After his initial setbacks and successes, mainly
against Bijapur, Shivaji now faced the assembled forces of the
mighty Mughal empire, under the command of Shaista Khan, who were
already entering his territory and were no doubt causing chaos along
Encounter with Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan (Mirza Abu Talib), the experienced
Mughal subhedar of
Bengal, was deputed by Aurangzeb to bring Shivaji to book. He had
earlier helped Aurangzeb against Dara Shaikoh, and for his
services he was made viceroy of the Deccan and sent to subdue Shivaji.
While Shivaji was resisting Siddi Jauhar of Bijapur, Shaista Khan
was approaching the Deccan with his huge army. He reached Aurangabad in
January 1660, before marching further to Ahmednagar, so that he
could encamp at a
deserted mud fort in Supa (on 25 February). Then he left for another
dilapidated fort at Baramati (arriving on 5 April), and another fort
at Nira (all the while
deputing officers to administer those areas), and finally arrived
at Shirwal (18 April). His lieutenants wreaked havoc on the
villages near Shirval. The Marathas tried to attack the Mughal camp,
but were repelled.
Shaista Khan then advanced to Puna (present day Pune),
on 9 May. He
lodged inside the 'Lal Mahal', where Shivaji had spent his
childhood. He further instructed his men to lay siege to Chakan, near
Puna. Large artillery pieces and a force of
twenty thousand men were used by the Mughals in this siege. In spite
of the odd numbers, the fort of Chakan was heroically defended by
Firangoji Narsala with a small force of three hundred odd men for
fifty six days, before it fell to Mughal cannon fire on 15
It has to be remembered that with the treaty of August 1657, Bijapur
had surrendered Konkan to the Mughals. But Shivaji had captured and
held on to those domains from Kalyan, Bhiwandi and Chaul. Shaista Khan wished
to have those regions back, so he despatched several
Mughal officers to wrest back Konkan. Kalyan, Bhiwandi and some
regions in northern Konkan fell to the Mughals.
At the end of 1660,
Kartalab Khan was equipped with a considerable force of
approximately 20,000, and he descended the Ghats near Lonavala. Shivaji was already waiting there with his thousand odd men,
and he allowed his opponent to
enter the thick forest through the pass which was known as 'Umber
(named after the nearby village of Umber). In spite of the
disproportionate numbers, the Marathas led by Shivaji ambushed the
Mughals at this strategic point, making Kartalab Khan and his
twenty thousand men feel trapped. Kartalab Khan begged Shivaji for safe
passage, which he was given , but only after he also handed over a large ransom.
Now, Shivaji divided his forces in two. One force, led by Netaji
Palkar, was to engage the Mughals. The other, led by Shivaji, marched south
to the Konkan territory of Adilshah. Shivaji's advance was
spectacular. Dabhol, Pali, Sangameshwar, Chiplun, and Rajapur all fell into
his hands and yielded considerable wealth. Shirngarpur fell on 29
April 1661, and Shivaji spent the summer of 1661 on Wardhangad in Konkan.
In 1661, Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur and Jaffar Khan of Malwa
were also instructed to enter the Deccan to assist Shaista Khan
in his campaign against Shivaji. In 1662, the Mughals didn't have
much success in capturing any Maratha forts, and the Marathas avoided
pitched battles with the Mughals, so Shaista Khan followed a policy
of torching the villages below any forts. A Mughal officer, Namdarkhan, and others attacked villages between Lohagad, Visapur,
and Tung and Tikona. They set alight seventy eight villages, looting
and destroying grain and property. He harassed the villagers no end,
killing several and taking many as prisoners. This took place over
the course of two long years, and Shivaji relocated many of his villagers, often
transferring families to the security of his forts to keep them safe.
 Shaista Khan was the brother
of Mumtaz Mahal (wife of Shah Jehan) and nephew of Nur Jehan
(wife of Jehangir). He had also been a part of the Deccan
mission sent by Shah Jehan to subdue Shahaji raje Bhosale
(father of Shivaji).
Meanwhile, after three years of campaigning, Shaista
Khan had become a
little complacent. He had retired with his harem to his base in Puna.
On 5 April 1663, Shivaji did the unthinkable. Along with
a band of selected men, he personally launched a commando-like
operation right into the heart of the enemy camp. He attacked the very
residence in Puna where Shaista Khan was residing with his family and
men. Shaista Khan barely managed to escape with his life (although
unconscious, he was taken to safety by his maids),
losing in the process his thumb and two fingers, which Shivaji
himself severed before Khan could take flight. Shaista Khan's son, Abul Fateh,
was killed and so were several people from his entourage. The
wounded Shaista Khan retreated to the Mughal base of Aurangabad.
This sent shockwaves right up into Delhi. Emperor Aurangzeb,
fuming at the audacity and success of the attack, told the embarrassed Shaista
Khan not to bother coming back to
Delhi. He was asked to proceed directly back to Bengal instead. 
The ignominy suffered by Shaista Khan created a dampening of spirits
in the Mughal ranks. Maharaja Jaswant Singh, who was left in place of
Shaista Khan, tried to elevate the mood in the Mughal camp through
a siege of Fort Sinhagad (Kondana), but this too turned out to be an
On 5 January 1664,
Shivaji further added salt to Mughal wounds when he sacked Surat, a rich and prosperous Mughal port, in
order to compensate himself for his losses. Its governor, Inayat Khan,
proved to be so incompetent that he hid in his fort while Shivaji and
his men looted the port in glee abandon for three whole weeks.
Shivaji captures Kudal of the Adilshahi sultanate
In 1663, Shivaji had already embarked on his Konkan campaign. By May
1663, he had captured Kudal, which was administered by the Desai, Lakham
Sawant of Sawantwadi. 
Adil Shah then sent Aziz Khan to counter Shivaji at Kudal. Shivaji's
resident, Raoji Pandit had to retreat to Rajapur in May 1664, but
unexpected death of Aziz Khan in July forced Adil Shah to send a
replacement in the form of Khawas Khan (son of the ex-wazir, Khan
Muhammed, and also the son-in-law of Rustam e Zaman).
Shivaji's kin, Baji Ghorpade of Mudhol, was also asked to assist Khawas
Khan. But before he could join the khan, Shivaji attacked him at Mudhol. Baji Ghorpade was fatally wounded in that battle and
succumbed to his injuries.
Seeing all help cut off, Khawas Khan fled in December. His
other commanders, Lakhm Sawant, Desai Keshav Naik, and Keshav
Prabhu of Pedhne, along with Khalu Shenvi of Dicholi, also fled into the
Portuguese territory of Goa.
The narrow entrance to Fort Lohagad
Rajmudra, Shivaji's royal seal
 To his credit Shaista Khan
did a good job in Bengal, building a formidable navy, wresting
Sandwip island, Chittagong, from the Arakanese (a Burmese
kingdom) and later reasserting Mughal control over Kamarup
(Assam) and Cooch Behar. He also added greatly to the
development of Dhaka (in present day Bangladesh). It is also to
be remembered that Shaista Khan was a part of the army that Shah
Jehan had sent to subdue Shivaji's father, Shahaji raje, when he
was acting as the regent of the Nizamshahi sultanate.
 Shahaji raje , the father of
Shivaji, died on 23 January 1664 in Karnatak, after a fall from
Construction of Fort Sindhudurg
On 5 December 1664, Shivaji laid the foundation of Fort Sindhudurg in the Malwan region along the Konkan coast. He also
strengthened his other naval forts at Vijaydurg (Gheria) and
Shivaji added to his navy several commanders such
as Darya Sarang, Daulat Khan, Ibrahim Khan (all of whom were incidentally
Muslim), and Mainak Bhandari. 
While Shivaji's troops were raiding the Bijapur towns of Hubli and
Khanapur, Shivaji launched a naval expedition against the prosperous town
of Basrur (the Bidnur province of Kanara coast) in February 1665. He
plundered the rich town and carried off a large amount of booty.
Whatever losses Shivaji suffered during the Bijapur and Mughal
onslaughts, he was able to compensate them with the booty he recovered from Surat and Basrur.
Mirza Raje Jaisingh
This time Aurangzeb sent one of his most trusted generals, Mirza
Raje Jaisingh, the raja of Amber, with a huge army to subdue the Deccan. Raje Jaisingh was a seasoned military commander. He didn't
underestimate Shivaji and devised a multi-pronged approach to subdue him.
He isolated Shivaji.
First, he consolidated the
Mughal bases on the plains; Kalyan, and Bhiwandi. Then he isolated Shivaji by
engaging Adilshah and the Portuguese in treaties, whereby they
would neither directly nor indirectly assist Shivaji or divert his
attention by attacking the Mughals, nor allow safe passage for
Shivaji through their territories (though Adilshah was Shivaji's
enemy, he could have teamed up with Shivaji to ward off a Mughal
attack into the Deccan). He bribed some of Shivaji's men and induced them
to switch sides. Jaisingh also invited the Siddis of Janjira to
assist him in his endeavours against Shivaji.
Also assisting Jaisingh was another stalwart from the Mughal
camp, Diler Khan the Pathan, and seasoned warriors who included Jaisingh's
son, Kirat Singh, plus Qabad Khan, Mitrasen, Indraman Bundela, Raja Raisingh
Rathore, Badal Bakhtiyar, Udaibhan and Haribhan Gaur, Syed Munawarkhan
Barha, Sharzakhan, Hassankhan, Jauharkhan, Jagatsingh, Ram Singh,
Saleh Tarkhan, Raja Narsingh Gaur, Syed Maqbool Alam, Karan
Rathore, Hussain Daudzai, Jagat Singh Narwari, Rasul Beg Rozwani,
Chaturbhuj Chauhan, Qutubbuddin Khan, Amarsingh Chandrawat, Syed
Zainulabbuddin Bukhari, Achal Singh Kachwaha, Qubadkhan, Abul
Qasim, Abdullah, Ranadullah, Khwaja Abul Makrim, Raji Afzal
Bijapuri, Bhai Afzal Bijapuri, Rasulbeg Rozbhani, Purdilkhan,
Shubhkaran Bundela, Bhupat Singh, Zabardastkhan, Atishkhan, Turkataz
Khan and Daud Khan, and more.
 There were many Muslims
amongst Shivaji's forces: Siddi Hillal (chief of cavalry), Siddi
Wahawaha (cavalry), Noorkhan Baig (first sarnobat), Madari
Mehtar (bodyguard, especially during Shivaji's Agra visit), Kazi
Haider Kohari (secretary), Shama Khan (sardar), Siddi Ambar
Wahad, Hussain Faan Miyana (officer), Darya Sarang/Ibrahim Khan/Siddi
Sambal (who was previously part of the Siddis of Janjira but
later shifted loyalties to Shivaji/Siddi Misri (nephew of Siddi
Sambal)/Sultan Khan/Daud Khan (navy officer), Daulat Khan
(admiral), seven cavalry regiments, 700 Pathans, besides many
Muslims in the Maratha navy. This should prove that Shivaji
wasn't just a leader of Hindus only but had followers from all religions
and regions (including Abyssinians like the Siddis, the
Portuguese and the English).
This massive Mughal army swarmed down into Maratha territory
capturing Fort Rudramal (on 14 April 1665), and Fort Kunwari (30
April), and simultaneously wreaking havoc on the villages below
Shivaji's various forts such as Rajgad, Lohagad, etc. A siege was also
mounted at Fort Purander. Murarbaji Deshpande, a Maratha commander,
displayed exemplary courage during this siege, thwarting Mughal
attempts to surmount the fort's defences. He even spurned Mughal overtures and
sacrificed his life, gallantly defending the fort.
By now, Shivaji had realised this was not an enemy he
could simply wish away,
and thought it prudent to announce a surrender rather than risk
further destruction to his forts and his people. He handed over Fort Purander along with twenty two other forts to the Mughals on 11
June 1665 as per the agreement now known as the Treaty of Purandar.
Shivaji was also to become a Mughal vassal and assist them in
conquering the south, starting with Bijapur.
Shivaji was allowed to retain twelve forts, namely Rajgad, Torna,
Hingangad, Bhorap, Talegad, Mahagad, Ghosala, Birwadi, Pali, Rairi,
Kunwarigad and Udaid.
What followed was Shivaji's brief and reluctant affair with the
Mughals. Shivaji had to spend almost three months in the Mughal camp,
fighting alongside them against Bijapur. Shivaji's general Netaji was
sent to reduce Phaltan, which was under Shivaji's brother-in-law, Bajaji Nimbalkar. On 7 December 1665, Nimbalkar surrendered
the Adilshahi fort to Netaji. Shivaji had meanwhile captured Tathawda
near Phaltan. Netaji again added Mangalvedha to the Mughal kitty on
19 December. Soon Khatav was also captured.
Meanwhile, a strong contingent from Bijapur was sent to repulse the
Mughal attack (25 December 1665). It included the wazir, Abul Muhammed,
plus Sharza Khan Mehdvi, Khawaskhan, Kalyanrao Jadhav, Yaqut Habshi, Ikhlas
Khan, Bahlol Khan, Aziz, Siddi Masud (son-in-law of Siddi Jauhar), Abdul
Aziz (son of Siddi Jauhar), Rustam Zaman (son of Ranadaullah Khan),
and Vyankoji Bhosale (Shivaji's step-brother who was on the Adilshahi
side). Also sent to assist the Bijapuris was a contingent from Golkunda. The Bijapur army was initially repulsed by Kirat
Singh (son of Jaisingh), Shivaji, Netaji Palkar, Sarfaraz Khan,
Khan and others who were leading the combined Mughal Maratha armies.
Shivaji meets Mirza Raja Jaisingh
 The forts ceded by Shivaji
were Purandar, Rudramal or Vajragad, Kondana, Rohida, Lohagad,
Visapur, Tung, Tikona, Khandkala, Mahuli, Muranjan, Kohaj,
Karnala, Songad, Palasgad, Bhandargad, Khirdurg, Nardurg,
Vasantgad, Nangagad, Ankola or Khaigad, Margagad, and Mangad.
Netaji Palkar was awarded a mansab of two
hazari (2,000 horsemen - one hazari equals a thousand) for
his bravery. But apparently Netaji Palkar wasn't happy with this
offer and when he was offered a better deal by the Bijapuris (400,000
huns), he crossed over to their side. There is also a version wherein
Netaji (or his brother-in-law) had failed to come to the assistance
of Shivaji during his siege of Panhala, and for that reason Shivaji had
him replaced as his 'sarlashkar' by Prataprao Gujar (as related by J Sarkar).
Meanwhile, Shivaji was feeling restless and also insecure in the
Mughal camp. He feared an attack on his life. It is to be noted that
as per the memoirs of Niccoli Mannuci who then was acting as an
envoy of Jaisingh, Dilerkhan wished to murder Shivaji, but Jaisingh
had strictly prohibited it. So Shivaji requested of Jaisingh that he
should be allowed to be detached from the Mughal contingent and sent
separately to attack Fort Panhala. Of course, Shivaji's
attempts to capture Panhala failed (on 16 January 1666), and he sullenly retreated
to his fort at Vishalgad.
The Bijapuris had realised they couldn't take on the
Mughal might in pitched battles. What followed was the Bijapuri's scorched earth policy, supplemented by
tactics. They cut the Mughal supply lines and also indulged
in daring hit-and-run attacks on the Mughal camps. They frustrated
the Mughal designs for victory and soon forced their army to flee. Jaisingh finally had to accept defeat against the Bijapuris and
decided to withdraw his forces. The Bijapuris under Rustam Zaman later
captured Phonda, Kudal, Pedne, Bhatagram and Sattar (which had earlier
been under Maratha control). They were helped secretly by the
Portuguese in these endeavours. 
Therefore, in spite of a victory over the Marathas, Mirza Raje Jaisingh
wasn't very successful against the Bijapuris and had to return
leaving his Deccan campaign incomplete.
Mirza Raje Jaisingh continued in his role as governor of
the Deccan and
was successful to the extent of extracting a pledge from the Bijapur
sultanate, whereby they agreed to pay an annual tribute to the
Mughals. After Shivaji's escape from Agra, Jaisingh and his son, Ramsingh, fell from
favour with Aurangzeb and were penalised for
the losses. Jaisingh was soon recalled from the Deccan and Aurangzeb
sent his son, Prince Muazzam, as a replacement along with Raja Jaswant
Singh (as his adviser). But before Raja Jaisingh could return to
Delhi, he fell ill and died at Burhanpur.
Shivaji's trip to Agra, his house arrest and subsequent escape
Jaisingh had requested that Shivaji meet Emperor Aurangzeb at Agra to
discuss the details of his treaty of Purander and was also
promised the viceroyalty of the Deccan. Jaisingh even gave his personal
word of honour that Shivaji will be protected during his Delhi trip
and that he or his men would not be harmed in any way. For his Agra trip
sanction was given for a huge payment (100,000 rupees from the
Aurangabad treasury) to pay for his military contingents (eight elephants, 500
horsemen and 500 foot soldiers. He was also accompanied by his eldest
Shivaji set off for Agra from Fort Rajgadh on 5 March 1666.
He was received at Agra by Ramsingh, the son of Mirza Raje
Jaisingh, on 12 May 1666, and was soon granted an audience in Aurangzeb's court. But the meeting with the emperor was soon to go
awfully wrong. Apparently, in the court Aurangzeb took no notice of
Shivaji and Shivaji was made to stand in a row which was meant for
the five thousand courtiers. This irked the self-respecting Shivaji to no
end. He angrily remarked to Ramsingh that Aurangzeb has insulted him
by making him stand behind people whom he has made to flee from the
battlefield. Saying this Shivaji and his son walked away from the
durbar in a huff.
Predictably Shivaji and his men were put under house arrest by
Aurangzeb. Ramsingh pleaded mercy on behalf of Shivaji, but his
pleas were not heeded. Apparently, Aurangzeb had decided to murder
Shivaji for his insolence. A heavily armed unit guarded the house
in which Shivaji was lodged, but Shivaji was not a man who could be
held in confinement for long. His sharp mind soon devised a plan to
escape. Initially he feigned illness. He also spent his
time in meditation, as if he had turned into a recluse. He even
spread rumours that he wanted to spend his last days as a hermit.
Shivaji then started sending huge baskets filled with sweets and
eatables for the poor and the holy men of Agra. Initially the
baskets were checked, but as the days passed by, the patrols became
negligent. After making sure that the men outside had become
complacent, Shivaji and his son, Sambhaji, seated themselves in those
wooden baskets and escaped from the mansion. Then, entrusting the
young Sambhaji to the safety of the house of a confidante Brahmin, Shivaji escaped
in disguise from Agra. His daring escape from Agra made him the
subject of folklore, to be sung about for centuries to come.
 Later, Jaisingh couldn't
afford to let a valuable asset like Netaji Palkar go to the
other side, so he increased his offer to five hazari and once
again brought Netaji Palkar to the Mughal side (March 1666).
Netaji converted to Islam (and was renamed Muhammed Quli Khan),
and was hastened off to an expedition to Afghanistan. It is
alluded by many historians that Netaji Palkar switched sides
under a secret understanding with Shivaji, and that this was a
part of Shivaji's bigger game plan. But there are many opposing
this theory who have stated that Netaji deserted Shivaji after a
personal fallout. Whatever the truth, Netaji did cross over to
the other side.
 Netaji Palkar was later to
be reconverted back to the Hindu fold by Shivaji, after he
returned to the Maratha side in 1676.
 It is interesting to note
that Rustam Zaman left Fort Rangna for Shivaji, much to the
annoyance of Adilshah, which only goes to prove Shivaji's secret
understanding with this Adilshahi commander.
Shivaji returned to Rajgadh,
reaching there on 20 November 1666.
He maintained a low profile for the next three years. But these
three years Shivaji utilised for consolidating his position in Maharashtra. He reorganised his forces,
intending to regain his
lost territory, mainly at the expense of the Bijapuris, especially
around the Goa Konkan strip. He also wanted to attack the Siddi at
Janjira, but the Mughals were proving to be the impediment to both
what disturbed Shivaji more was Aurangzeb's Islamic zeal which had
showed itself when he started demolishing Hindu temples and indulging in forcible
conversions (as related by Pagadi, letter of President Gary of Surat). The
Kashi Vishwanath temple at Varanasi was sacked by the Mughals. This
offended Shivaji's religious sensibilities.
Also, the Mughal empire
was facing disturbances from other quarters, especially in Afghanistan and Mathura.
Moreover, Aurangzeb was also paranoid
about the activities of his son, Prince Muazzam, governor of the Deccan.
What's more, things weren't
going well in the Mughal camp. Muazzam and
Jaswant Singh bore some antipathy towards another Mughal commander, Diler
Khan. The Mughals were in disarray.
Shivaji-era gold coin
This was an opportune time to
strike at them. In January 1670, Shivaji launched his first attacks
on Mughal garrisons. Kondana was captured on 4 February 1670, Purandar on 8 March,
and Mahuli fell to the Marathas on 16 June. Rohida,
Lohagadh, Prabalgad, and Karnala were also captured. Within six months
Shivaji had wrested back a majority of the territory that he had ceded
to Mirza Jaisingh. On 3 October, Shivaji's men plundered Surat for
the second time. The Mughal army was also badly mauled at the Battle
of Dindori (17 October 1670). About a week later Shivaji's Peshwa, Moropant Pingale, had captured
Fort Trimbak at Nasik. In December
1670, Shivaji himself conducted raids in the Khandesh province. He
plundered Bahadurpura near Burhanpur, followed by Berar, then Karinja.
Moropant Trimbak Pingale had already looted western Khandesh and
Baglana. Salher had also fallen to the Marathas. Mughal power in Maharashtra was now shaken
to its core. 
Skirmish with the Portuguese
Shivaji had captured almost all the territories near Goa and South
Konkan barring Phonda and Jambavali Panchamahal. All the local
chieftains (desais) from these areas fled to Portuguese territories
and were harboured by the Portuguese. This created tensions between
Shivaji and the Portuguese. In retaliation, Shivaji plundered the
Portuguese territory of Bardesh (on 22 November 1667). Finally the
Portuguese had to enter into a treaty with Shivaji.
Battle of Kondana
Kondana was a fort that lay on the outskirts of Pune. It was one of
the forts that had been ceded to the Mughals as per the Purandar treaty. In
February 1670, Shivaji sent his trusted commander, Tanaji Malusare,
and his brother Suryaji Malusare to take back Kondana. Tanaji even
postponed his son's wedding and gave precedence to his duty towards his
The fort was guarded by a fifteen hundred strong
contingent of Rajputs under Udaybhan Rathod. Tanaji
and his men climbed the steep mountain slope by hand and fell upon
the Mughal guards (legend says that Tanaji used a pet mountain
monitor to carry the rope up the steep cliff). But Sabhasad
Bakhar, a treatise on Shivaji, contradicts the ghorphad folklore
and mentions Tanaji and his mavalas having climbed Kondana like
vanars (monkeys) in the dead of night.
Udaybhan offered stiff resistance, in the fight
that ensued, and both he and Tanaji were killed in the hard
fighting. But Suryaji and Shelar Mama, Tanaji's maternal uncle and
an old war veteran, carried on the fight and ultimately led the
Marathas to victory. On hearing the news of Tanaji's death, Shivaji
is said to have exclaimed (as per Sabhasad Bakhar), "Ek gadh aalaa
pan ek gadh gelaa." ("One fort was captured, but the other was
lost."). A popular novel by Shri H N Apte was entitled Gadh ala
pun sinha gela (on similar sounding words) meaning, 'the fort
was captured but the lion died'. This has led people to believe that
Kondhana was named Sinhagad in memory of Tanaji Malusare who died a
lion's death. But some documents uncovered have proved that the
Kondana was named Sinhagad years before Tanaji's death.
Shivaji meets Raja Chatrasal
 Prince Muazzam was recalled
afterwards from the Deccan, and Bahadurkhan was sent as his
Sometime in 1671-1672, Shivaji received an unexpected visitor. He was
Raja Chatrasal, the young son of Champatrai Bundela, the late
chieftain of Mahewa (eastern Bundelkhand). Chatrasal was greatly
inspired by Shivaji's exploits, and offered Shivaji his
services. Shivaji received him warmly, but told him to return to his lands and lead his people to independence from the Mughal
yoke. Shivaji also promised him all the help he could supply in his endeavour. Raja Chatrasal
was later to accomplish what Shivaji had directed him to do, and
would also become an prominent ally of the Marathas in the years to
come.  
Notable Activities of the Marathas in 1672-1674:
Shivaji carries out naval operations
against the Siddis of Janjira and the Mughals in 1672.
Due to Rustamzaman's friendly overtures to Shivaji, in
the middle of 1672 Bijapur takes away Rustamzaman's viceroyalty of
the Kanara region
and his areas of Raibag and Hukkeri. Rustamzaman rebels against
the sultan, but his rebellion is crushed.
Shivaji attacks Bijapur territories again. Panhala
is taken by Shivaji from Bijapur on 6 March 1673. Maratha Sarlashkar
Prataprao Gujar engages Bahlol Khan, the Pathan commander of Bijapur,
at the Battle of Umrani in March 1673, but the latter is let off.
Shivaji is furious with his sarlaskar (commander in chief), but Prataprao
is out to restore
the shaken faith of his master, and attacks Bijapur territories in Karnatak. Hubli is
also attacked. For his failure, Muzzafarkhan, governor of Kanara, is sacked. He rebels against Bijapur. Miansaheb,
the fauzdar of Karwar, also rebels against Bijapur.
Shivaji captures Parli in April 1673, and Satara
on 27 July 1673.
Shivaji plunders Bankapur in Dharwar on 10 October 1673.
Shivaji beats the forces of Diler Khan, the
Shivaji's Sarlashkar Prataprao Gujar dies
at the Battle of Nesari
on 24 February 1673. Prataprao is succeeded by Hambirao Mohite as the
new sarlashkar on 8 April 1674.
Until the death of his father Shahaji, Shivaji had always
considered Shahaji to be the Raja. Since Shahaji was always a noble at
the courts of the sultans, Shivaji was always viewed as a rebel, an
upstart, by his enemies and contemporaries. He was never considered
a king in the true sense (in spite of the huge territory he had
conquered by over-awing three kings). It had become imperative now
that Shivaji should be crowned as a chatrapati ('chatra' here means
the royal umbrella and 'pati' is the owner. Hence, chatrapati means
the owner of the royal umbrella, ie. the king). The idea of Shivaji
being declared a king was first mooted by Gaga Bhat, a learned
Brahmin from Benares (whose family had earlier migrated from Paithan).
A scene from the coronation of Shivaji
 Abdullah Qutubshah of
Golkunda died on 21 April 1672. He was succeeded by his
son-in-law, Abul Hasan (Tana Shah).
 Ali Adil Shah of Bijapur
died on 24 November 1672. He was succeeded by Sikandar Adil Shah,
a boy of four. Khawaskhan, the son of the old prime minister, Khan
Muhammed Khankhanan, became the regent.
In May 1674, Shivaji began preparations for his coronation. As per
the Hindu rites, he remarried his wives (on 30 May), performed the
sacred thread ceremony (29 May), officially appointed his own
council of ministers, the Ashta Pradhans (eight ministers), distributed
gifts to his men, the poor and the Brahmins (14 June). Thus
Shivaji was officially crowned king by the Vedic rites. Rajgadh was declared
to be the capital of his kingdom.
Incidentally, he was crowned king for a second time by Tantrik
rites (by a Tantrik priest named Nischalpuri Gosavi), apparently due to
some incidents and tragedies that happened just before and after his
It is to be noted that Shivaji's mother Jijabai passed away on 18
June 1674. Earlier, one of Shivaji's queens, Kashibai had
also passed away, sometime on 16 March 1674, as had his sarlashkar,
Prataprao Gujar (on 24 February 1674). During the performance of the
rites, Gaga Bhat, the Vedic priest, also met with a minor
accident. All these incidents were cited as inauspicious and hence
Shivaji was advised to have a second coronation as per a Tantrik ceremony (ostensibly to pacify the bad omens and the spirits), which took
place some time on 24 September 1674.  
Notable Activities of the Marathas in 1674-1676:
In October 1674, the Marathas raid Khandesh.
On 17 April 1675 Shivaji captures Phonda
from the Bijapuris.
By mid-1675 the Marathas occupy Karwar. Kolhapur
falls to them in July 1675. The Marathas also have naval
skirmishes with the Siddis of Janjira in November 1675.
Early 1676, Peshwa Pingale engages Raja of Ramnagar in battle en route to
Surat. Shivaji loots Athni in March 1676.
By the end of 1676, Shivaji besieges Belgaum and Vayem Rayim.
Shivaji's southern campaign
Shivaji embarked on his southern expedition sometime in January
1677. Shivaji knew that the days of Bijapur were numbered, and he
wanted to strike the final nail in their coffin with his southern
expedition. The idea was to become the immediate successor to the
Bijapur sultanate in the south, before the Mughals caught up.
Shivaji concluded a treaty with the Golkunda
sultan, Abul Hasan
(after being received with great pomp in the city of Hyderabad).
Shivaji then proceeded to conquer Jinji (in Tamil Nadu) which he
did in May 1677. Jinji was to serve as the southern capital of the
Marathas for the next twenty-seven years. Lakshmishwar, Belvadi, the
central and eastern regions of Mysore, Kopal, Bellary, Chitaldurg and
Vellore, also fell to Shivaji.
Shivaji had a brief altercation with his step-brother, Vyankoji (who
had by now established his rule in Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu). It was
a dispute over Shahaji's legacy and estate in Karnatak, but
eventually both brothers were able to reach an amicable settlement.
All in all, the southern expedition proved very
Shivaji's son joins the Mughals
 Politics in the Bijapur
court intensified between rival factions - the Deccan faction led
by the regent, Khawaskhan, and the Pathan faction led by the Bahlol
Khan - leading to open battles between them. Khawaskhan was put to
death by the Pathans on 18 January 1676, and leadership of the
Deccan faction was taken over by Siddi Masud.
 Mughals led by Bahadur Khan
sided with the Deccan faction, and clashed with the Pathans in
the Battle of Indi on 13 June 1676. The Pathans had to retreat.
Sambhaji, the eldest son of Shivaji, was developing
a serious level of friction
with his step-mother, Soyarabai, who wanted to install her own son, Rajaram, on the Maratha throne. Also, adding fuel to the fire were
certain incidents that took place due to Sambhaji's amorous leanings
(according to some historians), something of which Shivaji strongly
disapproved. The differences between father and son reached a
point at which Sambhaji took off to join the Mughals (during Shivaji's southern expedition), sometime in December 1678. But within a
year the impetuous prince realised his folly and returned back to
the Maratha camp.
Altercation with the English
Shivaji had an brief altercation with the English over the island of
Khanderi sometime towards the end of 1679 and the start of 1680.
Shivaji's admiral, Daulat Khan, successfully defeated the English in
a few naval battles, forcing the English to accept defeat and hasten
to agree a treaty with Shivaji.
Death of Shivaji
Shivaji's last two years were spent engaging the Mughals, the Siddis
of Janjira and the English. (During his last years, fearing a Mughal
invasion of Bijapur, its regent Siddi Masud made a treaty with
Shivaji, whereby Shivaji delivered help to the kingdom). 
Shivaji was also to start an expedition against the Portuguese to
sort out pending disputes, if not for what was an anti-climax to this great
The fatigues of constant wars had taken their toll on Shivaji. He
fell ill due to heat strokes and an ailment described as fever and
blood dysentery. Shivaji breathed his last on 3 April 1680. An
eventful life was cut short at the age of fifty-three.
 Diler Khan, the Mughal
commander, had laid siege to Bijapur, but was recalled by Aurangzeb after differences
arose between him and Prince Muazzam (and
Raja Jaswant Singh).