by David Ross, 18 February 2001. Updated
1 June 2017
The earliest Hittite records are dubious. The annals
of the half-legendary founder of the state, Hattusilis I, contain what
would be the first invasion of Arzawa. This set the tone for centuries
For instance, a treaty of Muwatallis II to Alexandros
of Wilusa refers back to it (Beckman p87). However, these annals
survive only in much later copies; Arzawa may be an anachronism
inserted by a redactor. An 'Arzawiya' appears in the Proclamation
of Telipinus, also only extant in later copies.
Western Anatolia made its grand debut in the form
of the confederacy/rebellion of Assuwa, which a Tudhaliyas mentions
fighting in his annals of 1450 BC. Arzawa existed, but there is no
evidence that it aided the conspiracy (translation of CTH 142: all
CTH translations available via the links on the right, further down
Arzawa first acts on its own circa 1430 BC,
as an enemy, where it appears in the treaties of the Hittite king,
Tudhaliyas II (Beckman p24). Other treaties are quoted in a fascinating
internal memo, the Indictment of Madduwattas, by Tudhaliyas'
heir, Arnuwandas (Beckman pp153-160 - the 'Indictment' was first
assigned to the end of the Hittite kingdom, a mistake that persists
to this day in certain places).
Lastly, Arnuwandas had written of his father's
campaigns in CTH 143 that father and son had attacked Arzawa to the
south-west and then campaigned against Masa to the north-west; the
latter of which is corroborated in the later Deeds of Suppiluliumas
(CTH 40, Bryce p162). I suspect that Masa was across the Hellespont
in what became Thrace; and that its people were ancestors to the
Phrygians and Armenians [unless Masa is the ancestor of Mysia,
in which an Anatolian location is argued in the page covering that
kingdom (see sidebar links) - Ed].
According to these sources, Arzawa was ruled by a
certain Kupanta-Kurunta. These sources detail the rise to power over
Arzawa and the rest of the west by a failed despot over on the Hittite
side of the border by the name of Madduwattas.
Madduwattas (Madyattes?) faced a struggle in the Lukka
Lands (famously lawless) against a 'man from Ahhiya' (Achaia? - [see
Ahhiyawa link in sidebar]) named Attarisiyas. Tudhaliyas gave
Madduwattas asylum, and even gave him (back?) the mountainous kingdom
of Zippasla with the Siyanti River Land; but on condition that
Madduwattas use it as a base to invade Arzawa.
When Madduwattas did this, Kupanta-Kurunta destroyed
his army (again) and occupied Zippasla. Once more Tudhaliyas defeated
Madduwattas' enemy and restored Madduwattas to his throne; this
portion of the Indictment and its quoted treaty are, I think,
corroborated in an event of CTH 143 where Tudhaliyas and Arnuwandas
together chased Kupanta-Kurunta out of his land and took his family
hostage. And once the imperial family had left, Madduwattas' previous
nemesis Attarisiyas attacked him again at Zippasla, with a hundred
chariots (famously). This time Madduwattas did not even defend himself,
but fled a third time to the Hittites. Tudhaliyas sent a third army
under Kisnapili to the land to drive Attarissiyas out. This time,
the army was ordered to stay.
Madduwattas apparently then decided he was never
again going to suffer such indignities. When Dalawa (Lycian Tlawa,
classical Tlos) and Hinduwa rebelled, Madduwattas suggested that
Kisnapili take Hinduwa while Madduwattas take Dalawa. But while
Kisnapili was on his way to Hinduwa, Madduwattas allied with Dalawa,
and with its help ambushed and killed Kisnapili.
Independent once more, Madduwattas married the Arzawan
king's daughter, and soon took that kingdom too. When Tudhaliyas
ordered Madduwattas to put down a revolt in Happalla, he did - but
then Madduwattas forced Happalla, too, to switch loyalty to his own
side. He then bullied Pitassa into his kingdom, even closer to the
Hittite heartland. Under Tudhaliyas' hapless successor, Arnuwandas I,
Madduwattas even allied with his old foe Attarisiyas and invaded Alasiya
(Cyprus). Madduwattas had conquered the whole of western Anatolia.
Around this time of Hittite collapse, elsewhere in
Anatolia the Kaska burnt down the fort of Masat. Kuniholm's group has
tree-ring dated the last building to around 1375 BC, and the destruction
layer includes the Late Helladic IIIa style of Greek pottery.
Tarhunta-Radu succeeded Madduwattas around 1350 BC.
Arzawa by then had made Tuwanuwa - Tyana, a hundred miles to the south
of Hattusas - and Uda 'his frontier', and had initiated diplomatic
correspondence with Amenhotep III. Tarhunta-Radu even dared request,
in Kneshian, for the pharaoh's daughter's hand in marriage. The pharaoh's
reply is missing; the god-king probably found it offensive, and either
way probably ignored it (Bryce pp140-9).
Zippasla disappeared from history after Madduwattas'
takeover of Arzawa. The next time the Hittites were able to address
the whole of Arzawa, they aimed for Apasas and bypassed Madduwattas'
Around this time, James locates a legendary event
which went unmentioned in the records of the now-contracted Hittite
imperium: the fall of Mount 'Sipylus' in what would become Lydia, by
an earthquake (recorded by Demokles in the 300s BC, and preserved by
Strabo I.iii.17 - James p206). The mountain fell into a lake and
swamped the kingdom of 'King Tantalos'. Pausanias recorded the same
(VII.xxiv.6-7) on the shore of a 'Lake Saloe', as did Pliny the
In other legends Tantalos was punished by having a
rock dangle over his head, proverbial for Archilochos (600s BC, quoted
in Pausanias X.xxi.2) and known to the Return of the Atreids (500s
BC), Plato (Cratylus 395D-E), and the Scholiast on the Odyssey.
Elsewhere Tantalos has to support a mountain (Antoninus Liberalis -
Relief of a Roman period Lycian at Sidyma in the Lukka lands
This legend existed in two of what I'd call 'oral
recensions': an Ionian Greek cycle concerning the Bearer King Tantalos
and/or the kingdom Tantalis; and Plato's 'Egyptian' - in reality, Lydian
- version, which had adopted the Greek term Atlantis for the kingdom.
James plausibly traced the name and some common aspects of the
stories to the 'Tlanz' or 'Tlantes', the Bearer(s), a Greek epithet
for Ubelleris and other Hurrian-derived bearing-gods I mentioned
above. Deducing that other aspects were memories of a prehistoric
kingdom, James looked for a mountainous region of western Anatolia
with lakes and pre-Greek artefacts. Following the nineteenth century
explorers Ramsay and Frazer, he found such a place in the Yarikkaya
ravine 'just east of ancient Magnesia', now Manisa (pp252-253).
If James were only looking for the Greeks' source
for their 'Titan' legends, then so far so good. James did not stop
with the prehistoric location, however, but tried to deduce the event
as well. Unfortunately there is no contemporary evidence, literary or
material, of an earthquake or a flood in this region during the
Bronze Age. James was forced to date the event to a gap in the
historical record of Arzawa. But these records are Hittite, not
Arzawan. The reason the Hittites were unable to reach inner Arzawa
at that time is not that Arzawa was too weak, but that it was too
James further tried to identify Sipylos (and Sisyphos)
with Zippasla, and claimed that the Arzawans had moved their capital
from there to Apasas. Leave aside the fact that place names are terrible
evidence; even James pointed this out when dismissing the absurdity of
planting Atlantis in the Atlantic.
More troublesome is that Zippasla was not the founding
capital nor was Madduwattas the founding father of Arzawa. Before
Madduwattas, Arzawa was outside Zippasla; after Madduwattas, it ignored
Zippasla. It is true that Madduwattas' court lived in Zippasla before
he took Arzawa, and that later rulers lived elsewhere in Arzawa. There
is no need to propose a natural disaster for such a move, but simple
military necessity; Arzawa was further away and was also the region's
most reliable enemy of the Hittites.
So what became of the land of Zippasla? Perhaps the
Arzawans struck back and destroyed it. Perhaps a Hittite king punished
it. Perhaps Madduwattas or a successor moved his capital on his own.
Perhaps the plague of Suppiluliumas claimed it. For now this fruit
must remain out of reach.
Could mountainous western Anatolia have been the true location
But James had not thought of every potential cause of
Arzawan decline and Greek myth. One recurring theme in these Atlantis
legends involves rocks from above. In addition to the examples
listed previously, Euripides' Orestes ties the much-abused Tantalos
to a 'bolos' swinging in orbit around Olympus. This theme cannot be
attributed to eruptions (like Thera), nor to earthquakes or floods.
The Hittite recovery
Eventually, the Hittites recovered - thanks to the
military and administrative geniuses, Tudhaliyas III and his chief
advisor Suppiluliumas, later king himself. The Deeds of Suppiluliumas
is the primary source here too (CTH 40). Tudhaliyas destroyed the
Arzawan fort of Sallapa (which became the Hittite staging post for
future campaigns) and re-conquered the Lower Land. He then retook
Tuwanuwa. The Arzawan leader Anzapahhadu routed an incursion under
the Hittite general Himuili, but succumbed to the next one under
Suppiluliumas (Bryce pp163-4).
Suppiluliumas's son, Mursilis (KUB XIX 22, another
part of CTH 40), mentions as part of his father's reign the Hittite
governor Hannutti's reconquest of Hapalla - wrested by Madduwattas so
long ago. Later documents say it took Tudhaliyas and Suppiluliumas
twenty years to subjugate Arzawa (Bryce pp164-5). It must have been
Suppiluliumas who took back Pitassa. Further west, Arzawa's hold seems
to have broken, with two cities undergoing internal strife without
interference from anyone but the king of Hatti.
In the kingdom of Mira in the Arzawa lands (probably
the northernmost, bordering Masa and Wilusa), King Maskhuiluwas'
brothers besieged him and forced him to flee to Hattusas. One of
them had named his heir 'Kupanta-Kurunta' after the Arzawan who had
stood up to the Hittites. Suppiluliumas understood this revolt as
being dangerous for his frontier. Accordingly he had his daughter
Muwatti married to Maskhuiluwas, after which the couple returned to
Mira (Beckman p74).
Meanwhile, in 'the Seha River Land' (probably just
south of Mira), the king Muwa-Walwis ('Lion-Might') ruled as far as
Artemis in Lesbos, according to Emory's Anatolian Conference attendee
Hugh Mason. But Muwa-Walwis died and bequeathed his throne to
Manapa-Tarhunta. The sources imply that M-T, as I will call him, was
one of the younger sons of this king. His older brothers plotted in
Then a plague struck the heartland of Hatti.
Suppiluliumas died of it and his battle-seasoned successor, Arnuwandas
II, fell incapacitated - apparently having to share rule with his
cunning but underage brother Mursilis. Hatti's enemies began to see
their chance, in Seha River and in the Kaska lands of Palhuissa.
Hittites hunting lion from a chariot
In the Seha River Land: Manapa-Tarhunta's brothers,
led by Ura-Tarhunta, plotted to kill him; but M-T escaped to Karkiya
(Caria). Mursilis tried writing to U-T, but U-T dismissed him. Arnuwandas
and Mursilis then both wrote to the men of Karkiya to keep M-T safe. U-T
meanwhile proved to be both ineffectual and unpopular, as his method
of assuming rule presaged (Beckman pp82-3; CTH 61, Year 4).
Arnuwandas lived to see a revolt throw out U-T and
reinstall M-T; and the old general, Hannutti, marched from the Lower
Land upon the Kaska frontier town of Ishupitta. But soon the plague
claimed them too. The still-youthful Mursilis II was left alone. During
this period, a certain Uhha-Ziti took Arzawa, and the Hittites' Kaska
clients Pazzannas and Nunnutas took over Ishupitta.
The merciless campaign
Mursilis did not deal with Arzawa at first. He moved
against the Kaska lands, first Ishupitta and then Palhuissa behind it.
Next spring he set off from Ankuwa (presumably in that area) into
Attarimma, Hu[wa]rsanassa, and Suruda. Their leaders fled to Arzawa.
When the Hittite king demanded their extradition, Uhha-Ziti defied
him and called him a 'child', bringing along for the ride a Manapa-Tarhunta
who clearly felt he owed more to his people than to the Hittites. Then,
because the Kaska had rebelled again, Mursilis chased Pazzannas and
Nunnutas out of Palhuissa into Kammama; whose citizens put the two
fugitives to death. His northern frontier now safe, the king returned
to Ankuwa to muster troops.
In a campaign well-documented in his Ten Year
Annals, the young Mursilis invaded Arzawa. At Mount Lawasa just
before he reached the River Sehiriya, Mursilis witnessed a 'thunderbolt'
- probably a meteor - streaking from the north-east into Apasas. At
Sallapa, Mursilis joined forces with his brother, Sarri-Kusuh, whom
their father Suppiluliumas had appointed king of Kargamis (Carchemish,
in Syria). At Aura, Maskhuiluwas of Mira informed the king that the
meteor had wounded Uhha-Ziti's knee (Bryce thinks, 'brought him to
his knees') and incapacitated him.
At some point Uhha-Ziti 'stepped after' - allied with
- the king of 'Ahhiuwa' (meaning Ahhiyawa). Emboldened by this,
Uhha-Ziti's son, Piyama-Kurunta, attacked Maskhuiluwas of Mira, possibly
destroying Impa, but Maskhuiluwas fended him off. Maskhuiluwas then
turned on Hapanuwa, probably at this time, and allied with Hatti.
Mursilis sent Gullas and Mala-Ziti (a Luwian) to raid the
Ahhiyawan-allied city of Milawata (Miletos).
Lake Hotamiş in the Konya Plain, the Hittite Lower Lands,
which are home to occasional saltwater lakes
His father being still incapacitated, Piyama-Kurunta
took the field at 'Walma, at the River Astarpa'. He lost. Uhha-Ziti
(and both his sons, in context) then fled to the islands just ahead of
Mursilis, who walked into Apasas apparently without a fight. The
Hursanassan, Surudan, and Attarimman 'deportees' fled to the
mountain Arinnandas and to the city Purandas. Mursilis and
Sarri-Kusuh successfully starved them out of Arinnandas, but the men
of Purandas would not hand over their exiles. While Mursilis was
encamped at the river Astarpa, Uhha-Ziti died.
Another son of Uhha-Ziti, Tapalazunaulis, returned
from the islands and took charge of the army at Purandas. Immediately
after the 'Festival of the Year' (presumably their New Year's Eve/Day),
Mursilis marched from the Astarpa, drove Tapalazunaulis into the city,
and invested it. At this point Tapalazunaulis lost his stomach for
warfare and fled with his family and some deportees. Mursilis was able
to capture them all but Tapalazunaulis himself. Lacking leadership,
Purandas fell swiftly.
Piyama-Kurunta at this point finally saw his cause was
lost, so he and the king of Ahhiyawa made landfall to sue for peace.
Mursilis deported P-K to Hattusas.
Mursilis then marched through the Seha River Land,
where Manapa-Tarhunta put on an especially obsequious display for the
king (Beckman p83). Mursilis left him in charge of the river and of
Appawiya. Mursilis then came to Mira. He set up a number of
garrisons there, ostensibly to reward Maskhuiluwas for his help
against Piyama-Kurunta and to protect him from the people of Mira
(whom the Hittites did not trust). He also garrisoned Hapanuwa and
gave Maskhuiluwas the land of Kuwaliya. One of the garrisons he
built was Impa, which seems to have been a casualty of Piyama-Kurunta's
attack. A certain Targasnallis, otherwise unknown, was given Hapalla
(Beckman p74) - which had been conquered before the campaign and so
presumably had undergone a change during it. Both Targasnallis and M-T
stayed there for at least ten more years.
The ruins of later Miletos (Hittite-era Milawata) after providing
the Persians and Romans with a city
Mursilis had subdued the land in two years. For all
three kinglets of Mira, Hapalla, and Seha-River, Mursilis signed a
treaty recognising them as 'free men' - who of course were now Hittite
clients banned from joining together against him. Arzawa proper never
recovered, but other western kingdoms may cause some trouble now and
Maskhuiluwas and Muwatti were not blessed with children.
They wrote to Mursilis asking him to recognise their adoption of their
nephew Kupanta-Kurunta (Beckman p74).
The intrigues of Masa
A western king with the Sumerograms É.GAL.PAP
'fomented revolt' ten years into Mursilis's reign - in context, likely
from Masa, which had picked fights on Arzawa's behalf before (Bryce p
231; Beckman p 78). 'É.GAL' in Sumerian is 'great house',
usually 'palace'. 'PAP' is a father or a leader.
Maskhuiluwas again sent word of this to the king in
accordance with Hittite treaty standard. But this time Maskhuiluwas
had tired of Hittite support (rather like Madduwattas). He joined
É.GAL.PAP and incited Pitassa into rebellion as well (Beckman
Mursilis returned to Sallapa. When he summoned
Maskhuiluwas, Maskhuiluwas fled into Masa while his kingdom Mira-Kuwaliya
surrendered. Mursilis invaded Masa, causing much damage. Presumably
É.GAL.PAP was killed in that campaign. Masa's remnant had no
choice but to hand over Mira's rebel. Mursilis sent Maskhuiluwas to
Hattusas and installed his adopted son Kupanta-Kurunta in his stead.
Mursilis's successor, Muwatallis II, told Alexandros
of Wiluja that he did not trust the Arzawans (likely with Mira on his
mind). At this time, Manapa-Kurunta was ruling over the Seha River.
Insofar as Hapalla ever counted as an Arzawa-land, it was now being
run by an 'Ura-Hattusa' who must have been Luwian only by name. At Mira,
the adopted son of Muwatti sister of Mursilis, Kupanta-Kurunta, was
considered a family member of the Great King himself; and so
Alexandros was duty-bound to help K-K even against his own people if
need be (Beckman p 90).
A computer reconstruction of the Lion Gates at Hattusa, capital
of the Hittite kingdom
Muwatallis had to say this, because the old state of
Masa bordering Wiluja and Mira had apparently learnt to hate the line
of Mursilis. Masa had attacked Wiluja and so Muwatallis had destroyed
it - again (p 88). (Gurney thinks that the Piyama-Radu and
Tawagalawas affair occurred around this time; and the letter - to
the Seha River Land? Mira? - recalling the deposition of Walmu and
the plundering of Miletos in Beckman pp 144-6 refers back to that
event; the recipient's evil father could well be Piyama-Radu
The last days of Arzawa
But Muwatallis felt confident enough in Arzawan
loyalty to enlist them and their neighbours - including even Masa -
as allies against the Egyptians at Kadesh of the Orontes (1285 BC,
northern Syria), as recorded by Pharaoh Ramses II [Barnett 1975,
Gurney now considers this the earliest possible
time to place the activities surrounding the reinstallation of Walmu
of Wilusa (Beckman pp 144-6); Marino dates the event later, to
When Urhi-Teshub came to the throne of Hatti as
Mursilis III, he deposed some of the governors of the old Arzawan
states. While this established his firm control over the west
(Machiavelli would have approved), such high-handedness did not fly
at home. During the ensuing rebellion, Arzawa became Urhi-Teshub's
power base, ironically enough supporting the claim of the rightful
Up until the reign of Tudhaliyas IV (whose inscriptions
embellish the mountains of western Asia Minor to this day), Arzawa
remained firmly in the Hittite camp. But Marino dates to this time a
letter claiming that another 'Tarhuna-Radu' was stirring up trouble
in Seha River; KUB XXIII.13.
Arzawa appears to have been a victim of the Sea
Peoples. Whereas the cities of central Anatolia were burnt, western
Anatolia was abandoned.
As a final footnote, the Medinet Habu reliefs of
Ramses III contain several scenes of campaigns in Asia during which
the pharaoh claimed to have taken 'the town of Arzawa' (as well as
Tunip and Amor). Archaeologists agree that these pictures are
anachronistic, probably based on Ramses II's monuments.
The ruins of the city of Troy are commonly accepted to be the same
as the Hittite ally, Wilusa
Arzawa and a rough estimation of its borders at the kingdom's
height (click on map to view full sized)
Key dates in known Arzawan history:
c.1450 BC Arzawa controls the solid green
section of the map, including Tarhuntassa, but probably not the
Lower Land (hatched areas are debatable)
c.1430 BC Madduwattas, from his mountain
kingdom of Zippasla and with Hittite help, conquers Arzawa
c.1370s BC Arzawa gains the Lower Land up
to Tuwanuwa and Tyana, but within twenty years loses it and all
of Tarhuntassa to the Hittites
c.1350 BC Arzawa appears to fragment.
Mira, Masa, the Seha River Land, and Happalla all emerge as
sub-kingdoms within Arzawa
c.1335-1325 BC Under Uhhaziti much of the
kingdom is reunited. The Hittites under Mursili II invade and
conquer it, recognising the sub-kingdoms as direct vassal
kingdoms (various subsequent rebellions notwithstanding)
I started non-Biblical history projects like
this on 18 February 2001. 24 Feb: used Bryce to flesh out
Madduwattas. 28 Feb: split Good James (tracing the legend) from Bad
James (locating Atlantis). 22 Oct, improved clarity in places, based
on notes taken two months ago and mislaid in my car (sorry!). 9 Mar
2005: I've been meaning to update this for years, for clarity's sake
if nothing else; but now I've got some more primary sources so I
figured I don't have further excuse for procrastination. 17 May 2005:
found map of Purunda and a whole mess o' abstracts, and further decided
to look into theophoric names. 9 May 2006: I found copies of the 'Luwian
glossary' around the place. The Emory abstracts have been taken offline,
so I tagged them as such and moved the master reference to the
bibliography. I've consolidated the 'KUB' index numbers with the CTH,
and linked them. 19 May: Redirected the Mursilis Annals from
http://www.multimania.com/hatti/texts/mursili1-8.html; expanded on
the roles of Masa and Sallapa; applied more web-accessible texts;
expanded on the role of plague and of the Kaska rebellion on Mursilis
I's Arzawa policy.
I started the Arzawa page in early 1997 and
pretty much ignored it until now, except for 28 June 2000. I don't
have the command of nor the access to Hittite that I have of/to
Greek, and I've grown addicted to primary sources and text-criticism.
Thank you, Ian, for pointing me to your
translation; it should have been up here earlier.
The letter 's' is pronounced 'sh', 'h'
is 'kh', 'z' is 'tz', 'w' may have been intermediary
between 'v' and 'w' based on how the Greeks ended up
spelling it, and certain '-iya' and '-isa' suffices may be
'-izha' based on how names like Karkiya and Karkisa refer to
the same place. And the lack of a letter 'o' is a limitation
of Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform, not necessarily a feature of Hittite.
Note how Hebrew uses the 'w' it inherited from Ugaritic and
Egyptian. These are things to keep in mind when considering the
strange case of Wilusa Taruisa, now known to have occupied the land
we know as Ilios Troia.
I have tried to spell the words as if the letter
'h' never existed in English. I could not however resist turning the
'h' into a 'kh' and 's' into 'sh' in places where the
'h' or lack thereof would have caused confusion. I can just about
cope with Tudhaliyas. But if I can't spell Pithanas Pitkhanas, Alalah
Alalakh, Kanes Kanesh, etc, then I won't be able to pronounce them
right. And I don't understand why so many scholars leave off the
'-s' nominative suffix. Do we call Julius Juliu? or Sophocles
Sophocle? What absurdity.
For the near-final word on Hittite history,
use Bryce. For the rest of Bronze Age Anatolian culture, use Gurney.
It may be dated, so keep an eye out for a new edition. For those who
wish Bryce had included illustrations, get-but-don't-read Macqueen,
who has little else.
The primary sources for Arzawa are Hittite and
Egyptian. The Hittites had to put up with these annoying hillmen, so
their sources are better. There are four sites with contemporary
tablets so far. Kultepe / Kanesh / Nesas is not one of those sites;
the only archive there comes from an Assyrian merchant colony within
a kingdom that far, far predates Arzawa. Also the sundry hieroglyphic
Luwian inscriptions haven't told us much.
The most important site is Hattusas/Boghazkale.
It was the capital except for a very brief layover in Tarhuntassa,
and the texts are relevant. Most of that's been published already.
In the 1990s they found Sapinuwa at Ortakoy, a
few dozen miles to Hattusas' north-east. These documents are
administrative in nature, and have been loudly announced on the web
at: http://www.focusmm.com.au/civcty/ortky_00.htm. But they are on
the wrong side of the capital for our purposes and (as far as I know)
haven't been published.
Masat was another Kaska frontier town. Gary
Beckman wrote something on the provincial administration there:
Sarissa has been also found, or at least
mentioned, at Kusakli. Its texts are published, too:
http://www.vml.de/english/ks/ks1.htm. Unfortunately the building
is religious and not political. What they published was the Sarissan
edition of 'Goat Sacrificing For Dummies'.
Please feel free to send me email via the link
on the right. Especially if you have any suggestions concerning this
page. And if I'm violating copyright laws, please tell me.
Beckman, Gary - Hittite Diplomatic Texts,
Second Ed, Scholars Press, Atlanta, 1999
Bryce, T - The Kingdom of the Hittites,
Drews, R - The End of the Bronze Age, 1993
James, Peter - The Sunken Kingdom,
Jonathan Cape, London, 1995. Overview and introduction available via
the link on the left
Gurney, O R - The Hittites, 1991
Lowell, Ian Russell - Annals of Mursili, Years
1 to 8