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European Kingdoms

Eastern Mediterranean


Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire
Despots of Morea (AD 1348-1460)

In AD 395, the Roman empire finally split permanently, creating formal Eastern Roman and Western Roman empires, acknowledging what had existed in practise for many years.

Morea was the name by which the Peloponnesus peninsula in Greece was known during the Middle Ages. After the Latin conquest of Angeli dynasty Constantinople in 1204, Venice gained control of part of it, until this Roman (Byzantine) rival territory rose to power in southern Greece.

For members of the Jewish Diaspora who were citizens of the fractured empire, especially the long-term resident Romaniote Jews, conditions abruptly worsened. Anti-Semitic legislation was now more easy to pass in smaller states, and the Jews seemed to bear the brunt of it.

Eastern Roman Emperor Basil II in iconography

(Information by Peter Kessler, and from External Link Encyclopædia Britannica, and Jewish Encyclopaedia, and History of the Byzantine Empire (Live Science).)

1348 - 1380

Manuel Cantacuzenus

1380 - 1383

Matthew Cantacuzenus


Demetrius Cantacuzenus

1383 - 1407

Theodore I Palaeologus

1407 - 1443

Theodore II Palaeologus

1428 - 1449

Constantine XI Dragases

Only remaining claimant for the Byzantine crown.

1428 - 1460

Thomas, Despot of Morea

Daughter Zoe married Ivan III of the Russian Moscow State.


The principality of Achaia is inherited.


Mistra, Morea, falls to Ottoman Turk Mehmed II. Venice holds on to some sections of Morea, and further wars are fought up to 1718, until the Turks finally secure all of it.

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