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European Kingdoms

Central Europe



The Tyrol began life as a county situated in the western section of Austria, in extremely mountainous terrain. In the seventh century AD parts of East Tyrol belonged to the Slav principality of Khorushka.

In 1035, Count Siegfried I of Spanheim (1010-1065) served with distinction under Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II (the Salian) against Adalberon of Eppenstein, duke of Carinthia. He also soon married one Richgard, daughter of Count Engelbert of the Sieghardingers of Bavaria. Through this he inherited large tracts of territory in Carinthia and Tyrol and, in 1045, was appointed margrave of the Hungarian march. His son Engelbert became margrave of Istria in 1090 and a descendant became duke of Carinthia in 1122.

Counts of Tyrol
Mid-11th Century - AD 1363

The county of Gorizia, which was a title that dated at least to 1107, was a minor seat that was based around the town of Gorizia in the modern Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of north-eastern Italy. It was joined to Tyrol with the accession of Meinhard I (of Tyrol, and III of Gorizia) in 1253, although his period of rule was relatively brief thanks to his age (around fifty-three). He was soon succeeded by his son, Meinhard II of Tyrol.

(Additional information from Meinhard der Zweite. Tirol, Kärnten und ihre Nachbarländer am Ende des 13. Jhs, Hermann Wiesflecker, 1955 (1995), and from Eines Fürsten Traum. Meinhard II. - Das Werden Tirols, Catalogue, 1995.)

mid-11th cent.

Albert I

1055 - 1101

Albert II

1101 - 1165

Albert III

1165 - 1180


1180 - 1202

Henry I

1202 - 1253

Albert IV

1253 - 1258

Meinhard I

Count Meinhard III of Gorizia.

1257 - 1258

Meinhard II

Son and co-ruler. Succeeded to title.

1258 - 1295

Meinhard II

Former co-ruler. Also Duke Meinhard IV of Carinthia & Carniola.

1282 - 1286

In December 1282, as Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph of Habsburg gives the duchies of Austria and Styria to his sons, Albert and Rudolf II respectively. Carinthia and the adjoining march of Carniola are passed to Meinhard of Gorizia-Tyrol who had already been raised to the position of a prince of the empire in 1278.

1295 - 1310


Son. Also Duke Otto III of Carinthia. Died without male issue.

1295 - 1304


Brother and co-ruler. Died.

1306 - 1307

Henry, youngest brother of Otto and Albert, briefly becomes king of Bohemia as Jindrich (or Heinrich in its German form), but is quickly forced to step down by the powerful and ambitious Rudolph III of Austria. Rudolph is not at all welcome as far as the Bohemian nobles are concerned, and his early death in 1307 allows them to re-select Henry for the title.

Crest of Henry V of Carinthia
Otto was succeeded by his younger brother, Henry, who had enjoyed some success in his own career, becoming king of Bohemia for a short time before gaining Carinthia - his crest is show here

1310 - 1335

Henry II

Brother. Also Henry V of Carinthia, Henry IV of Carniola.


With the death of Duke Henry V of Carinthia, the now-vacant duchy returns to the Habsburgs, with Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian giving it to Otto and Albert, the sons of Duke Albert I of Austria. The southern section of the Tyrol is added to Carinthia's holdings, all of this taking place on 2 May 1335.

1335 - 1369

Margaret Maultash

Died as the last non-Habsburg ruler of the Tyrol.

1335 - 1341

John Henry of Luxembourg

Died 1375.

1341 - 1361

Louis Wittelsbach

1344 - 1363

Meinhard III

Son of Margaret.

1363 - 1369

Archduke Rudolph IV of Austria agrees with the widowed Margaret Maultash, countess of Gorizia-Tyrol, that upon the death of her only son, Meinhard III, he will inherit the county of Tyrol. In the end, Meinhard predeceases his mother and she remains in full command of the county until her own death in 1369, not least because her brother-in-law, Duke Stephen II of Bavaria, invades and holds the county.

Counts of Tyrol (Habsburgs)
AD 1363 - 1665

Officially, the Habsburgs held Tyrol from 1363, which was when the last non-Habsburg male heir to the county died. In reality they did not assume control under the terms of the contract of inheritance that had been agreed between Margaret Maultash, countess of Gorizia-Tyrol and Archduke Rudolph IV of Austria until the death of Margaret herself in 1369, not least because her brother-in-law, Duke Stephen II of Bavaria, invaded and held the county. Once Rudolph's successor had the Tyrol safely under his control, the title of count would frequently be passed to junior members of the Habsburgs.

1363 - 1365

Rudolph IV the Founder

Son of Albert II of Austria. Ruled Carinthia, Carniola, Tyrol & Styria.

1365 - 1386

Leopold III the Just

Brother of Rudolph IV of Austria. Duke of Carinthia (1379-1386).


Leopold and his brother, Albert, share the rule of Austria under the principles of Rudolph's 'Rudolfinian House Rules', but in reality all they do is quarrel. Their disputes threaten Austria's unity, so they agree to divide their holdings under the terms of the Treaty of Neuberg. Albert becomes sole archduke of Austria, while Leopold takes precedence in Carinthia, Further Austria, Styria, and Tyrol.

1386 - 1395

Albert III

Brother. Archduke of Austria. Duke of Carinthia (1365-1395).

1386 - 1406

William the Courteous

Son of Leopold III. Duke of Carinthia, Carniola & Styria.

1395 - 1439

Frederick IV of the Empty Pocket



William's death at a relatively young age - he is about thirty six - sees his lands divided between his brothers. Frederick, who has already been sharing the rule of the Tyrol, gains that territory, while Ernest is granted Carinthia, Carniola, and Styria. Both brothers also act as guardians for the young Albert V of Austria.

1439 - 1490


Died 1493.

1490 - 1519

Maximilian I

Became archduke of Austria (1493-1519).

1519 - 1564

Ferdinand I

Became archduke of Austria (1520-1564).


Upon the death of Charles I of Spain, his vast single dominion is divided between his son and his brother. His son, Philip, gains the throne of Spain, and the holdings in the Netherlands, while his younger brother, Ferdinand, is confirmed in Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary. Younger members of the royal house are also confirmed as dukes of Carinthia and counts of Tyrol.

1564 - 1595

Ferdinand II

1595 - 1612

Taken directly into Austrian rule.

1612 - 1618

Maximilian II

Son of Maximilian II of Austria. Teutonic Knights grand master.

1618 - 1620

Taken directly into Austrian rule.

1620 - 1621


1621 - 1625

Taken directly into Austrian rule.

1625 - 1632

Leopold V

1632 - 1662

Ferdinand Charles

1662 - 1665

Sigismund Francis


Taken permanently into Austrian rule.

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