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Jat Sikh Minor Kingdoms

The Jats Sikhs were mainly Hindus who converted to Sikhism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in India. Out of the twelve Sikh misls (clan confederacies), almost seven happened to be from the Jat Sikh community. Their most prominent son was Maharaja Ranjit Singh who established the first Sikh kingdom in Lahore (now in Pakistan).

Other prominent Jat Sikh states included Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Kalsia and Kapurthala.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

Jat Sikh Kings of Faridkot (Kot Kapura)
AD 1705 - 1989

Faridkot was a Jat Sikh princely state that is now part of the modern Indian state of Punjab. It began its life as the state of Kot Kapura, which quickly broke up, the original core of the state later being subsumed within Nabha. A division of Kot Kapura which included Faridkot became the heart of an independent minor kingdom of the same name. Its royal family claims descent from Jaisal, the founder of Jaisalmer and ancestor of the kings of Patiala.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

Sangar

Bhallan

Son. Died 1643.

Lala

Brother.

1705 - 1708

Chaudhary Kapura Singh

Son. Born 1628. First king of Kot Kapura.

1708

Chaudhary Kapura Singh had converted to Sikhism and founded the state of Kot Kapura in 1705. However, following his death, disputes arise amongst his grandsons which result in the eventual division of the state. The main state of Kot Kapura remains with Sardar Jodh Singh Brar, while his younger brother, Hamir Singh (son of Sardar Sukha Singh) gains Faridkot.

Faridkot
Kot Kapura may have been divided, but the state kept Faridkot and this palace

1708 - ?

Sardar Jodh Singh Brar

Grandson. King of Kot Kapura.

1708 - 1763

Following the death of Sardar Jodh Singh Brar, the state of Kot Kapura is absorbed by Nabha. It may be possible that for a time he also holds Faridkot itself, until later in his reign or until his death (the date of which is unknown). The first king of Faridkot is Hamir Singh, whose rule does not begin until 1763.

1763

Gurbaksh Singh captures many villages around Chachrauli district, Dera Bassi in Patiala, Chirak in Faridkot, and Bambeli in Hoshiarpur district. He is granted the estate of Chachrauli by the Sikh king, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, which is renamed Kalsia.

1763 - 1782

Hamir Singh

Grandson of Chaudhary Kapura Singh. First king of Faridkot.

1782 - 1798

Mohar Singh

Son.

1798 - 1804

Charat Singh

Son.

1804

Dal Singh

Uncle.

1804 - 1826

Sardar Gulab Singh

Son of Charat Singh.

1807 - 1809

Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore, the first Sikh king, annexes both Kot Kapura and Faridkot to his kingdom (much of which is given as a jagir to Diwan Mokam Chand). With the help of the British in India, Gulab Singh regains Faridkot in 1809.

1826 - 1827

Sardar Attar Singh

Son.

1827 - 1849

Raja Pahar Singh

Cousin.

1844 - 1845

The British in India annexe Sindh in 1844, and the Sikhs attack British divisions at Ferozepur. The First Anglo-Sikh War is triggered in 1845, and Pahar Singh (along with his son, Wazir Singh, and grandson, Bikram Singh) assists the British. He is rewarded with the title of 'raja', plus territories from the states of Nabha and Kot Kapura.

1849 - 1874

Raja Wazir Singh

Son.

1857 - 1858

Wazir Singh assists the British in India during the Indian Mutiny (or Great Sepoy Mutiny), following which the British Viceroys are established to replace the Moghuls as the highest power in the land.

1874 - 1898

Raja Bikram Singh

Son.

1898 - 1906

Raja Balbir Singh

Son.

1906 - 1918

Raja Brijindar Singh

Nephew and adopted son.

1914 - 1918

Brijindar Singh does his part for the British during the First World War. He is rewarded with the title of 'maharaja'.

1918 - 1989

Raja Harinder Singh

Son. Last king of Faridkot. Died 1989.

1947

The dominion of India is formed on 15 August 1947 following the official handover of power by the British. The kingdom is subsumed within the republic and its ruler left with just his title.

Har Mohinder Singh

Son. Killed in motorbike accident in 1989.

 

Harinder Singh spends the first years of his reign being assisted by a regent. He later serves in the British army, and survives his son, Har Mohinder Singh, to become the last titular king of Faridkot.

 

Jat Sikh Kings of Jind
AD 1763 - 1948

Jind is a district which lies in the modern state of Haryana in India. The royal family of Jind shares its Jat Sikh ancestry with the royals of Patiala and Nabha in the form of Chaudhary Phul Singh Patiala.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

late 1600s

Chaudhary Phul Singh

King of Patiala.

Chaudhary Tiloka

Son.

Chaudhary Sukchain

Younger son.

1763 - 1789

Raja Gajpat Singh

Son.

Gajpat Singh inherits the Badrukhan estates from his father. He defaults in paying his arrears to the Moghul Emperor Shah Alam II. For this he is imprisoned and released only after the arrears have been paid. As a reward he is declared raja (king) by the emperor. He subsequently erects a fort at Jind, which becomes his capital.

1789 - 1819

Raja Sri Bagh Singh

Son. Suffered a paralytic stroke and wife ruled in his name.

Sri Bagh Singh gains control over Basia and Ludhiana and receives Gohana and Kharkhoda as a jagir (estate) from Moghul Emperor Shah Alam II. He also enters into a treaty with the British East India Company and fights against the Marathas. In return he is grated territories in Shahajahanabad.

? - 1819

Rani Sri Sadar Kaur Sahiba

Wife and regent.

1819 - 1822

Raja Sri Fateh Singh

Son.

Sri Fateh Singh accepts British help to suppress a rebellion by his younger brother, Partab Singh.

1822 - 1834

Raja Sri Sangat Singh

Son. Hedonistic and probably died of alcoholism, childless.

1822 - ?

Rani Mai Sahib Kaur

Mother and regent until Sri Sangat reached maturity.

1837 - 1864

Raja Sir Sri Swarup Singh

Second cousin. Died of acute dysentery.

1857 - 1858

Sri Swarup Singh assists the British during the Indian Mutiny (or Great Sepoy Mutiny), following which the British Viceroys are established to replace the Moghuls as the highest power in the land. Afterwards, Jind receives several territories from the British.

1864 - 1887

Raja Sir Raghubir Singh

Son. Outlived his son, the father of Sri Ranbir Singh.

1887 - 1948

Raja Sir Brigadier Sri Ranbir Singh

Grandson. Fought in the British army. Died 1948.

1947

The dominion of India is formed on 15 August 1947 following the official handover of power by the British. The kingdom is subsumed within the republic and its ruler left with just his title.

1948 - 1959

Raja Sri Rajbir Singh

Son.

1959 - Present

Raja Sri Satbir Singh

Son.

 

Jat Sikh Kings of Kalsia
AD 1763 - 1948

Kalsia was a Jat Sikh princely state which is now located in the modern Indian state of Haryana. Gurbaksh Singh was a member of the Karora Singhia misl, and it was he who captured many villages around Chachrauli district, Dera Bassi in Patiala, Chirak in Faridkot, and Bambeli in Hoshiarpur district. He was granted the estate of Chachrauli by the Sikh king, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, which was renamed Kalsia after his native village (the village is now in Pakistan).

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

1763 - 1785

Sardar Gurbaksh Singh

Founder of Kalsia.

1785 - 1818

Sardar Jodh Singh

Son.

Jodh Singh captures Dera Bassi from Sardar Khajan Singh and also Lohal and Achrak. Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh awards him with Badala, Kameri, and Chhabal. He dies after being fatally wounded during the Battle of Multan in 1818.

1818 - 1858

Sardar Sobha Singh

Son.

1858 - 1869

Sardar Lahna Singh

Son.

1857 - 1858

Lahna Singh assists the British during the Indian Mutiny (or Great Sepoy Mutiny), following which the British Viceroys are established to replace the Moghuls as the highest power in the land.

1869 - 1883

Sardar Bishen Singh

Son. m daughter of Raja Raghubir Singh of Jind.

1883 - 1886

Sardar Jagjit Singh

Son. Died a minor.

1886 - 1908

Sardar Ranjit Singh

1908 - 1947

Raja Sardar Ravi Sher Singh

Son. Last monarch of Kalsia.

1947 - 1961

Raja Sardar Karan Sher Singh

Son.

1947

The dominion of India is formed on 15 August 1947 following the official handover of power by the British. The kingdom is subsumed within the republic and its ruler left with just his title. Following the very recent death of his father, Karan Sher Singh has to relinquish control over his state.

1961 - Present

Raja Sardar Himmat Sher Singh

Son.

 

Jat Sikh Kings of Kapurthala
AD 1777 - 1948

Kapurthala was a princely state of considerable significance, and can now be found located within the modern Indian state of Punjab. The rulers of this Jat Sikh state belonged to the Ahluwalia dynasty.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

Sardar Sadhu Singh

Zamindar of forty villages.

1772 -1783

Sardar Jassa Singh

Son. Founder of Kapurthala.

1777

Leader of Ahluwalia misl, Jassa Singh seizes Kapurthala from Rai Ibrahim, chief of the Bhatti. Then he expands his kingdom as far as the banks of the River Jumna.

1783 - 1801

Sardar Bagh Singh

Cousin. Lost a large amount of territory.

1801 - 1837

Sardar Fateh Singh

Son.

Fateh Singh serves as part of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Sikh army and fights several successful battles. He is bestowed with territories which include Dakah, Kot, Jagraoh, Talwandi, Narayangad, and Raipur (Malva).

Jagajit Palace in Kapurthala
Jagajit Palace in Kapurthala

1837 - 1852

Sardar Nihal Singh

Son.

1845

Nihal Singh fights on the side of the Sikhs against the British in India during the Anglo-Sikh War. He receives Nur Mahal and Kalal Majra for his efforts but is penalised by the British with the confiscation of his territories south of Sutlej.

1852 - 1870

Sardar Sir Randhir Singh

Son.

1857 - 1858

Randhir Singh assists the British during the Indian Mutiny (or Great Sepoy Mutiny), following which the British Viceroys are established to replace the Moghuls as the highest power in the land. Randhir is granted territories in Oudh as a reward.

1870 - 1877

Sardar Kharak Singh

Son.

Kharak Singh is declared mentally instable, so he has to accept a regency council and later a British superintendent to oversee the administration of the state.

1877 - 1949

Sardar Major-General Jagatjit Singh

Son. Last king of Kapurthala.

Jagatjit Singh joins the British army and gradually rises to the rank of major-general. He is awarded the Grand Cross Legion of Honour (by France), the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile, and has major decorations bestowed upon him by Cuba, Peru, Chile and Morocco. He also represents India in the League of Nations in 1926, 1927, and 1929.

1947

The dominion of India is formed on 15 August 1947 following the official handover of power by the British. The kingdom is subsumed within the republic and its ruler left with just his title.

1949 - 1955

Sardar Colonel Paramjit Singh

Son. Served in the British army.

1955 - Present

Sardar Sri Sukhjit Singh

Son. Served in the Indian army.

1971

Sri Sukhjit Singh wins the Mahavir Chakra, the second highest gallantry award, during the Indo-Pakistan War after Pakistan launches a pre-emptive strike on eleven Indian airbases. The war lasts just thirteen days. Following this, East Pakistan succeeds from West Pakistan to become Bangladesh.

 

Jat Sikh Kings of Nabha
AD 1755 - 1948

Nabha is a city in the Patiala district of Punjab. Like Patiala and Jind, the Nabha royal family also claims descent from Jaisal and Chaudhary Phul Singh of the Jat Sikh kingdom of Patiala. Sardar Hamir Singh, the great grandson of Tiloka, one of the sons of Chaudhary Phul Singh, founded the state of Nabha. It included a sizable portion of the state of Kot Kapur, which had fragmented after 1708.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

late 1600s

Chaudhary Phul Singh

King of Patiala.

Chaudhary Tiloka Chand

Son.

1718 - 1754

Chaudhary Gurditta

Son.

Sardar Suratya Singh

Son. Died 1752 at Fort Dhanaula.

1754 - 1783

Sardar Hamir Singh

Son. Founder of the state of Nabha in 1755.

Sardar Hamir Singh fights alongside the Sikhs against the Moghuls.

1783 - 1840

Raja Jaswant Singh

Son. Assumed title of 'raja'.

1840 - 1846

Raja Devendra Singh

Son.

1845

Devendra Singh is charged by the East India Company with siding with the Sikhs during the Anglo-Sikh War. The king is deposed in favour of his eldest son, Bharpur. Nabha's territories are confiscated, many of them being handed to Faridkot.

1846 - 1863

Raja Bharpur Singh

Son. Died without a male heir.

1857 - 1858

Bharpur Singh assists the British during the Indian Mutiny (or Great Sepoy Mutiny), following which the British Viceroys are established to replace the Moghuls as the highest power in the land. Nabha's territories are restored to the king.

1863 - 1871

Raja Bhagwan Singh

Brother. Died without a male heir.

1871 - 1911

Raja Sir Hira Singh

Son of Sardar Sukha Singh of Badrukhan (Jind).

1911 - 1928

Raja Ripudaman Singh

Son.

1928

Ripudaman Singh is deposed due to local Sikh politics. He later intrigues with a religious group against the British and is exiled to Kodaikanal in Madras where he dies.

1928 - 1995

Raja Colonel Pratap Singh

Son. Last king of Nabha. Retained his title only.

1947

The dominion of India is formed on 15 August 1947 following the official handover of power by the British. The kingdom is subsumed within the republic and its ruler left with just his title.

1995 - Present

Raja Hanuwant Singh

Son.

Yudhistir Singh

Son and heir.