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Far East Kingdoms

Central Asia

 

 

 

Khans of Kazan (Tartars)

The khanate was a splinter state of the disintegrating Golden Horde. It occupied the former territory of the Volga Bulgars, and was neighboured by the Astrakhan khanate to its south-west, along the Volga shoreline on both banks and hugging the north-western coast of the Caspian Sea.

The khanate's rulers were credited with being directly descended from Urus Khan of the White Horde (1374-1376). The founder, Ulugh Muhammad, had for many years contended against various opponents for control of the disintegrating Golden Horde. He seized power in 1419, but was captured and imprisoned in 1422 and held for two years by his rival, Dawlat Berdi. In 1430, still fighting Dawlat for control of the horde, he attacked the Crimea, but was defeated. A further attempt at gaining power saw him successfully reclaim control over the Golden Horde in 1427, but again he was continually challenged by rivals. In 1437 he lost control for the final time and headed east to capture Kazan, where he formed his own independent khanate out of previously Golden Horde territory.

(Additional information from An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples, Peter B Golden (1992), from the Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature, Enlarged and Improved, Volume 3, from The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition), C E Bosworth, E van Donzel, B Lewis, & Ch Pellat (Eds), and from External Links: Encyclopaedia.com, and World of Royalty.)

1437 - 1445

Ulugh Muhammad / Olug Moxammat

Former khan of the Golden Horde. Founder of the khanate.

1445 - 1462

Mahmud

1462 - 1467

Khalil

1467 - 1479

Ibrahim

1479 - 1484

Alî

First rule.

1484 - 1485

Muhammad Amin

First rule.

1485 - 1487

Alî

Second rule.

1487 - 1495

Muhammad Amin

Second rule.

1495 - 1496

Mamuq

Siberian khan.

1496 - 1502

Abd al Latif

1502 - 1518

Muhammad Amin

Third rule.

1508 - 1510

The Shaibanids carry out a number of raids into the khanate from their empire in Transoxiana, but their ruler, Mohammed Shaibani, is killed on one of them in 1510, bringing the prominence of his short-lived empire to an end.

Map of the Tartar Khanates AD 1500
The Mongol empire created by Chingiz Khan gradually broke up over the course of three hundred years until, by around AD 1500, it had fragmented into several more-or-less stable khanates that each vied with the others for power and influence, while having to fend off the growing power of the Ottoman empire to the south and Moscow Sate (Muscovy) to the north - in the end it was an unwinnable fight (click on map to show full sized)

1519 - 1521

Shah Alî

First rule. Khan of Qasimov. Driven off.

1521

Shah Alî is driven out by Sahib Giray I of the Crimean khanate due to the former's friendly relations with Moscow. Kazan's territory is incorporated back into that of the Crimea under the rule of Khan Muhammad Giray, father of Sahib Giray.

1521 - 1524

Shah Alî

Second rule.

1524 - 1531

Safa Giray

First rule.

1531 - 1533

Jan Alî

1532

Aq Köbek is responsible for deposing and killing Khan Qasim II of Astrakhan, and ending his long reign (Qasim's son, Yadigar Muhammad briefly rules as the last khan of the Kazan in 1552). However, during his own time as khan Aq Köbek apparently puts in place a treaty or agreement that, for the time being, guarantees the independence of Astrakhan from the Crimean khanate and the Nogais.

1533 - 1546

Safa Giray

Second rule.

1546

Sahib Giray

1546

Safa Giray

Third rule.

1549 - 1551

Ötemish

1551 - 1552

Shah Alî

Third rule.

1552

Yadigar Muhammad

Son of Khan Qasim II of Astrakhan.

1552

The khans of Kazan are conquered by the Russians under Ivan IV.

Kazan khanate and Ivan IV
The short-lived Kazan khanate was conquered by the resurgent Rus under the leadership of Ivan IV just over a century after Ulugh Muhammad had founded it