History Files


Far East Kingdoms

South Asia




Rajputana (Amer / Jaipur)

Amer (sometimes known as Amber, modern Jaipur from 1727) was one of the Rajput kingdoms of Rajasthan which existed in India in the modern north-west of the country. It was centred around the city of Amer (close to modern Jaipur) in eastern Rajasthan, near Delhi. Amber was originally a Meena kingdom which was founded by the Chanda Meena king, Alan Singh, but was later captured by the Kachwaha Rajputs around 1036 or 1037. The Kachwahas claim descent from Raja Nal of Ayodhya, a member of one of the Rajput Hindu warrior clans. The word 'rajput' itself literally means 'the son of the king', with the people being known for their valour. In 1727, Sawai Jai Singh II shifted his capital from Amber to a newly constructed city very nearby which he named Jaipur. By now this was the senior Kachwaha clan and state.

There were a number of small Rajput kingdoms which emerged between the sixth and thirteenth centuries, including Alwar, Bikaner, Bundi, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Malwa, Kannauj, and Mewar, and all were eventually conquered by the Moghuls.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

Raja Ishwar Das

From Gwalior. A member of the Kachwaha Rajputs.

966 - 1006

Raja Sodhdev


1006 - 1036

Raja Dulha Rao / Dhola Rao

Founder of the kingdom. Raja of Dausa.

c.1036 - 1037

Raja Dulha Rao is generally given as the founder of the kingdom, while his son's successor, Hunadev, is the one to hammer home the final nail in the Meena coffin.

(An alternative version of the kingdom's conquest claims that Maida Sirha Rao, son of Raja Dulha Rao, is the one to capture Amer, during a slaughter of the weaponless Meenas and their king, Meena Raja Ralun Singh (who is also known as Alan Singh). It also maintains that Dhola Rao does make the first inroads in the capture of the Meena kingdom, but that he is killed in battle. The work is continued by Maida Sirha Rao and completed by Hunadev.)

Jaipur countryside
Amber, the capital of the kingdom, was founded by the Meena king Ralun Singh, but was captured during his lifetime by the Kachwaha Rajputs

1036 - 1038

Raja Kankaldev / Kakil Dev

Son. Alternatively it could be Maida Sirha Rao, also a son.

1038 - 1053

Raja Hunadev / Hoondev

Universally agreed successor to Kankaldev / Maida Sirha Rao.

1053 - 1070

Raja Janaddev

1070 - 1084

Raja Pujanadev

1084 - 1146

Raja Malesidev


1146 - 1179

Raja Byaladev

1179 - 1216

Raja Rajdev

1216 - 1276

Raja Khilandev

1276 - 1317

Raja Kantaldev

1317 - 1366

Raja Jansidev

1366 - 1388

Raja Udaikarna / Udaykarna

Son. Ancestor of the rajas of Alwar.

1388 - 1413

Raja Narsinhadev


1413 - 1424

Raja Banbirsinha

1424 - 1453

Raja Udharao


1453 - 1502

Raja Chandrasen


Surja Ballal of the Gond kingdom of Chandrapur assists the Delhi emperor in attacking Fort Kaibur, which belongs to the minor Rajput king of the Chandelas named Mohan Singh. Mohan Singh's status in relation to the major Rajput kingdoms such as Amer is unknown, but it is more than likely that he is a vassal of one of them.

1502 - 1527

Raja Prithviraj Singh

1527 - 1534

Raja Puranmal


1534 - 1537

Raja Bhim Singh


1537 - 1548

Raja Ratan Singh


1548 - 1574

Raja Bharmal

Uncle. Granted the jagir of Narwar.


The Moghul emperor, Akbar, takes on the might of the Rajputs. He sends his emissaries to various Rajput princes, asking them to accept his suzerainty but, knowing the Rajput reputation for valour, he uses subtle diplomacy to win them over, entering into marriage alliances with many of them. Raja Bharmal gives his daughter to Akbar and sets the precedent. Akbar inducts Raja Bharmal's son, Bhagwandas, and grandson, Man Singh, into his body of high ranking courtiers. Maharana Uday Singh of Mewar refuses the offer.

1574 - 1589

Raja Bhagwandas

Son. Moghul governor of Punjab. 'Amir ul umara'.

1589 - 1614

Mirza Raja Man Singh I

Son. General in Moghul army. Fought under them.

1614 - 1621

Mirza Raja Bhao Singh


1621 - 1667

Mirza Raja Jai Singh I

Son. General in Moghul army.


Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb deputes Jai Singh (not to be confused with the son of Raj Singh of Mewar, who has the same name), to tackle the Maratha king, Shivaji. Shivaji is no match for Jai Singh's mammoth army, and he is forced to sign the Treaty of Purandar, although Aurangzeb's subsequent actions means that Shivaji resumes his attacks on the Moghuls.

The raja is also responsible for making Rao Agar Singh (ancestor of the later rajas of Alwar) the thakur of Macheri.

1667 - 1688

Mirza Raja Ram Singh I



Jai Singh has been a loyal servant of the Moghul emperor, but Aurangzeb himself has been plotting behind Jai Singh's back to reduce the Rajputs' special status within the empire. With Jai Singh now dead and with his brother prince, Jaswant Singh of Marwar, fighting in Afghanistan, Aurangzeb puts his plan into operation, attacking Marwar. Ram Singh also falls out of favour when his captive, the Maratha King Shivaji, escapes from Agra.

1688 - 1699

Mirza Raja Bishan Singh


1699 - 1743

Mirza Raja Sawai Jai Singh II

Son. General in Moghul army. 'Sawai'.


Following the death of Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb, the empire is ruled by a series of weak emperors who witness the slow diminution of their power and territory. Jai Singh II has differences with the new emperor and is one of many who breaks away from Moghul overlordship. However, those differences are patched up and Jaipur returns to the fold, with the king serving as governor of Malwa and Agra.


A third contender to the Jat throne of Bharatpur seeks the help of Jai Singh II, and defeats his rival in battle.


With Amber experiencing a population boom and water supplies suffering, a new capital called Jayapura is built and the state is renamed Jaipur.


Wars against Marwar are triggered. Abhai Singh of Marwar attacks Bikaner, but the capital is saved through the intervention of Raja Sawai Jai Singh II.


With the death of Jai Singh II, the cause of his eldest son, Ishwari Singh, is supported by Surajmal of the Jat kingdom of Bharatpur. Together, the pair secure the throne against Ishwari's contender and brother, Madho Singh, who is in turn supported by Jagat Singh, the queen (maharana) of Mewar.

1743 - 1750

Mirza Sawai Ishwari Singh


1745 - 1750

Growing internal disputes in Jaipur means that Ishwari Singh has to go to war once again against Madho Singh, the son of the rana (queen) of Mewar, defeating him with the help of Ranojirao Scindia of Gwalior (who collects taxes as payment for his support). The death of the Maratha maharaja sees his successor, his son, side instead with Madho Singh. Further plotting by the rana forces Ishwari Singh to commit suicide in 1750, clearing the way for Madho Singh to gain the throne.

1750 - 1768

Mirza Sawai Madho Singh I

Half-brother by the queen of Mewar.

During his reign, Madho Singh I is awarded Ranthambore fort by the Moghul emperor. He also founds the city of Sawai Madhopor, but his ambition to form a coalition of Rajputs to keep the Marathas out of the north is defeated.

Hawa Mahal in Jaipur
The Hawa Mahal, or 'Palace of the Winds' is in Jaipur, built in 1799

1768 - 1778

Mirza Sawai Prithvi Singh II


1778 - 1803

Mirza Raja Sawai Pratap Singh


1803 - 1818

Mirza Raja Jagat Singh II

Son. Sought British help and died aged 32.


Mohan Singh

Installed on the throne by a noble, but deposed.

1819 - 1835

Mirza Raja Jai Singh III

Posthumously-born son of Jagat Singh.

1835 - 1880

Mirza Raja Sir Ram Singh II

Son. A great moderniser of Jaipur. First to hold the title 'maharaja'.

1880 - 1922

Mirza Raja Sawai Sir Madho Singh II

Adopted son. Continued the work of modernising Jaipur.

1922 - 1970

Mirza Raja Sir Sawai Man Singh II

Adopted son. Served British Army in WWII. m Maharani Gayatri devi.

1948 - 1949

India achieves independence from Britain and begins the process of taking control of the princely states. Mewar is one of the first of the princely states to merge with the new dominion. Later in 1949, twenty-two princely states of Rajasthan merge to form the Union of Greater Rajasthan, acknowledging the maharana of Udaipur in Mewar as their head.


On 1 November, the state of Rajasthan comes into being. The Rajasthan rulers give up their sovereignty but enjoy privy purses.

1970 - 2011

Brigadier Sawai Bhawani Singh

Son. Served in the Indian army as a para commando.

1970 - 1971

The Indian Parliament decides to abolish the institution of royalty in 1970, and the following year the rulers of the former princely states are de-recognised and their privy purses and titles snatched away from them.


The death of the last maharaja of Jaipur is announced on 18 April 2011. He does at the age of seventy-nine after a long illness.