation is doubtless fraught and North Estonian lands vulnerable to attack.

1270

Siverith

1274 - 1275

Smolensk is the last of the independent principalities of the Rus, but it now falls to Mongke Temur of the Golden Horde. The following year he defends his Rus vassals by dispatching a Mongol-Rus force to ward off the Lithuanians, an action requested by Duke Lev I of Halych-Volynia.

1275 - 1279

Eilard von Oberch

Died 1279.

1279 - 1281

Odewart Lode

Surname uncertain.

1283

To the south-west of Livonia, the Teutonic Knights continue to advance north through Prussia, and having conquered the lands of the Skalvs and part of that of the Yotvingians, they drive the Nadruvians to the River Nemunas in 1283, right on the border with Lithuania. The population of these areas is killed off, with only a few managing to escape across the border.

Tallinn's medieval city walls
The oldest sections of Tallinn's city wall - still largely extant - were built by the Danes in the thirteenth century (click or tap on image to view full sized)

c.1285

Letgast

1287

Friedrich Moltike

1287

A-

Rest of name unknown.

1288

Johann Sialanzfar

1294

The accession of Pukuveras to the Lithuanian throne unites Samogitia to the crown on a permanent basis, and probably serves to end the series of Samogitian rebellions against their various German opponents. Pukuveras dies just three years later but his son, Viten, rules both lands as a single political entity.

1296

Nils Axelsson

1298

Nikolaus Ubbison

1304

Johann Saxesson

1310

Johannes Canne

1312 - 1313

Ago Saxisson

Related to Johann, above?

1313 - 1314

Heinrich Bernauer

1323

Johannes Kanna

Would appear to be the Johannes Canne of 1310.

1326

Peter von Dusburg writes that in the Prussian province of Nadruva, in the place called Romuva, there is a powerful priest named Krivė, whom the people regarded as pope, and whose dominion extends not only over Nadruva, but also over Couronia, Lithuania, and Semigallia. The only such 'pope' known to recorded history, Krivė is highly respected by the kings, nobility and common people, and his rule covers almost all of the Baltic lands during the wars against the Teutonic Knights.

Three Old Prussian gods
The gods of the Old Prussians were Patrimps, Parkuns, and Patolls (sounding like modern Latvian names in the near-compulsory 's' at the end of each name) who were related to the principle cycles of human life - birth and growth, maturity, and ageing and death

1329

Heinrich Spliit

1332 - 1343

King Christopher II of Denmark dies a prisoner, having already lost the kingdom to factionalism. Denmark as a kingdom ceases to exist for the next eight years. The political fallout and turmoil reaches North Estonia where the pro-German Marquard Breide and his supporters are opposed by the pro-Danish Bishop Olav von Roskilde of Reval. The division is replicated across North Estonia, with each group holding onto its own pockets of territory.

1332 - 1335

Marquard Breide

Pro-German. Opposed by Reval. Died.

1340 - 1343

Konrad Preen

Governed Jul-May.

1343

Bertram von Parembeke

Acting governor. Died 1343?

1343

The St George's Night Uprising sees a large-scale native Estonian revolt beaten by the Livonian Knights, using a mixture of treachery and battle. The Danish response to the uprising seems to be muted (unsurprisingly, given their continued internal divisions), with the Knights taking command of the defence. However, the Knights are unable to prevent some disasters, such as the loss of Pöide Castle on Ösel-Wiek, and the probable massacre of its entire garrison.

St George's Night Uprising
The oppressed Estonian peasants began the St George's Night Uprising in 1343, which was brutally put down by the Livonian Order, resulting in the Order being able to take control of all of the major Danish strongholds in the duchy of Estonia

1343 - 1344

Goswin von Herike

A Livonian stadholder. Died 1359.

1344 - 1346

Stigot Andersson

Last Danish vice-regent of North Estonia.

1346

The Danish king sells North Estonia to the Livonian Knights for ten thousand marks. All of Estonia is now ruled by a German nobility class. The official transfer of power takes place on 1 November 1346. The last Danish bishop of Reval, Olav von Roskilde, is allowed to retain his position, but now under the governance of the Teutonic Knights. The title of 'Duke of Estonia' falls into disuse (only to be revived by Danish King Christian I in 1456 without actually holding any Estonian territory).

German/Livonian Governors of North Estonia
AD 1346 - 1562

It was the powerful states of Germany and Denmark in the thirteenth century which invaded and occupied the territories of the various Estonian groups in the Baltics. German crusaders were also busy carving out the state of Livonia from Balt territories to the south. The Danes succeeded in taking the stronghold of Lindanäs in 1219, which they renamed Reval (Tallinn). Then they set about taking over and securing all of North Estonia by force, while the rest of the Estonian lands were being incorporated into Livonia. Very shortly, what is now Estonia and Latvia came to be governed by German prince-bishops in Courland, Dorpat, Ösel-Wiek, and Riga, while the Order of the Knights of the Sword conquered the rest of Latvia and central Estonia.

The Danish king appointed a vice-regent in Reval to govern in his name. The position carried with it the governorship of North Estonia, while a bishop was also appointed by the king to sit in Reval. Following the collapse of the Danish kingdom in 1332, North Estonia itself became fragmented, warred over between pro-German and pro-Danish camps. When the St George's Night Uprising was triggered in 1343, the Danes seemed unable to act against it. Instead it was the Order of the Knights of the Sword in their new guise of the Livonian Knights which handled the extremely hard-fought job of putting down the uprising.

Just three years later, in 1346, the king of the restored Danish state sold North Estonia to the Order for ten thousand marks. All of Estonia was now ruled by a German nobility class. The official transfer of power took place on 1 November 1346. The last Danish bishop of Reval was allowed to retain his position, but now under the governance of the Teutonic Knights (masters of the Livonian Knights). The title of 'Duke of Estonia' fell into disuse (only to be revived by Danish King Christian I in 1456 without actually holding any Estonian territory). Unfortunately the list of governors and vice-regents of Danish North Estonia is highly fragmented, and this continues throughout the German/Livonian period. Many German governors were masters of the Livonian Order, either at the same time or later.

Seto People of Estonia

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information by Gediminas Kiveris and Merit Pai, from The History of the Baltic Countries, Zigmantas Kiaupa, Ain Mäesalu, Ago Pajur, & Gvido Straube (Eds, Estonia, 2008), from Eric's Chronicle, from the 15th Yearbook of the Estonian Learned Society in Sweden, 2010-2014 (Eesti Teadusliku Seltsi Rootsis aastaraamat XV. 2010-2014), Ants Anderson (Ed, Stockholm, 2015), from Guide to Castles in Estonia, Mart Helme (Kunst, Estonia, 2003), from The Four Oldest Churches of Tallinn (Morgan Studio, Estonia, 2006), from Guide to Churches in Estonia, Mart Helme & Peeter Säre (Kunst, Estonia, 2002), from Most Beautiful Manors and Castles, Valdo Praust (Grenader Grupp, Estonia, 2004), and from External Links: Life in Estonia (dead link) and Visit Estonia, and Encyclopaedia Britannica, and The Livonian War (Histrodamus), and History of Estonia (Country Studies), and The Missionary Man: Archbishop Anders Sunesen and the Baltic Crusade, 1206-21, Torben K Nielsen (Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier 1150-1500, Routledge, 2001, available via Taylor Francis), and World Statesmen.)

1346 - 1347

Burchard von Dreileben

Stadholder of the Livonian Order (1340). Died after 1366.

1346

With the successful conclusion - at least for the Livonian Order - of the St George's Night Uprising and the sale of Danish North Estonia to the Order, Burchard von Dreileben seemingly surrenders his position as the Order's head in favour of assuming the post of governor of North Estonia.

Teutonic Knights
Already veteran soldiers from their time in the Holy Land, the Teutonic Knights would have presented a fearsome spectacle to the native inhabitants of the Baltics - and a deadly opponent

c.1348

Hildebrand von Lenthe

First Livonian commander of Reval.

1348 - 1349

Arnold von Vietinghof

Later master of the Livonian Order (1359).

1352 - 1359

Dietrich von Warmsdorf

1361 - 1369

Helmich von Diepenbrock

1370

Gottschalk von Wickede

1375 - 1379

Heinrich von Eppenhausen

1379

Bishop Dietrich III of Dorpat hates the Livonian Order with some intensity, so much so that he forms a coalition against the Order alongside Lithuania, Mecklenburg, and the notorious Victual Brothers - Baltic pirates. The Order invades the bishopric but achieves no success. In the end its lack of results removes from it the right to demand military service from the Livonian bishops.

1384

Bruno von Hochstaden

1387 - 1397

Arnd von Altena

1397 - 1407

Dietrich von Weilburg

1407?/09 - 1411

Friedrich von Welda

1410

The Battle of Tannenberg on 15 July (which is known more locally as the Battle of Grunwald) is one of the region's greatest battles and one that is remembered for centuries afterwards by Germans. It is triggered by a Samogitian revolt in 1409, and sees Polish and Lithuanian forces under Polish leadership crush the Order's army. Although the defeat is not followed up, it halts the eastward expansion of the Teutonic Knights, and after this defeat, the Livonian Knights begin to weaken and disintegrate.

Battle of Tannenberg
The Battle of Tannenberg (or Grunwald) witnessed the shock defeat of the Teutonic Knights at the hands of a Polish-Lithuanian army and destroyed their authority in the Baltics

1411 - 1417

Johann Wekebrot von Buederich

1418 - 1421

Dietrich Duecker

1422 - 1423

Albert Torck

1423 - 1424

Cisse / Cysse von Rutenberg

Zisse, or von dem Rutenberg. Livonian Order master (1424).

1424 - 1429

Goswin von Velmede

1429 - 1432

Heinrich von Böckenförde

Later master of the Livonian Order (1435).

1434 - 1436

Heinrich von der Vaerst

1435

Grand Prince Zygmunt of Lithuania crushes the opposition forces of Swidrygiello and his ally, the Livonian Order. This proves to be the last invasion into Lithuania to be carried out by the Order. Lithuania, at least, is now too powerful for them.

1436 - 1442

Wolter von Loe

Died after 1449.

1441

One of the merchants guilds in Tallinn erects Estonia's (and the world's) first Christmas tree (sixty-nine years before Riga does the same). Merchants and single women dance around the tree, after which it is set alight and all the evidence is disposed of. According to records, Riga's first Christmas tree isn't even a real tree, just a wooden pyramid decorated with flowers, fruits, and toys.

Tallinn's medieval city walls
The oldest sections of Tallinn's city wall - still largely extant - were built by the Danes in the thirteenth century (click or tap on image to view full sized)

1442 - 1450

Johann von Mengede(n)

Later master of the Livonian Order (1450).

1450 - 1456

Ernst von Mengede

Brother or son?

1456 - 1461

Gerhard von Mallinckrodt

Died circa 1487.

1462 - 1468

Johann von Krieckenbeck

Died 1470/1471.

1468 - 1470

Johann Waldhaus von Heerse / Herse

Later master of the Livonian Order (1470).

1470

Erwin von Bellersheim

Captain. Acting governor.

1470 - 1471

Dietrich von der Dorneburg

1472 - 1485

Johann Freitag von Loringhoven

Died 1494.

1485 - 1510

Johann von der Recke

Father of Livonian Order master, Johann (1549). Died af 1511.

1510 - 1516

Evert von Werminghausen

1516 - 1523

Simon Graf von Rietberg

Died 1523.

1523 - 1525

Paul von Steinen

Died 1525.

1525

FeatureThe German Lutheran reformation reaches Tallinn, accompanied by a surprisingly violent stripping of the churches, although the stronghold church of St Nicholas successfully fends off its attackers. A similar mood of destructive reformation occurs in the capital city of the bishopric of Dorpat.

Tallinn's medieval city walls
The oldest sections of Tallinn's city wall - still largely extant - were built by the Danes in the thirteenth century (click or tap on image to view full sized)

In the same year, the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights is secularised by the same Reformation. It is replaced by a duchy in East Prussia, robbing the Livonian Order of its support and supreme leadership. Ousted entirely from power, the Teutonic Knights remain in place as mere titular administrators.

1525 - 1532

Dietrich Bock

Died 1532.

1533

Johann von Witten

1534 - 1550

Remmert von Scharenberg

Died 1550.

1550 - 1552

Rolf von Benzenrade / Benzenrod

1553 - 1558

Franz von Siegenhoven

In office until 26 Jul 1558.

1558

Christoph von Muenchhausen

Self-proclaimed. In office 26-27 Jul 1588 only. Died 1565.

1558

Heinrich von Uexkuell

Acting governor to Dec 1558.

1558 - 1561

Dietrich von der Steinkuhl

Acting. In office Dec 1558 to Jun 1561. Died 1570.

1558 - 1559

Following Russian provocation and the conquest of Dorpat, the Livonian Wars erupt in the Baltic states (1558-1583), ripping apart the old order in Livonia and North Estonia. The Livonian Knights and the archbishop of Riga seek help from Sigismund II of Poland-Lithuania, pawning five Order castles and two archbishopric castles together with their surrounding territory to help procure it.

Russian siege of Narva in 1558
The Russian siege of Narva in 1558 (as envisaged by Boris Chorikov in 1836) was the first step by Ivan IV of Russia in his attempted seizure of the Baltic lands

1560

Dietrich von der Steinkuhl is the acting governor for the intended replacement, Jasper von Altenbockum. That replacement, though, does not arrive in Reval to take up his post, so Casper von Oldenbockum, stadholder, steps in to take over.

1560 - 1561

Casper von Oldenbockum

In office Aug 1560 to Jun 1561. Died 1565.

1560 - 1562

The army of the Livonian Knights is completely destroyed by the Russians at the Battle of Ergeme in 1560, and a year later, on 29 November, their Order is dissolved. South Estonia remains within Livonia which, along with the duchy of Courland, becomes part of Lithuania. In North Estonia, Tallinn, together with the vassals of Harju-Viru and Järva, asks Sweden for military support, and in June 1561 they pledge allegiance to King Eric IV of Sweden to be incorporated into the kingdom as the duchy of Estonia, while the German prince-bishops sell off the last of their territory, including the bishopric of Ösel Wiek. German North Estonia becomes Swedish North Estonia.

Swedish Governors of Estonia / Duchy of Estonia
AD 1562 - 1710

In 1346, the king of the restored Danish state sold Danish North Estonia to the Livonian Knights for ten thousand marks. All of Estonia was now ruled by a German nobility class. The title of 'Duke of Estonia' fell into disuse (only to be revived by Danish King Christian I in 1456 without actually holding any Estonian territory). Many of the subsequent governors of German North Estonia were masters of the Livonian Order, either at the same time or later.

Provocation by the Russian czarate and its conquest of Narva and Dorpat ignited the Russian-Livonian War. Dorpat was the first of the Old Livonian states to cease to exist, but not the last. The specific Russian-Livonian War quickly escalated into the broader Livonian Wars as fighting spread across the Baltic states (1558-1583). The wars ripped apart the old order in Livonia and North Estonia: the Livonian Knights were destroyed in battle in 1560, while southern Estonia and the duchy of Courland became part of Poland-Lithuania, ending the independent reign of the archbishopric of Riga. The bishopric of Ösel-Wiek was purchased by Denmark, with Wiek being ceded to Poland and Ösel becoming a duchy in its own right.

The treaties of Jam Zapolski (1582) and Plussa (1583), brought open hostilities to an end. Sweden's successes helped that country to create a Scandinavian empire which covered North Estonia and a large swathe of territory in what is now the north-western Russian coastal region (Ingermanland). The Swedish kings gained the title of 'Duke of Estonia' until Gustavus II Adolphus (Gustav Adolph) abolished all Swedish duchies in 1618. The governors ruled from the capital, Reval (modern Tallinn on the north-western Estonian coast). The period in which they belonged to 'Swedish Estonia' came to be known as a golden age for Estonians.

Seto People of Estonia

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information from The History of the Baltic Countries, Zigmantas Kiaupa, Ain Mäesalu, Ago Pajur, & Gvido Straube (Eds, Estonia 2008), from the 15th Yearbook of the Estonian Learned Society in Sweden, 2010-2014 (Eesti Teadusliku Seltsi Rootsis aastaraamat XV. 2010-2014), Ants Anderson (Ed, Stockholm, 2015), from Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften, Teil 2, 2: Estland, Görlitz (1930, in German), and from External Links: Life in Estonia (dead link), and Encyclopaedia Britannica, and The Livonian War (Histrodamus), and World Statesmen.)

1561 - 1562

Lars Ivarsson Fleming

Friherre (baron or count) of Nynäs.

1561

Klaus Christiern Horn of Åminne

Acting governor for Aug only.

1562

Henrik Klasson Horn of Kankas

Governor-general of Finland (1551). Governor of Reval (1565).

1562 - 1564

Svante Stensson Sture

Died 1567.

1564 - 1565

Hermann Pedersson Fleming of Lechtis

Died 1583.

1565

Although the Swedish governors-general may be in place, the Livonian Wars continue. Now Henrik Klasson Horn of Kankas, commander-in-chief of Swedish forces in Estonia and Livonia, and briefly governor-general of the Swedish duchy of Estonia in 1562, defeats a German mercenary force near Reval (Tallinn). In the same year, Henrik Klasson is made governor of Reval under the titular rule of Magnus of Livonia. His failure to successfully execute the siege of Narva in 1579 sees him being replaced.

Tallinn in 1561
This print of Tallinn from 1561 shows the extensive development of the stronghold on the dome hill in Tallinn, but very little evidence of the growing town at its base

1565 - 1568

Henrik Klasson Horn of Kankas

Governor for the second time.

1566 - 1568

Ösel (Saaremaa) is invaded by Swedes as an act of the Northern Seven Years War. They pillage the entire island and leave with a huge quantity of loot. Being unable to defend another castle besides Kuressaare if the Swedes attack again, the Danes destroy Maasi Castle in the same year. They soon began to regret that decision and instead reinforce the castle again. The Swedes return in 1568, this time in eighteen ships. On 14 August Maasi Castle is handed over to them, together with Pöide and the island of Muhu.

1568 - 1570

Gabriel Kristiernsson Oxenstierna

Of Mörby.

1570 - 1571

The fight for the Baltic states is not yet over. In this decade, the Russian army launches a new offensive, and reaches Riga and Tallinn under the command of Ivan the Terrible. He does not manage to capture either town, failing to take Tallinn both in 1570-1571, and again in 1577.

Map of Scandinavia AD 1581
In the near-three centuries since 1300 the Norwegians and Swedes had massively increased their dominance of the once-uncharted northern depths of Fenno-Scandinavia, although Denmark now dominated Norway (click or tap on map to view full sized)

1570 - 1572

Hans Björnsson

Of Lepas.

1572 - 1574

Claes Åkeson Tott

Died 1590.

1574 - 1575

Pontus De la Gardie

A French nobleman in the service of Sweden.

1576 - 1578

Karl Henriksson Horn of Kankas

Of Swedish Finland.

1576 - 1577

Nilsson Hans Eriksson Finn of Brinkala

Finn. Acting governor.

1577 - 1580

Göran Boije af Gennäs

First period in office.

1580 - 1581

Svante Eriksson Stålarm

Of Kyala.

1581 - 1583

As the Livonian Wars draw to an end, the county of Läänemaa (Wiek, formerly part of the bishopric of Ösel-Wiek) is conquered by Sweden in 1581, giving it control of a greater slice of Estonia, especially when it also takes Narva from the Russian czarate. The following year an armistice agreement is concluded between the Russian czar and the Polish-Lithuanian kingdom proclaiming Livonia a possession of the latter. In 1583, Russia concludes a similar agreement with Sweden, acknowledging its supreme power in North Estonia.

Swedish coin of the duchy of Estonia
Issued in the name of the king of Sweden, this Reval shilling bears the name of King Johan III of Sweden (1568-1592), as ruler of the duchy of Estonia

1582 - 1583

Göran Boije af Gennäs

Governor for the second time.

1583 - 1585

Pontus De la Gardie

Governor for the second time.

1585 - 1588

Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna

Son of Gabriel Kristiernsson Oxenstierna (1568).

1588

Hans Wachtmeister

Acting governor & admiral general of the Swedish navy.

1588 - 1590

Gustaf Axelsson Banér

Of Djurshom.

1590 - 1592

Erik Gabrielsson Oxenstierna af Lindö

Brother of Gustaf (1585).

1592

The son of the late King Johan III, King Sigismund III of Poland-Lithuania, inherits the Swedish throne, but his inflexible politics and passionate Catholicism causes opposition from the Swedish Protestant population, forcing the king to return to Poland. He does not relinquish his claim to the throne, however, which leads to conflict.

1592 - 1600

Göran Boije af Gennäs

Governor for the third time.

1595

The Teusina Treaty agrees peaceful terms between Sweden and Russia. Kvenland ('Kaianske landet') is mentioned for the first time in an official government document as a territory that is governed by Sweden, although this claim seems not entirely to be merited as there is territory in the northern reaches of Scandinavia and Fenno-Scandinavia which is unlikely to be under any direct administration at this point.

Tallinn's medieval city walls
The oldest sections of Tallinn's city wall - still largely extant - were built by the Danes in the thirteenth century (click or tap on image to view full sized)

1599 - 1604

The Swedish Diet elects Karl, duke of Södermanland, in 1599 to be the country's new ruler. In 1604 he is crowned, but by then hostilities are already underway between Sweden and Poland-Lithuania. The First Polish-Swedish War sees Swedish troops assembled in Tallinn in order to attack Livonia, but instead the army suffers significant losses at Cesis and Koknes, in spite of the fact that Poland-Lithuania's main forces are fighting the Ottomans. The Swedes are driven out of Livonia in 1601. Further attacks on Riga in 1604 and Courland in 1605 also fail.

1600 - 1601

Karl Henriksson Horn of Kankas

Acting governor for the second time.

1601 - 1602

Count Moritz Stensson Leijonhufvud

Count of Raseborg (Finland).

1602 - 1605

Anders Larsson Botilast

Acting governor for the first time.

1605

Nils Turesson Bielke

Later governor-general of Finland (1623).

1605 - 1608

Axel Nilsson Ryning

Died 1620.

1608 - 1611

Anders Larsson Botilast

Acting governor for the second time.

1611 - 1617

Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna

Became governor of Finland (1635) & Livonia (1645).

1617 - 1619

Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud

Later governor of Ösel (1645).

1619 - 1622

Jacob de la Gardie

Son of Pontus. Became governor of Livonia (1622).

1622 - 1626

Per Gustafsson Banér af Tussa

Grandson of Svante Stensson Sture (1562).

1626 - 1628

Johan de la Gardie

Friherre of Eckholm.

1628 - 1642

Philipp Scheiding

Of Arnö.

1629

FeatureThe First Polish-Swedish War ends with the Treaty of Altmark, which sees the Swedes take all of Poland-Lithuania's remaining mainland Estonian and Livonian territory. It is probably during this period that many of the old German crusader castles such as Helme Order Castle are destroyed (see feature link). The remainder of Livonia, the eastern part of Livonia, named Latgallia, remains in Polish hands and survives today as the Latgale region of Latvia.

Estonian rural house
A traditional sixteenth and seventeenth century house of rural Estonia of the type that today can be found in places such as Tallinn's Open Air Museum

1642 - 1646

Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna Friherre

Son of Gabriel (1611).

1645

FeatureThe Swedes gain all of modern Estonia when the Danes hand over the island of Ösel (Saaremaa) under the Treaty of Brömsebro. During this period, Russian settlers who have seceded from the Orthodox church following the Great Schism migrate to the south-western shores of Lake Peipsi (now the eastern border of Estonia), forming small fishing communities along the lake's shore (see feature link).

1646 - 1653

Count Erik Axelsson Oxenstierna

Died 1656.

1653

Wilhelm Ulrich

Acting governor.

1653 - 1655

Count Heinrich von Thurn-Valsassina

Died 1656.

1655

Wilhelm Ulrich

Acting governor for the second time.

1655 - 1656

Bengt Skytte

Became Swedish ambassador to London.

1655 - 1656

Wilhelm Ulrich

Acting governor for the third time.

1656 - 1674

Bengt Klasson Horn

Died 1678.

1656 - 1659

Wilhelm Ulrich

Acting governor for the fourth time.

1674

Johan Christoph Scheiding

Acting governor.

1674

With the appointment of Andreas Lennartson Torstensson, the position of governor is elevated to that of governor-general (see map, below).

Map of Scandinavia AD 1660
The Swedes were driven out of Livonia in 1601 but returned in 1629 following the results of further conflict. Russia was becoming increasingly important in these territorial struggles (click or tap on map to view full sized)

1674 - 1681

Andreas / Anders L Torstensson

First governor-general.

1681 - 1687

Robert Johannson Lichton

Died 1692.

1687

Nils Turesson Bielke

Baron Korpo. Later governor of Swedish Pomerania (1687).

1687 - 1704

Axel Julius De la Gardie

Son of Jacob De la Gardie. Swedish field marshal.

1695 - 1697

The country suffers a severe famine, known as the Great Famine, which leads to the death of almost a fifth of the entire Estonian population. The famine is theorised to be the result of climate change, and Estonia is not the only victim. Finland and Livonia also suffer large-scale death due to famine, all of which could perhaps be attributed to the Little Ice Age, a period of intense cooling across Europe which also regularly freezes the River Thames in London.

1700

Sweden finds itself attacked by Russia, Poland, and Denmark in the Great Northern War (alternatively entitled the Second Northern War) which lasts until 1721. Sweden's expansion at the end of the Livonian Wars had antagonised several states, notably those on the receiving end of defeats such as Russia and Denmark. The latter state takes the opportunity presented by the death of Charles XI of Sweden to organise an anti-Swedish coalition.

1704 - 1706

Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach

Russian captive in 1712, and switched allegiance.

1706 - 1709

Niels Jonsson Stromberg af Clastorp

Later governor of Livonia (1709).

1709 - 1710

Carl Gustaf von Nieroth

Last Swedish governor to 10 Oct 1710. Given Finland (1710).

1708

FeatureDuring the Great Northern War, Dorpat (Tartu) is blasted and part of St John's Church in the heart of the city is destroyed by the bombardment. Fortunately, the church is largely rebuilt following the war's conclusion (see feature link).

Tallinn 1650
This print of Tallinn in 1650 shows the growing city much as it would have been found by its new masters, the Russians, in 1710

1710

Sweden loses control of Estonia to the Russians, except on Ösel, which they retain. The unfortunate final Swedish governor, Carl Gustaf von Nieroth, is subsequently transferred to Finland, which is also soon captured by the Russians.

Russian Governors of Estonia (Reval Governorate)
AD 1710 - 1915

The Livonian Wars of 1558-1583 had allowed Sweden to take control of the Baltic states, but the Great Northern War at the start of the eighteenth century ended that control. The Russian empire had been building its strength and territories over the intervening time and was now the dominant regional force. In 1710 Russia secured control of the territory which would form modern Estonia, all except Ösel which the Swedes retained. It was Rudolph Felix Bauer who besieged Riga, Pärnu, and Tallinn, successfully securing all three and becoming the first Russian governor-general of Estonia. The title of 'Duke of Estonia', abolished by the Swedes in 1618, was revived by the Romanovs. The last holder of the title was Czar Nicholas II in 1918.

The captured territories were divided by their new masters into three Baltic Provinces: Courland, Estonia (with its capital at Reval - today's Tallinn), and Livonia. In 1801-1809 and from 1819 onwards supreme authority was vested in a governor-general who was based in Riga, but at other times the provinces were governed individually, answering directly to St Petersburg. To gain support from the German landowners who still dominated the region culturally and linguistically, the Russian authorities greatly diminished the rights and freedoms of the Estonian peasants. On the plus side - if there could be one for the enslaved Estonians - this regime was not nearly so aggressively destructive for them as the later Soviet one would be.

Seto People of Estonia

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information from The History of the Baltic Countries, Zigmantas Kiaupa, Ain Mäesalu, Ago Pajur, & Gvido Straube (Eds, Estonia 2008), from the 15th Yearbook of the Estonian Learned Society in Sweden, 2010-2014 (Eesti Teadusliku Seltsi Rootsis aastaraamat XV. 2010-2014), Ants Anderson (Ed, Stockholm, 2015), from Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften, Teil 2, 2: Estland, Görlitz (1930, in German), and from External Links: Life in Estonia (dead link), and Encyclopaedia Britannica, and History of Estonia (Country Studies).)

1710 - 1711

Rudolph Felix Bauer

Russian general and first governor-general.

1711 - 1719

Prince Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov

Also governor of Livonia.

1718

FeatureConstruction begins on Kadriorg Palace in Tallinn, built on the orders of Peter the Great to serve as a summer residence near his naval port in the city. The work is initially handled by the Italian architect, Niccolo Michetti (see feature link).

Map of Scandinavia AD 1721
This map shows the Nordic borders following the conclusion of the Great Northern War in 1721, after which large swathes of eastern territory changed hands (click or tap on map to view full sized)

1719 - 1728

Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin

Last of the governors-general in Estonia. Removed.

1721

The Great Northern War is ended with the Treaty of Nystad by which time Russia has already gained much influence in the duchy of Courland with the marriage of Princess Anna Ivanova (later empress in 1730) to the ruling duke. That duchy, plus Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia, are confirmed as Russian possessions. Large numbers of Ingrian Finns (not to be confused with Izhorian-speaking Ingrians) migrate back into Finland proper as Russia starts to impose its own rule on the region. Czar Peter is subsequently proclaimed 'Emperor of All Russia', although only Poland-Lithuania, Prussia, and Sweden recognise this claim.

1728 - 1736

Friedrich Baron von Löwen

Former deputy governor. Now (reduced) governor of Estonia.

1736 - 1738

Sebastian Ernst von Manstein

Acting governor.

1738 - 1740

Gustaf Otto Douglas

Swedish, but captured and 'became' Russian. Arrested.

1740 - 1743

Woldemar von Löwendahl

Later a marshal of France.

1762 - 1783

A Swedish attempt to regain territory lost to Russia backfires in the Russo-Swedish War, which is part of the greater Austrian War of Succession. Also known as the Hats' Russian War, the Russian forces sweep the Swedes back to Helsinki where they surrender, and Finland is again occupied while peace negotiations rumble on. The Lesser Wrath, as this event is known, sees Sweden further diminished as a great power when it is forced to hand over the Finnish towns of Hamina and Lappeenranta, along with a strip of territory lying to the north-west of St Petersburg. The River Kymi is set as the new border.

1743 - 1753

Peter August Friedrich

Duke of Holstein-Beck. Returned to active service (1753).

1753 - 1758

Prince Vladimir Petrovich Dolgorukiy

Previously and later governor of Livonia (1751 & 1758).

1758 - 1775

Peter August Friedrich

Second term of office. Died 1775. Interim followed.

1762 - 1783

With an increase of direct Russian control of the Baltic states in mind, Catherine the Great orders Livonia to be administered directly by the governor-general of the Baltic Provinces, Count George Browne. Estonia is forced to follow suit in 1775. However, from 1783, Georg Friedrich von Grotenhielm begins to handle local matters.

Czarina Catherine the Great
The assassination of Czar Peter III and the seizure of the imperial throne by his widow, Catherine (pictured on the balcony at the time of her accession as czarina), resulted in a shift in Russian policy and in its administration of the Baltic Provinces

1783 - 1786

Georg Friedrich von Grotenhielm

First regional governor since 1775. Retired due to illness.

1786 - 1797

Heinrich Johann Baron von Wrangell

Aged 60 in 1797. Retired? Died 1813.

1788 - 1790

Having secured the Swedish throne through force, Gustavus conducts two failed military campaigns in 1788-1790, first to capture Norway and then to recapture the Baltic Provinces from Russia.

1797 - 1808

Andreas von Langell

Previously deputy governor (1786-1797).

1799

The Second Coalition is formed by Austria and Russia against France. It ends in Austrian defeat at the Battle of Marengo, which eventually secures the French client republics in the Netherlands and Italy.

1805

The Third Coalition is formed against France so, in a swift campaign, Napoleon marches east, occupies the Austrian capital of Vienna, and defeats large armies of Austrians and Russians at Austerlitz. The coalition lies in ruins.

1808 - 1809

Duke Peter Friedrich Georg v Oldenburg

Grandson of Frederick II Eugene of Württemberg. Died 1812.

1809 - 1811

On 3 August 1809, Peter von Oldenburg, a younger son of the grand duke of Oldenburg, marries Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia in order to keep her out of the hands of the now-divorced Napoleon Bonaparte of France. On the same day, Duke Peter is appointed governor-general of Russia's three central provinces of Novgorod, Tver, and Yaroslavl. The post of governor of Estonia is vacant for two years and later occupants are increasingly drawn from the local nobility.

1811 - 1816

Grand Duke Paul F August v Oldenburg

Elder brother. Later grand duke of Oldenburg.

1812 - 1813

Incensed by Russia's refusal to join his blockade of Britain, Napoleon invades with one of the largest armies Europe has ever seen. Courland is captured, and Lithuania is occupied, and the French advance to Moscow. However, frustrated by the Russian policy of using the vast space of the country to defeat him, and perhaps unnerved by being ignored after his capture of Moscow, he is forced to retreat to Germany. In early 1813, Europe's armies mobilise against him, and a victory at Leipzig pushes the French back within their own borders.

French defend against Prussians. Leipzig 1813
French grenadiers of the line defend against an attack by Prussian infantry in the three-day Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, dubbed the 'Battle of the Nations' due to the number of states involved, in this 1914 painting by Richard Knötel

1816 - 1819

Berend Johann Baron Üxküll

Head of the Estonian Knighthood (1806-1809).

1816 - 1819

The first real reforms in terms of serfdom, ones which give peasants some rights, has already taken place in 1804. Now, in 1816 and 1819, serfs are formally emancipated in Estland and Livland respectively, meaning that all Livonian and northern Estonian peasants are now, in effect, free men and women.

1819 - 1832

Gotthard Wilh. Baron v Bönninghausen

A Baltic-German.

1832 - 1833

Otto Wilhelm von Essen

A Baltic-German.

1833 - 1841

Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff

A Baltic-German.

1842 - 1859

Johann Christoph E von Grünewaldt

A Baltic-Russian.

1859 - 1868

Wilhelm Otto Cornelius Alexander Ulrich

A Baltic-Russian. Married into the Essen family.

1861

The 'Emancipation Reform of 1861' - more literally known as the Peasants' Reform' - abolishes serfdom in the Russian empire. The act frees up to twenty-three million people. (Serfs living on state-owned lands are freed in 1866.)

Tallinn's medieval city walls
The oldest sections of Tallinn's city wall - still largely extant - were built by the Danes in the thirteenth century (click or tap on image to view full sized)

1863

The period between 22 January 1863 to April 1865 witnesses the 'Second (January) Insurrection', or January Uprising in Poland. The uprising takes place across much of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, including Poland, Lithuania, the Baltic Provinces, Latgallia, and Livonia. Following this, Congress Poland is administered as an integral part of Russia.

1868 - 1870

Mikhail Nikolaiyevich Galkin-Vraskoy

Russian. Later governor of Saratov.

1870 - 1875

Mikhail Shakhovskoiy-Glebow-Strezhnev

Russian. Later governor of Tambov.

1875 - 1885

Viktor Petrovich Polivanov

Russian. Former deputy-governor.

1885 - 1894

Sergey Vladimirovich Shakhovskoiy

Russian. Beginnings of Russification policy.

1894 - 1902

Yevstafiy Nikolaiyevich Skalon

Russian. Oversaw completion of the Nevsky Cathedral.

1902 - 1905

Aleksey Valerianovich Bellegarde

Russian. Former deputy governor of Livonia.

1905

FeatureEstonia suffers bloody reprisals for its important role in a major revolt. In the same year the position of governor-general of Courland and Livonia, but not Estonia, is revived in the Baltic Provinces. (It is now five years since the newly-completed Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Tallinn had been consecrated - see feature link.)

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Tallinn
Situated opposite the Tallinn's modern parliament building, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was erected between 1894-1900 on a grass square which had previously held a memorial to Protestant reformist Martin Luther (click or tap on image to read more on a separate page).

1905

Aleksey Aleksandrovich Lopuchin

Accused of being too lenient with protestors. Dismissed.

1905 - 1906

Nikolay Georgiyevich von Bünting

Of Prusso-Courlandic descent.

1906 - 1907

Pyotr Petrovich Bashilov

Russian. Died 1919.

1907 - 1915

Ismail Vladimirovich Korostovets

Former deputy governor of Courland.

1914

The position of special plenipotentiary for the civil administration of the Baltic Provinces of Livonia, Estonia and Courland is created. The first incumbent is given responsibility for Estonia and Livonia, but excluding the district of Riga in 1914, then Reval (Tallinn), Baltischport (Paldiski), and Dünamünde (Daugavgriva).

1915 - 1917

Pyotr Vladimirovich Veryovkin

Last civil governor of Estonia. Independence followed.

1915 - 1918

Thanks to Russian First World War defeats of 1916 and 1917, the Baltic Provinces are conquered by Germany between 1915 ( Courland) and 1918 (Estonia), much to the relief of the German-descended land-owning aristocracy. In 1917, following the Russian Revolution, a new puppet Communist regime is appointed in Tallinn, but its authority fails to extend beyond the city. Instead, a semi-independent pro-German regime is established in the country. The Baltic provinces are formally transferred to German authority by Russia in 1918 following the Treaties of Brest-Litovsk and of Berlin. However, Germany is in no position to enforce its power and Estonians quickly push for independence.

Modern Estonia
AD 1918 - Present Day

Estonia is the northernmost of the three Baltic states which lie on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. The Estonians are a Finno-Ugric people, part of the same wave of arrivals as the ancestors of today's Finns, who entered the Early Baltic States around 3000 BC. Independent of Soviet occupation since 1991, Estonia and its immediate neighbours have proven themselves to be some of the better former Eastern Bloc countries in terms of their economic performance and standard of life, although some problems do still exist. Estonia is neighboured by Finland to the north, across the bay of the same name, Russia to the east, Latvia to the south, and Sweden across the Baltic Sea to the west.

It was a conquering crusade by soldiers of the Holy Roman empire in the twelfth to thirteenth centuries which ended the freedom of a great many Baltic peoples, plus the southern Estonians, while the Danes took North Estonia to complete the work. After centuries of German, Danish, Swedish, and Russian rule, Estonia entered the twentieth century still under the control of the last of these, but sweeping changes were coming. The First World War resulted in the collapse of the Russian empire and, as civil war gripped its territories, Estonia gained its independence, creating its own nation state for the first time in history. It was formed of northern Livonia, the island of Ösel (Saaremaa), and North Estonia, with Tallinn as its capital. Physical independence was achieved on 23 February 1918, but the public announcement to that effect was made on 24 February - Independence Day, celebrated annually.

FeatureEstonia's newly-born independence lasted until the Second World War, which ended with it being occupied by the Soviets until 1991. Since then Estonia has powered ahead as a centre of technological excellence, with a vibrant economy and a tendency towards inventiveness (Skype and TransferWise are both Estonian creations, as is a functional e-society). Modern Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved Hanseatic town centres in the world, although many of its historic churches have been preserved - see feature link). On the edge of this is the city's highly modern business centre with slick-looking office towers and luxury hotels, plus trendy neighbourhoods and large shopping centres. A member of the European Union since 2004, Estonia is one of the post-Cold War period's big success stories.

Seto People of Estonia

(Information by Peter Kessler and Maret Tamjärv, with additional information by Katrin Kimmel and Kersti Hansen, from The History of the Baltic Countries, Zigmantas Kiaupa, Ain Mäesalu, Ago Pajur, & Gvido Straube (Eds, Estonia 2008), from the 15th Yearbook of the Estonian Learned Society in Sweden, 2010-2014 (Eesti Teadusliku Seltsi Rootsis aastaraamat XV. 2010-2014), Ants Anderson (Ed, Stockholm, 2015), from Estonia: Return to independence, Rein Taagepera (Westview Press, 1993), and from External Links: Life in Estonia (dead link), and Visit Estonia, and Encyclopaedia Britannica, and Russia Agrees to Full Withdrawal Of Troops in Estonia by Aug 31 (New York Times), and Split By a Border and Fading Fast: Estonia's Unique Seto People, Helen Wright, and Interview with Helen Kulvik from Setomaa (Hear it from Locals), and President, and Estonia's Centenary (Estonian World), and Republic of Estonia Health Board, and Estonia's first female PM (The Guardian).)

1917 - 1920

The collapse of the Russian empire following the February and October revolutions of 1917 allows Estonia to form its own autonomous governorate. This is forced underground by the Bolsheviks, but only months later the Bolsheviks are forced out of Estonia by the advancing German imperial army. The Estonians declare their independence on 24 February 1918 (which is celebrated annually). One day later German troops enter the capital, Tallinn, and end this briefest period of independence in favour of the rights of the Baltic German nobility.

Map of Scandinavia AD 1917-1944
The twentieth century wrought great changes on the borders of the Nordic countries with Finland, controlled from Moscow since 1809, now becoming a battleground between Soviet and German interests, while Denmark and Norway were occupied by Germany (click or tap on map to view full sized)

German capitulation at the end of the First World War results in political power being formally handed back to Estonians between 11-14 November 1918. A hastily-assembled Estonian army is mobilised to fight the Estonian War of Independence. With some assistance from the Finns and the British Royal Navy, Estonian forces are able to repel Bolshevik troops who had tried to re-occupy the country. Estonian independence is formalised on 2 February 1920 by the Treaty of Tartu, signed with the post-revolution Soviet government.

1920 - 1934

The constitution of April 1920 is remarkably liberal. Estonia's international status becomes more secure in 1921, when the world's leading nations recognise Estonia de jure. The new state becomes a full member of the League of Nations, and radical land reform (enacted in 1919) ends the economic and political supremacy of the Baltic German minority.

However, despite massive cultural and economic progress, political stability eludes the new republic. It has twenty short-lived coalition regimes before 1933, when a new constitution gives the new post of president sweeping authority. Political parties are abolished in 1934 as President Konstantin Päts (ex-prime minister and previously the minister of war during the fight for independence) institutes an authoritarian regime under a state of emergency.

Spartacist Uprising of 1919
The political instability in Estonia mirrored the situation in Germany, thanks to which Adolf Hitler was able to manoeuvre himself into a position of power

This is referred to as the 'Era of Silence', with Päts justifying his 'coup' as a pre-emptive move for the sake of national unity to prevent what he sees as a takeover by the anti-communist and anti-parliamentary Vaps Movement (the League of Veterans - Eesti Vabadussõjalaste Keskliit). He is largely supported by the populace because he still stands very strongly for Estonian national identity.

1934 - 1940

Konstantin Päts

Unelected president who ruled by decree. Died 1956.

1938 - 1939

FeatureA new constitution comes into force in 1938 when Päts is formally elected the first president of the republic, ending the 'Era of Silence'. Then the Nazi-Soviet Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939 places the Baltic states under Soviet control, and the following month the USSR secures military bases in Estonia. With 25,000 Soviet troops now on Estonian territory, Estonian independence remains in name, but in practice the country is an unwilling Soviet ally. Päts is retained as a puppet before being shipped eastwards into Soviet captivity (following several moves, he dies a prisoner in 1956).

Estonia's President Konstantin Päts
Konstantin Päts largely swept aside Estonia's liberal 1920 constitution in favour of granting himself far more centralised authority and putting an end to political opposition in response to the extreme instability of the 1930s

1940 - 1944

Following a rigged election, an Estonian parliament declares Estonia to be a constituent part of the Soviet Union in August 1940. Privately-owned land is forcibly redistributed and businesses are nationalised. By summer 1941 the majority of the elite have either been killed or have been arrested and deported to Soviet prison camps. In June 1941 alone about 10,000 people are deported. There is almost a sense of relief amongst Estonians when Nazi Germany launches its eastern offensive against the Soviets on 22 June 1941. German forces reach the Baltic states within weeks, with Estonia being occupied until 1944. The Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) is established to govern the Baltic states.

1941 - 1944

Karl-Siegmund Litzmann

Nazi German general kommisar for Estland. Died 1945.

1944

With other eastern front districts collapsing, German forces withdraw from Estonia in the face of the Soviet advance. On 18 September 1944, interim president Jüri Uluots inaugurates the government of Otto Tief, which declares neutrality in the war.

Tief's government lasts only four days because on 22 September the Red Army captures Tallinn (in 2007, the Estonian Parliament recognises 22 September as the 'Day of Resistance'). Soviet forces re-establish their control of Estonia, partly by means of the aerial bombardment of Narva and Tallinn, which flattens much of the former and leaves some long-lasting scars in the latter. In autumn 1944, approximately 70,000 Estonians flee from Estonia to Germany and Sweden.

Harju street ruins in Tallinn
A symbol of the re-establishment of Soviet control over Tallinn was in the ruins created by the 1944 bombing of Harju Street, which remained visible until they were covered over by a new public garden in 2007-2008

1944 - 1950s

Estonian society and industry are modelled along Soviet lines and absolute control rests with the Soviet Communist Party. A process of Russification involves hundreds of thousands of ethnic Russians being settled in the country while several thousand Estonians are exiled to Siberia. The oppression of the Stalinist regime peaks with deportations in March 1949 when over twenty thousand Estonians are deported to Siberia.

The collectivisation of farms, forced industrialisation, and the imposition of a rigid state-planned economy helps to destroy the traditional small state economic model. The United Kingdom and most other western countries never recognise de jure the Baltic states' incorporation into the USSR. Instead, they continue to recognise the Estonian government-in-exile in Oslo and New York City.

1950s - 1987

Thousands more Estonians have refused to accept the renewed Soviet occupation and have banded together in hiding under the banner of the 'Forest Brothers' (in Estonian, 'Metsavennad'). Other central-eastern and Eastern European countries have formed similar movements (with at least one, in Georgia, bearing the same name). These movements are extensive, waging a guerrilla war against the Soviets until the period between 1952 and 1956, when military repression becomes overwhelming.

Nikita Kruschev and John F Kennedy
Photographed together here, John F Kennedy and Nikita Kruschev would, in 1962, play the world's biggest game of brinkmanship as the USA and Soviet Union vied for supremacy

The second half of the 1970s witnesses an intensification of Russification, propaganda which espouses a 'joint Soviet nation', and bilingualism. Ethnic Russians now number a third of Estonia's entire population. Libraries have long since been emptied of the 'heritage of bourgeois society', with a considerable number of periodicals and books of fiction which had been published during the period of independence having been destroyed. Access to most of the remaining copies is restricted.

1987 - 1990

Estonians remain defiant against Soviet rule and now find themselves given a level of freedom by the Perestroika reforms of the Soviet Union. Soviet plans to establish phosphorite mines in northern Estonia are revealed in 1987, unleashing an extensive protest campaign nicknamed the Phosphorite War.

Estonians sing patriotic songs (many of which are especially composed) in a growing movement of passive resistance which later becomes known as the 'Singing Revolution'. This culminates on 23 August 1989 with one-third of the entire country's population holding hands in an unbroken chain which connects to similar chains in Latvia and Lithuania. Throughout this period Estonians gain increasing levels of control over their own country, and in March 1990 liberation groups assume control of government.

1991 - 1992

The restoration of Estonian independence takes place on 20 August 1991 when Estonia breaks from the USSR, catalysing its swift disintegration. Restored independence is first recognised by Iceland, with a swiftly changing Russia being the second. The United Kingdom, with the rest of the European Community, follow on 27 August 1991. In 1992, Lennart Meri is the country's first elected president, being handed his credentials by the last prime minister of the government-in-exile, Heinrich Mark.

Soviet troops attempting to take control of the tv tower
The Estonian declaration of independence in 1991 was met with Soviet tanks rolling through the countryside and paratroopers attempting (unsuccessfully) to take control of the tv tower just outside Tallinn - until the parallel attempted coup in Russia failed and more reasonable Russian elements called off the military action in Estonia

1994

On 31 August, the last two thousand Russian soldiers on Estonian soil leave after some bad will by the Russian government. Talks about the removal have previously stalled over the fate of some 10,000 former Soviet officers who live in retirement in the country. All Russians in Estonia are offered the opportunity to apply for citizenship, although not all of them take up the offer.

2004 - 2005

Estonians are very much in favour of joining the European Union, as they demonstrate in September 2003, when a large proportion of the population turns out to vote. Just over two-thirds of voters are favour of membership. In 2004 Estonia becomes a member both of the European Union and of Nato, two important events in the country's modern history.

In May 2005, Estonia and Russia sign a treaty which delineates their joint border. This still results in Estonia accepting the loss of some eastern territory, most notably a large chunk of the Seto county of Petserimaa in the south-eastern corner of Estonia. The Estonian parliament ratifies the border treaty in June but defies warnings from Moscow by introducing an amendment which refers to Soviet occupation. Russia reacts by withdrawing from the treaty.

2007

In February, parliament passes a law which prohibits the display of monuments which glorify Soviet rule, paving the way for the relocation of a controversial Red Army war memorial in Tallinn. The following month, Estonia becomes the first country to allow internet voting for national parliamentary elections, a big step towards the introduction of a full e-society. Prime minister Andrus Ansip's Reform Party wins by a narrow margin, going ahead in April with the relocation of the Red Army war memorial in Tallinn.

2007 Tallinn riots
The 2007 riots in Tallinn resulted in smashed shop windows, some looting, and some visibly damaged cars that had been parked in the vicinity of the trouble, but after a couple of nights it faded out very quickly and a heavier police presence remained in place for some time

Pro-Russian elements protest vocally, and protestors, mostly ethnic Russians, attempt to halt the removal. One person is killed and more than forty are injured during two nights of disturbance. The violence is largely confined to the boulevard on which the memorial is located prior to being moved, but some shop windows in the nearby Old Town are smashed as it overspills onto the cobbled streets.

2012

Estonia and Russia re-start talks on a border treaty in October, seven years after Russia had withdrawn from the 2005 agreement. The new treaty is signed in February 2014 after extensive negotiations, thereby ending their border dispute. Unfortunately, this confirms the loss of much of the Seto territory, including the Seto capital of Petseri.

When Estonia begins to erect a border fence to fend off Russian military incursions (which are never publicly admitted by Russia), this only serves to confirm the loss of the south-eastern Estonian territories, although Setos on the Russian side have already been offered resettlement in Estonia. By far the majority of them accept, preferring to live alongside their Finno-Ugric cousins. Unfortunately Seto culture continues to fade at an alarming rate.

Seto people in traditional costume
Today the ethnic minority Seto people are fighting hard to preserve their ancient customs and beliefs, despite a swathe of their traditional territory now been enforcedly contained within the Russian federation (north-west Pskov Oblast)

2016 - 2017

Kersti Kaljulaid is elected president of the republic of Estonia in 2016, taking office in 2017. A graduate of the University of Tartu, previously she had served as a member of the European Court of Auditors, between 2004-2016. She is the country's first female head of state.

2018

The republic of Estonia celebrates its centenary: a hundred years since its first founding at the end of the First World War, after successfully fighting its own smaller independence war against the still-forming Soviet Union. Coincidentally, Estonia is also fresh off hold the presidency of the European Union (from the second half of 2017), which marks another important, but also challenging, milestone for the small country.

2019

To cap a recent spate of 'firsts' and anniversaries, the Estonian Song Celebration enjoys its one hundred and fiftieth anniversary (1869) with a spectacular national event which largely takes place at the 'Song Grounds' in Tallinn on 6-7 July. This unique event, which every five years brings together a huge choir of up to 30,000 people for one weekend, also brings in around 100,000 spectators to enjoy the concerts and sing along to the most popular songs.

The first Song Celebration had been initiated by newspaper publisher Johann Voldemar Jannsen to celebrate freedom and the fiftieth anniversary of the end of Estonian serfdom at the hands of the Russian czar (1819).

Estonian Song Celebration 2019 by Sven Zacek / Estonianworld.com
The Estonian Song Celebration of 2019 brought together an estimated 30,000 singers and 100,000 spectators for two days of national singing and festivities

Less widely celebrated in 2019 is the rise to power of the far-right EKRE party in Estonian politics. The sometimes controversial Centre Party under the leadership of Juri Ratas takes the main role in the new government with EKRE as its partner. This is despite the moderate Reform Party winning the most votes in the country's election, as it is unable to form a government (coalition governments are the norm). It is the outspoken EKRE leader, Mart Helme,  who accuses Finland's new female prime minister of being a 'sales girl'.

2020 - 2021

The Covid-19 pandemic reaches Europe through Italy which suffers badly during the first wave. Estonia itself has a low daily rate of infections and a death rate which fails to reach three figures. It is the third wave of the virus, in January and February 2021 which really hits hard. Rates of death shoot up above the thousand mark (a high figure for such a small population), and the infection rate for every 100,000 people also hits four figures before declining in April 2021.

In January 2021, with the controversial Ratas government having been felled by a corruption scandal, Estonia's new prime minister promises to restore the Baltic nation's reputation. Forty-three year-old Kaja Kallas is the country's first female prime minister, leading the Reform Party. Her father, Sim Kallas, had founded the party and had been prime minister in 2002-2003.

Prime Minister Kaja Kallas of Estonia, 2021
Prime Minister Kaja Kallas returned Estonia in 2021 from its right-wing-driven two year period of political scandal to the much more normal centre-left politics of this peaceful Baltic state