History Files


Far East Kingdoms

South Asia




Jat Sikhs

The Jat Sikhs were mainly Hindus who converted to Sikhism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in India. Out of the twelve Sikh misls (clan confederacies), almost seven happened to be from the Jat Sikh community. Their most prominent son was Maharaja Ranjit Singh who established the first Sikh kingdom in Lahore (now in Pakistan).

Other prominent Jat Sikh states included Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Kalsia and Kapurthala.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

Jat Sikh Kings of Patiala
c.15th century AD - 1948

Patiala is a city located in the south-eastern region of the modern Indian state of Punjab. The name Patiala is derived from the Punjabi word 'pati', meaning 'land'. The princely state of Patiala was founded by Sardar Baba Ala Singh. However the line of kings traces its ancestry to Jaisal, the founder of Jaisalmer (in modern Rajasthan).

One of the early Jat ancestors of the Patiala royal family was one Mohan Singh Jat, a follower of Sikh Guru Har Gobind. His grandson, Phul Singh, is also considered to be a common ancestor by the royal dynasties of Nabha and Jind. His son Chota Ram Singh was baptised as a Sikh by Guru Gobind Singh (after Guru Gobind Singh converted the Sikh sect into a fully-fledged religion).

The most famous symbol of Patiala is the Patiala Peg, which is a measure of whiskey served as a double or anything in excess of a normal peg.

c.15th century


Founder of Jaisalmer. Faridkot's kings claim descent from him.

Rai Hem

Jaidrath / Jundar

Pate Rao

Mangal Rao

Anand Rao

Khiva Rao

Married Rajo, daughter of Saro Bashera, Jat chief of Dulkot.


Founder of Sidhu Jat clan.



Satrajat / Satra

Jertha / Charta


Kala / Gola



Rao Brar



Kayen / Kao


? - 1526


Killed at Panipat.

1526 - 1554

Chaudhari Wariyam (Beeram) of Neli

Chaudhari Mehraj

Chaudhari Satu

Killed in 1554 with his grandfather.

Chaudhari Pakhu

Chaudhari Mohan Singh

Chaudhari Mohan Singh is a follower of Sikh Guru Har Gobind. He dies after a fight with the Bhatti Rajputs, but during his lifetime he is responsible for founding the village of Mehraj, which he names after his grandfather.

Chaudhari Rup Chand


Chaudhari Kala

Brother. Guardian to his sons, Phul Singh and Sandali.

Chaudhari Phul Singh

Son. Founded Phul village and Phulkian family. Died accidentally.

One of the sons of Chaudhari Phul Singh is Tiloka. He is responsible for founding the Jat state of Jind. It is Tiloka's great-grandson, Sardar Hamir Singh, who founds the Jat state of Nabha in 1755.

? - 1691

Chaudhari Chota Ram Singh

Son. Baptised as a Sikh by Guru Gobind Singh.

1691 - 1765

Baba Ala Singh

Son. Founder of the kingdom of Patiala.

1691 - 1765

Ala Singh establishes the kingdom of Patiala and leads a Sikh misl. He also wrests away much territory belonging to the Bhatti Rajputs and purchases the town of Sirhind. By the end of 1765 his territory possesses almost 726 villages. Not content with that he founds the villages of Chajali, Longowal, Dirba, and Sheron. The fort of Patiala (initially known as Qila Mubarak), which he builds, becomes his headquarters.

Moti Bagh Palace in Patiala
Moti Bagh Palace in Patiala

1760 - 1761

Bharatpur is prepared to help the Marathas in their fight against the Afghan king, but differences over powersharing in Delhi arise and as a result the necessary help on the battlefield is not forthcoming. The Marathas lose the Third Battle of Panipat, and Ala Singh aids the Maratha refugees who return from the battle. He himself is later taken prisoner by Ahmed Shah Abdali and has to pay a large amount to secure his release. Not only does Abdali release him, he also acknowledges him as the first raja of Patiala.


Gurbaksh Singh captures many villages around Chachrauli district, Dera Bassi in Patiala, Chirak in Faridkot, and Bambeli in Hoshiarpur district. He is granted the estate of Chachrauli by the Sikh king, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, which is renamed Kalsia.

1765 - 1781

Amar Singh

Grandson. Receives the title 'raja-i-rajgan'. Mints his own coins.

1781 - 1813

Sahib Singh



Sahib Singh enters into a treaty with the British against the Sikh Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore.

1813 - 1845

Karam Singh

Son. Fought with the British during Anglo-Nepalese War.

1813 - ?

Rani Aus Kaur

Mother and regent until Karam attained his maturity.

1845 - 1862

Narendra Singh


1857 - 1858

Narendra Singh supports the British during the Indian Mutiny (or Great Sepoy Mutiny), following which the British Viceroys are established to replace the Moghuls as the highest power in the land.

1862 - 1876

Mahendra Singh


1876 - 1900

Sir Rajendra Singh

Son. Awarded Grand Cross of the Star of India by Britain.

1900 - 1938

Sir Bhupendra Singh


A regency council rules for Bhupendra Singh until he attains maturity. He serves in the British army and is promoted to Hon Lt-General in 1931. He represents India in the League of Nations in 1925, and serves as chancellor in the Chamber of Princes between 1926-1938. He is also known for his flamboyant lifestyle. He marries nine times and fathers eighty-eight children.

1938 - 1974

Sir Yadavendra Singh

Son. Last king of Patiala. Hereditary title after 1948.


The dominion of India is formed on 15 August 1947 following the official handover of power by the British. The kingdom is subsumed within the republic and its ruler left with just his title. Yadavendra Singh acts as the rajpramukh of Patiala until it is merged into the state of Punjab.

1971 - 1974

Sir Yadavendra is the ambassador to the Netherlands when he dies in office in the Hague after suffering a heart attack.

1974 - Present

Captain Amarinder Singh

Ex-captain Indian armed forces.

Amarinder Singh is elected to the Lok Sabha in 1980, but resigns after Operation Bluestar (which involves the storming of the Golden Temple by Indian forces). He joins Shiromani Akali Dal and serves as a minister for agriculture and forest development. Later he breaks away from Shiromandi Akali Dal and forms his own Shiromani Akali Dal Panthic party which later merges into the Congress Party.