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European Kingdoms

Eastern Europe


Rus Index

Features / Lists



Nicholas Roerich's 1901 painting, Overseas Guests

The Rus / Old Russia

Introducing the Rus, Viking rulers of the Eastern Slavic tribes.

Götaland standing stone

Rus Khaganate

A precursor to the Rurikid arrival, this state's existence is uncertain.

Varangian Guards of the Byzantine court


The original mother city of the Rus, Novgorod ruled the far northern territories.

Kiy, Shchek, and Khoriv (with Lubed, right)


The early jewel in the crown of Rus cities, Kyiv ruled a united Old Russian state.

Cross Cathedral in Polotsk, built in 1893-1897


One of the earliest principalities to emerge outside of Rurikid control.

Legendary founder of Moscow, Yuri Dolgorukiy


A major northern principality which emerged in the eleventh century.

Battle of the River Kalka, 1221 or 1223

Novgorod Republic

Novgorod moved towards a restricted form of republic as Kyiv's power waned.

Halych town costume in the twentieth century


This westernmost of Rus territories emerged as various Rurikids expanded their holdings.

Russian Orthodox Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky, Tallinn, Estonia


This major northern power obscured Kyiv to become the new mother city of all the Rus.

Marriage of Gleb of Vladimir

Later Kyiv

Later Kyiv had been weakened by internal competition and the loss of external trade.

Ruins of Koknese Castle


As Polotsk disintegrated, its territories were snapped up by various related rulers.

Early Moscow being built


Created as a safe haven from Mongol attacks, early Moscow quickly made its presence felt in local politics.

Coin of Simeon Ioannovich

Moscow State

Moscow's climb towards pre-eminance saw the duchy turn into a leading independent state.

Kazan khanate conquered in 1552

Czarate of all the Russias

Its climb to the top complete, Moscow now controlled all the remaining Rus territories.

Image © Nicholas Roerich