History Files


Far East Kingdoms

South Asia




AD 1226 - c.1400

After the destruction of the Gahadavala kingdom, and the migration of the Gahadwalas to Rajputana, a prince of the Kannauj kings founded the Rathore dynasty of Marwar in 1226. In turn, he became the ancestor of the founders of several Rajput states, big and small. In those days, possession was ten tenths of the law, and legitimacy was confirmed by killing the previous king and declaring yourself king in his place. If you and your descendents could hold on to the throne, well and good. If you or they could not, the next man who defeated you became king. However, the Rathore dynasty remained relatively minor until its sudden expansion in around 1400.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

1226 - 1272

Rao Siyaji / Shiva

Grandson of King Jai Chandra of the Gahadavalas.


Rao Siyaji visits Marwar on pilgrimage and stops at a town called Pali. The local Brahmin community asks him to settle there, become their chief, and protect them from raiders.

Fort Mehrangar
Fort Mehran Ghar is located in Jodhpur, Marwar's capital. It replaced Mandore fort in 1459


Rao Siyaji is killed in battle against Sultan Balban and a huge army from Delhi.

1272 - 1292

Rao Asthan


During his reign, Rao Asthan conquers Pali, and Khed (in western Marwar), but ultimately he is killed in battle by Sultan Jalauddin Khilji of Delhi.

1292 - 1309

Rao Doohad

Son. Vied with Rao Sindhal for control of Marwar.


Rao Sindhal

Rival for the throne.

1309 - 1313

Rao Raipal


1313 - 1323

Rao Kanha / Kanhapal


1323 - 1328

Rao Jalansi


1328 - 1344

Rao Chada / Chandoji


1344 - 1357

Rao Tida


1357 - 1374

Rao Kanhadev

Son of Salkha / Salkhaji, son of Tida.

1374 - 1383

Rao Viramdev / Biramdev


1383 - 1406

Rao Chanda / Chundarji

Son. Tenth in line from Siyaji. Seized control of Jodhpur.


Rao Chanda gains full power in Marwar and Jodhpur after wresting then from the Islamic rulers of Delhi. From this point onwards, Marwar is ruled by the Rathores, and shares their fate.

Jodhpur & Marwar
AD 1406 - 1947

Jodhpur was a small Rajput kingdom which emerged in thirteenth century Rajasthan in north-west of India. The kingdom's founders were the Rathore clan of Rajputs, who claimed descent from the Gahadavala kings of Kannauj. After the sacking of Kannauj by Muhammad of Ghor, the Ghurid king, in 1194, and its capture by the Delhi sultanate in the early thirteenth century, the Rathores fled west.

The Rathore family chronicles relate that Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, the last Gahadavala king of Kannauj, entered Marwar on a pilgrimage to Dwarka in Gujarat, and on halting at the town of Pali he and his followers settled there to protect the Brahmin community from the raids of marauding bands. Later, Rao (king) Chanda, who was tenth in line of succession from Siyaji of Marwar, finally wrested control of Marwar from the Pratiharas and established his own independent kingdom from Jodhpur.

Jodhpur was one of a number of small Rajput kingdoms that emerged between the sixth and thirteenth centuries, including Amer, Bikaner, Bundi, Jaisalmer, Malwa,and Mewar, and all were eventually conquered by the Moghuls.

1406 - 1424

Rao Chanda / Chundarji

Secured Marwar and founded the kingdom of Jodhpur.

1424 - 1427

The great Rao Chanda, founder of the kingdom, is killed in battle by the forces of Salim Shah of Multan. The king's son, Kanha, subsequently has to fight to retain his throne when his brother Rao Ranmal, who had been disinherited by their father, makes a bid for power. Ultimately, Ranmal is successful.

1424 - 1427

Rao Kanha

Son. Faced opposition from his brothers.

1424 - 1427

Rao Sanha

Brother. Rebelled against his brother's rule.

1424 - 1438

Rao Ranmal / Ranamalla / Ranmalji

Brother. Opposed Rao Kanha.

1438 - 1489

Rao Jodha

Son. First fully independent Rathore king of Jodhpur & Marwar.


The first fully independent king of Jodhpur, Jodha reconquers Mandore from the Sisodiyas of Mewar before he founds the city of Jodhpur. The city is named after him and forms the capital of the Rathor state (and in modern times is still an administrative centre). Construction on the impressive fort of Mehran Garh (or Mehrangarh) is begun in the same year.

Mehran Garh Fort
The fort of Mehran Garh dominated the territory held by the Rathores of Marwar and Jodhpur in north-western India


Rao Bika is a member of the Rathore clan and is the son of Rao Jodha. Following a disagreement with his father he leaves Jodhpur and founds the city of Bikaner after building his fort, Rati Ghati, on the site.


Upon the death of his father, Rao Bika of Bikaner is refused the family heirlooms (the sandalwood throne, 'Pugal', plus an umbrella, a sword, and a horse) by his brothers, he marches to Fort Mehrangarh and subdues his brothers. He doesn't harm them, simply regaining his rightful property.

1489 - 1492

Rao Satalji

Son. Killed in battle in March.

1492 - 1515

Rao Sujaji



Rao Biram Singh

Son of Rao Satalji. Deposed.

1515 - 1532

Rao Gangaji

Brother. Usurped the throne from Rao Biram Singh.

1532 - 1562

Rao Maldeo / Maldev

Son. Expanded kingdom, taking Ajmer, Merta, & Nagore.

1542 - 1543

Rao, or king, Maldeo initially thinks that an alliance with the exiled Moghul emperor, Humayun, will be a good idea. However, when Maldeo sees the reduced size of the Moghul army, he withdraws his proposal, only to make it again when the emir of Sindh kills his father. The war against Sindh quickly bogs down, ending in stalemate. Humayan retreats to Kabul.

1562 - 1565

Rao Chandra Sen



Chandra Sen seizes the throne on the death of his father and in the absence of his elder brothers. On learning of Chandra Sen's usurpation of their position, his brothers joined forces with Moghul Emperor Akbar.

1565 - 1581

Aided by Chandra Sen's dispossessed brothers, Moghul Emperor Akbar gains the submission of Jodhpur and Marwar, along with the other Rajputs of Bikaner, Bundi, and Jaisalmer. Governors are assigned to Jodhpur during this period, before the ruling house is restored. Subsequent generations consistently enter Moghul service.

1581 - 1583

Rao Rai Singh


1583 - 1595

Raja Udai Singh

Uncle. First of his line to be called raja of Jodhpur & Marwar.

1595 - 1619

Sawai Raja Sur Singh


1619 - 1638

Maharaja Gaj Singh I

Son. Used the title 'maharaja' on a personal basis.

1638 - 1678

Maharaja Jaswant Singh


While Jaswant Singh has been a loyal servant of the Moghul emperor, Aurangzeb, he has been plotting behind his back to reduce the Rajputs' special status within the empire. With the death of Jai Singh of Amer and with Jaswant Singh fighting in Afghanistan, where he suddenly dies, Aurangzeb puts his plan into operation. He attacks Marwar, capturing forts and destroying temples, and then sells the throne itself to the chief of Nagar, while attempting to install a milkman's son as ruler of Marwar. The true heir to the throne is an infant in the care of Jaswant Singh's aide, Durgadas.

1678 - 1698


Moghul governor in the name of Emperor Aurangzeb.

1678 - 1707

Buoyed by the people of Marwar revolting against Aurangzeb's actions, Durgadas raises an army against the Moghuls which settles in the forests to wage a guerrilla war. In Mewar, Ajit Singh's maternal uncle, Raj Singh, also revolts against Aurangzeb and in 1680 he joins Durgadas in the forests. After an alliance with Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, fails, Durgadas and Akbar take refuge with Sambhaji, the Maratha emperor in the south. Durgadas and Ajit Singh continue their struggle until Aurangzeb until his death.

1678 - 1707


Regent and former aide to Jaswant Singh.

1679 - 1724

Maharaja Shri Ajit Singh

Son of Jaswant. First maharaja of Jodhpur & Marwar.


Upon the death of Moghul emperor Aurangzeb, Ajit Singh recaptures Marwar and is able to re-establish his kingdom, becoming fully independent and making his capital at Jodhpur. The king is later reconciled with Emperor Bahadur Shah I. Said to have been killed by his son Abhai singh and Bakht singh.


Maharaja Shri Ajit Singh's death is rumoured to be caused by his sons, Abhai Singh and Bakht Singh.

1724 - 1749

Maharaja Shri Abhai Singh

Son. Appointed Moghul subedar of Gujarat.


Wars between Marwar and Bikaner are triggered when Abhai Singh attacks Bikaner, but the capital is saved through the intervention of Raja Sawai Jai Singh II of Jaipur.

1749 - 1751

Maharaja Shri Ram Singh

Brother. Deposed.

1751 - 1752

Maharaja Shri Bakht Singh

Brother. Deposed.

1752 - 1753

Maharaja Shri Vijay Singh

Son. Temporarily deposed.

1753 - 1772

Maharaja Shri Ram Singh

Son of Abhai Singh.

1772 - 1793

Maharaja Shri Vijay Singh

Restored. Largely involved in defending kingdom from Marathas.

1793 - 1803

Maharaja Shri Bhim Singh

Grandson, and son of Bhom Singh.

1803 - 1817

Maharaja Shri Man Singh

Grandson of Vijay Singh, and son of Guman Singh. Abdicated.

1817 - 1818

Maharaja Shri Chatar Singh

Son. King in place of his father temporarily.

1818 - 1843

Maharaja Shri Man Singh

Returned as king.

1843 - 1873

Maharaja Shri Sir Takht Singh

Not in direct line, but a great-great-great grandson of Ajit Singh.

1857 - 1858

In common with many of his peers, Takht Singh assists the British in India during the Indian Mutiny (or Great Sepoy Mutiny), following which the British Viceroys are established to replace the Moghuls as the highest power in the land.

1873 - 1895

Maharaja Shri Sir Jaswant Singh II


1895 - 1911

Colonel Maharaja Shri Sir Sardar Singh


1911 - 1918

Colonel Maharaja Shri Sir Sumair Singh

Son. Served in British Army on the Western Front.

1918 - 1947

Lt-General Maharaja Shri Sir Umaid Singh



Group Cpt Maharaja Shri Hanwant Singh

Last ruling maharaja of Jodhpur.

1948 - 1949

India achieves independence from Britain and begins the process of taking control of the princely states. Mewar is one of the first of the princely states to merge with the new dominion. Later in 1949, twenty-two princely states of Rajasthan merge to form the Union of Greater Rajasthan, acknowledging the maharana of Udaipur in Mewar as their head.

Maharaja Shri Hanwant Singh and Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951
Maharaja Shri Hanwant Singh (on the left) meeting Jawaharlal Nehru in Delhi in 1951. Maharaja Rana of Dholpur in turban sits at the back, and Raja Anand Chand has his back to the camera

Hereditary Maharajas of Jodhpur & Marwar
AD 1947 - Present Day

Following the 'nationalisation' of the princely states, and the loss of maharaja power in Jodhpur, Shri Hanwant Singh remained head of the Rathore clan until his death.

1947 - 1952

Group Cpt Maharaja Shri Hanwant Singh

Former maharaja of Jodhpur.

1952 - Present

Maharaja Gaj Singh II / Baapji

Son. Born 1948.


On 1 November, the state of Rajasthan comes into being. The Rajasthan rulers give up their sovereignty but enjoy privy purses.

1970 - 1971

In 1970 the Indian Parliament decides to abolish the institution of royalty, and the following year the rulers of the former princely states are de-recognised and their privy purses and titles snatched away from them.

Yuvraj Shivraj Singh

Son and heir. Born 1975.