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European Kingdoms

Italian Peninsula


Republic of Venice
AD 697 - 1797

FeatureInitially formed by scattered marsh islands inhabited by refugees, Venice became one of the Mediterranean's great powers, the Serenissima Repubblica (the Most Serene Republic).

It was situated at the northern end of the Adriatic, largely in territory which had belonged to the pre-Roman Adriatic Veneti people, the republic encapsulated most of modern north-eastern Italy, as well as having coastal territories under its control along the Dalmatian coast and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It was one of the most long-lived post-Roman states (considering the immobility of its form of government). During Middle Ages it became almost a byword for the serenity its name claimed: it joined together monarchy, aristocracy and democracy in a way that seemed to be perfect.

By the twelfth century Venice already had all its typical bodies of power in place, and the doges of Venice were elected for life by the aristocracy of the city-state. The doge (or duke), was elected by the Major Council through an extraordinarily complicated procedure which included consultations with the Major Council, which was an expression of the patrician families and was the most important organ of the republic, and other councils, such as the Minor Council, formed by the doge and six advisers, the Council of Pregadi, a senate which qualified for the foreign politic, the Council of Ten, guarantor of the state's security, the Quarantia, a supreme tribunal, and others.

(Original list supplied by Francesco Costa. Additional information from Josafa Barbaro & Ambrogio Contarini: Travels to Tana and Persia, Henry E J Stanley (Ed, Hakluyt Society Series No 49, 1873).)


The conventional day on which Venice's foundation is celebrated is 25 March.


Attila, king of Huns, invades Roman Italy, burning every city in his path. Aquileia is totally destroyed, burned to the ground, taking with it one of the grandest early Christian churches (although its beautiful mosaic floor survives under the rubble and later deposits of spoil to be uncovered by modern archaeologists). Refugees from Aquileia and other nearby cities (including Altinum) escape in the lagoon marsh islands for mutual protection, forming a settlement there. This is the real birth of Venice.

Altinum street plan
The coastal town of Altinum (modern Altino) was one of the victims of Attila's invasion, being evacuated in a hurry and afterwards gradually abandoned on a permanent basis, but archaeologists have been able to produce detailed images of the old street plan


General Narses leads Eastern Roman troops through the marshes to surprise and fight-off the Ostrogoths. Byzantine tribunes are placed in command of the region from the Italian capital at Ravenna. Byzantine supremacy is compromised after 568 with the invasion of the Lombards.


Eastern Roman Emperor Tiberius II reorganises the surviving Roman territories in Italy into five provinces which are given the Greek name eparchies. The new provinces are the Annonaria in northern Italy around Ravenna, Calabria, Campania, Emilia and Liguria, and the Urbicaria around the city of Rome (Urbs). To the north, across the River Po which forms the border, the duchy of Venice remains nominally under the service of the Eastern Romans.


Eraclea is founded.

672 - 676

In this period, Pope Adeodatus II grants Venice the right to select its own doge, although the office appears not to be introduced for another two decades.


The Eastern Roman tribunes are substituted with an elective, life-long office, the doge. The seat of government is Eraclea. The first dodge, Paoluccio Anafesto (otherwise known by the more Romanised name of Paulucius Anafestus or Anafestus Paulicius), is only first attested in the eleventh century. There is a school of thought which suggests that the doge and Exarch Paul of Ravenna are one and the same person, although the dates of office do not match up).

697 - 717

Paoluccio Anafesto

The first doge. Killed. Not in all lists.

717 - 726

Marcello Tegalliano


Orso Ipato is the first fully attested doge, being confirmed by the Eastern Roman emperor and honoured with the titles of hypatus (consul) and dux (doge).

726 - 737

Orso Ipato / Ursus

Killed after a plot.


The doge is substituted by the year-long, Eastern Roman office of magister militum, although Byzantine control in Italy at Ravenna is now very weak in the face of Lombard superiority.


Felice Carnicola

Magistri militum.


Teodato Ipato




Giovanni Fabriciaco


After the magistri militum sequence, the elective doge is reintroduced. Venice is surrounded by the Lombard kingdom, and is split into factions which support the Eastern Romans, the Franks, the Lombards, and outright independence from all of them.

742 - 755

Teodato Ipato

Deposed and killed by Galla Gaulo in a plot.

755 - 756

Galla Gaulo

Deposed and blinded by Domenico Monegario.

756 - 764

Domenico Monegario

Deposed and blinded.

764 - 787

Maurizio Galbaio

787 - 804

Giovanni Galbaio


804 - 810

Obelerio Antenorio



Obelerio is faithful to Charlemagne of the Franks, but the intervention of the Niceta fleet reaffirms Eastern Roman sovereignty over the lagoon, Istria and Dalmatia.

Map of the Frankish Empire in AD 800
Under Charlemagne's leadership, the Franks greatly expanded their borders eastwards, engulfing tribal states, the Bavarian state and its satellite, Khorushka, and much of northern Italy, with the Avars now an eastern neighbour (click or tap on map to view full sized)


The seat of government is transferred to Rialto. A military expedition guided by Pepin, king of the Franks of Italy, to conquer the region is stopped by the Venetian people. Pepin's siege of Venice lasts for six months, but his forces are ravaged by disease borne by insects from the surrounding swamps and are in no fit state to fight off the Venetians. Pepin dies a few months later.

811 - 827

Agnello Partecipazio

Founder of the first doge's palace.

827 - 829

Giustiniano Partecipazio

Founder of the first church or basilica of St Mark.


Following the revolt by Euphemius, commander of the Eastern Roman fleet of Sicily, and his invasion of the island alongside Emir Ziyadat Allah I of Tunis, a large Byzantine force is sent from Palermo against them. This is assisted by a fleet from Venice under the personal command of the doge, Giustiniano Partecipazio, but it is defeated. Sicily is in the hands of the Arabs as part of the Islamic empire.

In the same year, the body of St Mark the Evangelist is brought to Venice from Alexandria in Egypt, to become the state's patron saint.

829 - 836

Giovanni Partecipazio I

Deposed following a plot.

836 - 864

Pietro Tradonico

Killed following a plot.


Venice claims victory at Lussino against the Islamic empire. A treaty is agreed with Lothar I, emperor of the Franks. It establishes the boundaries between the empire and Venice, and permits free trade.

Map of the Frankish empire at the Treaty of Verdun AD 843
King Louis 'the Pious' of the Frankish empire attempted to leave the empire intact for his eldest son, Lothar, but the others rebelled at the idea. The treaty of Verdun in AD 843 confirmed the official division of the empire between Charlemagne's three surviving grandsons (click or tap on map to view full sized)

864 - 881

Orso Partecipazio I


Venice again wins over the Islamic empire at Taranto.

881 - 887

Giovanni Partecipazio II


887 - 888

Pietro Candiano I

888 - 912

Pietro Tribuno


As part of their initial invasion of Europe, the Magyars invade Italy, possibly at the prompting of Arnulf, king of Germany. Berengar refuses a request by them for an armistice but his army is surprised and routed at the Battle of the Brenta on 24 September 899. The Magyar invasion is subsequently blocked by the Venetians at Pellestrina in 900.

912 - 932

Orso Partecipazio II


932 - 939

Pietro Candiano II

939 - 942

Pietro Badoer

942 - 959

Pietro Candiano III


Istrian pirates kidnap some intended brides on 31 January, but they are soon freed at Caorle. From this event arises the Feast of Marie.

959 - 976

Pietro Candiano IV

Accused of tyranny and killed.


With the accession of the Saxon king, Otto I, the power of the Germanic Roman empire is confirmed. Otto is quite vigorous in establishing new counties and border areas within and without the empire's borders. The county of Ardennes under Sigfried gains the stronghold of Lucilinburhuc (the later Luxemburg), Arnulf I the Elder is restored in Flanders, and the March of Austria is formed from territory already captured from Hungary (around 960).

Map of Germany AD 962
Germany in AD 962 may have had its new emperor to govern the territories shown within the dark black line, but it was still a patchwork of competing interests and power bases, most notably in the five great stem duchies, many of which were attempting to expand their own territories outside the empire, creating the various march or border regions to the east and south (click or tap on map to view full sized)

At the same time, Saxony gains Hermann Billung as its duke, charged with maintaining the duchy's eastern borders and expanding them further to the east, alongside the recently-created North March. Perhaps as a reaction to this or as the culmination of a process that is already heading that way, the duchy of Poland is formed around the same time.


Emperor Otto I of the Holy Roman empire confirms all of Venice's privileges.


The people revolt against Pietro Candiano IV, killing him and burning the doge's palace and St Mark's Basilica.

976 - 978

Pietro Orseolo I


978 - 979

Vitale Candiano


979 - 991

Tribuno Menio / Memmo


Holy Roman emperor Otto II declares peace with Venice and confirms its commercial privileges.

991 - 1008

Pietro Orseolo II


'Golden Bull': the first important commercial treaty with Eastern Roman Emperor Basil II, which give an advantage to Venetian merchants.


Pietro Orseolo leads an expedition against Slavonic pirates, becoming doge of Venice, Istria and Dalmatia. Here begins the 'Sea Dominion' of the republic, and the traditional 'wedding of the sea' during Ascension Day.


Venice achieves victory over the Islamic empire at Bari.

1008 - 1026

Ottone Orseolo


1026 - 1032

Pietro Centranico



It is now forbidden for the doge to elect a successor. Rather, he is supported by a group of councillors.

1032 - 1043

Domenico Flabanico

1043 - 1071

Domenico Contarini

1071 - 1085

Domenico Selvo



A 'Golden Bull' is agreed with Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, establishing new commercial privileges.

1085 - 1096

Vitale Falier


Alexius I Comnenus declares the formal independence of Venice from the Eastern Romans.

1096 - 1102

Vitale Michiel I


Venice takes part in the First Crusade, obtaining from Godfrey de Bouillon, king of Jerusalem, a complete exemption on duty.

1102 - 1118

Ordelaf Falier

Killed in the Battle of Zara.


Venice captures Saint-Jean d'Acre. The Arsenal is founded.


War against the Hungarians sees Ordelaf Falier killed at the Battle of Zara.

1118 - 1129

Domenico Michiel



King Baldwin II of Jerusalem is captured by the Ortoqids in northern Syria. In his absence the kingdom is governed by the constable of Jerusalem, Eustace Grenier, and the Fatamid military vizier, Al-Ma'mum, spies an opportunity to capture the coastal stronghold of Jaffa. Launching his attack from Egypt, Al-Ma'mum's force is intercepted by Crusader troops at the Battle of Yibneh (or Yibna), close to the Fatamid coastal fortress of Ashkelon (Ascalon). The battle is short and decisive, with the Fatamid fleet also being destroyed by the Venetians, and the Fatamid threat is virtually ended for the next thirty years.


Returning from the Holy Land, Domenico Michiel conquers Tyre, Spalato (Split), Sebenico (Šibenik), and other Eastern Roman cities.

1130 - 1148

Pietro Polani

1143 - 1144

Venice goes to war against Padua for control of the borderline along the River Brenta, and is victorious.

1148 - 1156

Domenico Morosini

1156 - 1172

Vitale Michiel II

Killed during a popular revolt.


With Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I forcibly attempting to increase his power over Italy, the Lombard League is formed. Its job is to counter the imperial threat, and it is bolstered by the support of the Papacy, which is just as keen to reduce imperial interference in 'its' domain. At its height it manages to incorporate most of the cities of northern Italy, including Venice.

1170 - 1171

Zara rebels and switches allegiance to the Hungarians. In 1171 Zara is re-conquered. Eastern Roman Emperor Manuel Comnenus orders the arrest of all Venetians living in Constantinople.


Foundation of the Major Council.

1172 - 1178

Sebastiano Ziani



Venice offers hospitality to Pope Alexander III and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the republic arbitrates the peace.

1178 - 1192

Orio Mastropiero


Foundation of the Minor Council.


Foundation of the Quarantia supreme tribunal.

1192 -1205

Enrico Dandolo

1195 - 1196

Pisa tries to block the Adriatic Sea with the help of Ragusa (Dubrovnik), but is defeated in the Istrian Gulf and at Modone (in Greece).


The Fourth Crusade results in the conquest of Angeli dynasty Constantinople. In return for its support of the conquest, the best part of the former empire is given to Venice. The doge becomes lord of 37.5 percent of the former Byzantine empire.

1205 - 1229

Pietro Ziani



Marco Sanudo conquers the Cyclades and Sporades islands.


The Venetian fleet conquers Corfu, Modone (Methoni), and Corone (Koroni).


Venice begins its first colonisation of Candia (Crete).

1214 - 1216

War is rekindled against Padua.

1229 - 1249

Jacopo Tiepolo



Venice is in league with Genoa and the Pope against the Emperor Frederick II.


Peace is agreed with Bela IV of Hungary, and he releases the city of Zara.

1249 - 1253

Marino Morosini

1253 - 1268

Ranieri Zen


The fall of the Latin empire is effected with the return of the Byzantine emperor to Constantinople. Venice maintains its possessions in the Greek islands and in Morea (Peloponnesus).

1257 - 1270

Venice goes to war against Genoa.

1268 - 1275

Lorenzo Tiepolo

1274 - 1294

Venetian trader Marco Polo arrives in Kanbaliq on a visit to the court of the Chinese emperor, Kublai Khan. He remains in China for seventeen years, and returns to Venice after completing a diplomatic mission for the emperor. His voyage, opening up new sea routes, contributes to a marked decline in the use of the ancient Silk Road within 150 years of his return home.

Marco Polo on the Silk Road
Marco Polo's journey into China along the Silk Road made use of a network of east-west trade routes which had been developed since the time of Greek control of Bactria

1275 - 1280

Jacopo Contarini


1280 - 1289

Giovanni Dandolo

1289 - 1311

Pietro Gradenigo


Saint-Jean d'Acre is conquered by the Mamelukes, signalling the end of Outremer. The Christian kingdom of Cyprus continues, while the Teutonic Knights retire to Venice from where they become involved in the conquest of the Baltic tribes.

1294 - 1299

A second war is waged against Genoa. Venice suffers disastrous defeats at Laiazzo (Ayas) and in Dalmatia.


'Lockout of the Major Council': only those families which are now represented in the council can take part in it in the future.


The Plot of Baiamonte Tiepolo. To avoid other plots, the Council of Ten is founded.

1311 - 1312

Marino Zorzi

1312 - 1328

Giovanni Soranzo


Venice annexes Muggia (in Istria).


Venice annexes Sebenico (Šibenik) and Traù (Trogir).

1329 - 1339

Francesco Dandolo

1337 - 1339

Venice is at war against Mastino II della Scala, tyrant of Verona, and annexes Treviso and Bassano.

1339 - 1342

Bartolomeo Gradenigo

1343 - 1354

Andrea Dandolo


Another war is fought against Hungary for the rebel city of Zara.

1350 - 1355

The third war is fought against Genoa. Venice enjoys mixed fortunes.

1354 - 1355

Marin Faliero

Deposed and decapitated after his conspiracy.

1355 - 1356

Giovanni Gradenigo

1356 - 1361

Giovanni Dolfin

1361 - 1365

Lorenzo Celsi

1365 - 1368

Marco Corner

1368 - 1382

Andrea Contarini

1372 - 1380

The last great war against Genoa is waged. At the Battle of Chioggia, near Venice, the city is conquered by Genoans and then recaptured by Carlo Zen. Venice is ultimately victorious. Mediation between Venice and Genoa is carried out by Count Amadeus VI of Savoy, who sponsors the peace treaty that finally ends the conflict between the two great naval powers.


Michele Morosini

1382 - 1400

Antonio Venier


The duchy of Milan is created along the western border of the republic, out of territory that belongs ultimately to the Holy Roman empire. The duchy will become an important player in the tangled web of Italian politics.

1400 - 1413

Michele Steno

1404 - 1405

Venice makes conquests for its Dry Land Dominion, including Vicenza, Feltre, Belluno, Verona, and Padua.

1414 - 1423

Tommaso Mocenigo


Aquileia (which is allied to the Hungarians) is defeated. Friuli is annexed.

1423 - 1457

Francesco Foscari



Venice completes the purchase of Scutari (Shkodër in Albania) and Salonicco (Thessaloniki in Macedonia).

1423 - 1454

When Giorgio Ordelaffi, lord of Forlž, dies, his son succeeds him although he is still a child. Duke Filippo Visconti of Milan becomes his guardian but abuses his position of trust and attempts to conquer areas of the Romagna in 1423. The republic of Florence refuses to allow Milan's unchecked expansion of territory, so the Wars in Lombardy are triggered. Venice is soon persuaded to join in 1425, on the side of Florence. In March 1426 Francesco Bussone foments riots in Brescia (a Milanese possession), beginning the process by which Venice conquers it after a long campaign, expanding its Dry Land Dominion by obtaining not only Brescia, but also Bergamo and Cremona. Duke Filippo is forced to accept a peace deal proposed by Pope Martin V which favours Venice and Francesco Bussone. At the first opportunity, Filippo resumes the fighting but is quickly defeated at Maclodio on 12 October 1427. A more concrete peace is signed at Ferrara. Fighting against Milan continues on and off until 1454.

1447 - 1450

Upon the death of Duke Filippo Visconti of Milan, the last direct male representative of his family, the Golden Ambrosian republic is declared on 13 August 1447. Ably defended by Francesco Sforza, the duchy is still unable to prevent Venice from capturing the last of the Milanese territories that it claims, and Crema becomes a Venetian holding.


The Ottoman Turks conquer Byzantine Constantinople. The Sporades Islands prefer to join Venice.

1457 - 1462

Pasquale Malipiero

1462 - 1471

Cristoforo Moro


The Ottomans conquer Argos. This marks the beginning of a difficult war for Venice against Sultan Mehmet II.


The Ottomans conquer the important island of Negroponte (Euboea in Greece).

1471 - 1473

Nicolò Tron


Having requested military aid as early as 1464 from one of the most powerful of the opponents of the Ottoman rulers, Venice, Uzun Hassan of the White Sheep emirate in eastern Anatolia is disappointed to find that the aid fails to arrive when he most needs it. Instead he is defeated by the Ottomans at the Battle of Otlukbeli in 1473. The Ak Qoyunlu survive, however.

1474 - 1475

Ambrogio Contarini is a Venetian diplomat and merchant who, during his travels, records his adventures throughout the east as a form of travelogue. As the envoy of Venice, he has been visiting the royal Persian court at Isfahan in 1474 in pursuit of a military alliance with the dominant White Sheep emirate against the mutually hostile Ottomans. The talks are largely fruitless (especially after the events of 1473), so in 1475 Contarini begins a circuitous return that must by necessity avoid the Ottomans. The task is even more difficult because, at the start of 1475, they conquer Caffa and the Crimean khanate. Contarini travels through Derbent in Dagestan and visits Astrakhan to be able to access the Volga and a return to Europe via Moscow state.

1473 - 1474

Nicolò Marcello

1474 - 1476

Pietro Mocenigo

1476 - 1478

Andrea Vendramin

1478 - 1485

Giovanni Mocenigo


After the loss of Scutari, and a battle in Friuli, peace is agreed with Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II.

1481 - 1484

Venice is at war against Ferrara at the insistence of Pope Sixtus IV. Rovigo and Polesine are annexed, but the pope is under pressure on all sides to end the hostilities that he has started, so in 1483 he places Venice under interdict.

1485 - 1486

Marco Barbarigo

1486 - 1501

Agostino Barbarigo


Queen Caterina Cornaro give Cyprus to the republic.


Venice agrees an alliance with Naples, the Pope, Milan, and the Emperor in order to defend Italy from Charles VIII of France. Further west, John II of Portugal encourages the exploration of the western coast of Africa and beyond in an attempt to find a new source of riches outside the Mediterranean, which is controlled by Venice.

1501 - 1521

Leonardo Loredan

1499 - 1503

A new war breaks out against the Ottoman Turks. Venice loses Modone and Lepanto.

1508 - 1509

The League of Cambrai is formed with France, Castile, Hungary, the Papal States, the Holy Roman empire, and Ferrara against Venice. Venice is defeated at Agnadello, with the loss of all the Dry Land Dominion - essentially its territories in Italy.


Thanks to exceptional diplomacy, Venice manages to recover from the serious turn of events and regains all its Dry Land possessions.

1521 - 1523

Antonio Grimani

1523 - 1538

Andrea Gritti


The French are defeated at the Battle of Pavia, leaving Holy Roman Emperor Charles V dominant in Italy. Newly-installed Duke Francesco Sforza of Milan joins the League of Cognac against the emperor along with Florence, France, the Pope, and Venice. This backfires when the emperor takes military action against Milan.

1539 - 1545

Pietro Lando

1537 - 1540

Another war is fought against the Ottoman Turks. Venice suffers more losses in Morea (the Greek Peloponnesus).

Map of German states AD 1560
Introduced in Venice's northern border in 1560, the system of imperial states replaced the now-outdated feudal system, with an imperial circle ('reichskreis') being a regional grouping of the imperial states (click or tap on map to view full sized)

1545 - 1553

Francesco Donà


Admiral Turgut Reis, beylerbey of Algiers, sails with a large fleet of galleys under the command of Admiral Sinan Pasha to attack Venetian ports and then effect a landing on Sicily. The city of Augusta is bombarded in revenge for Sicily's invasion and destruction of Mahdia, and for the massacre of its inhabitants.

1553 - 1554

Marcantonio Trevisan

1554 - 1556

Francesco Valier

1556 - 1559

Lorenzo Priuli

1559 - 1567

Girolamo Priuli

1567 - 1570

Pietro Loredan

1570 - 1577

Alvise Mocenigo I

1570 - 1573

Ottoman Selim III besieges the cities on Cyprus from 1570. A great naval victory at Lepanto is gained in 1571 when Venice, the Pope, and Spain defeat the Ottoman Turks (and kill their admiral, Müezzinzade 'Sofu' Ali Pasha, former governor of Egypt). Even so, Venice is still forced to give up Cyprus in 1573.

Battle of Lepanto 1571
European victory at the Battle of Lepanto was considered the saviour of Europe itself from the advancing Ottoman threat, shown in this 1640 oil by Andries van Eertvelt (1590-1652)

1577 - 1578

Sebastiano Venier

1578 - 1585

Nicolò Da Ponte


Although Italy does not possess the political cohesiveness to replicate Spain's general expulsion of 1492, various anti-Semitic acts are perpetrated in the middle of this century. Members of the Jewish Diaspora in Italy gradually head north as the south becomes increasingly inhospitable to them. Then conditions in Rome worsen after 1556 and in the Venetian republic in the 1580s.

Some are Sephardi Jews who have found a home in Italy since 1492, but the majority are Romaniote Jews who have been in Italy since the time of the exarchate of Ravenna. Now both communities migrate away, largely, but not exclusively, into Ottoman-controlled Greece.

1585 - 1595

Pasquale Cicogna


The present Rialto Bridge is completed in stone, replacing several wooden structures that have existed since 1181, some of which have collapsed into the canal below.

The Rialto Bridge in Venice
The Ponte di Rialto's stone arches crossing the Grand Canal

1595 - 1605

Marino Grimani

1606 - 1612

Leonardo Donà delle Rose

Son of Giovanni Battista Donà, governor of Cyprus (1556).

1612 - 1615

Marcantonio Memmo

1615 - 1618

Giovanni Bembo


Nicolò Donà

1618 - 1623

Antonio Priuli

1623 - 1624

Francesco Contarini

1625 - 1629

Giovanni Corner I

1630 - 1631

Nicolò Contarini

1631 - 1646

Francesco Erizzo

1646 - 1655

Francesco Molin

1655 - 1656

Carlo Contarini


Francesco Corner

1656 - 1658

Bertuccio Valier

1658 - 1659

Giovanni Pesaro

1659 - 1675

Domenico Contarini

1644 - 1669

The Ottomans besiege Candia (Heraklion). Venice loses Crete, the last island in its old sea empire.

1675 - 1676

Nicolò Sagredo

1676 - 1684

Alvise Contarini

1684 - 1688

Marcantonio Giustinian

1688 - 1694

Francesco Morosini

Called the Peloponnesiacus.

1684 - 1694

Francesco Morosini reconquers the Morea (the Greek Peloponnesus) from the Ottomans. He becomes the last hero of Venice (but he is also known for the bombing at the Parthenon).

1694 - 1700

Silvestro Valier

1700 - 1709

Alvise Mocenigo II

1709 - 1722

Givanni Corner II


This year marks the definitive loss of Morea to the Ottomans.

1722 - 1732

Alvise Mocenigo III

1732 - 1735

Carlo Ruzzini

1735 - 1741

Alvise Pisani

1741 - 1752

Pietro Grimani

1752 - 1762

Francesco Loredan

1762 - 1763

Marco Foscarini

1763 - 1778

Alvise Mocenigo IV

1779 - 1789

Paolo Renier

1784 - 1788

Tunis faces several campaigns of naval bombardment. The Venetians are responsible for this and the bombardment of other Tunisian coastal cities. Muhammad has been accused of supporting the piratical raids of the Barbary corsairs against European vessels (almost certainly a fair accusation). The campaign certainly minimises Tunisian participation in piracy, at least in the short term.

1789 - 1797

Ludovico Manin



Napoleon Bonaparte, leader of the French First Republic begins campaigning against Austria in northern Italy, starting with the Battle of Rivoli on 14-15 January. The Treaty of Leoben is signed with Austria on 17 April, which leads to the loss for Austria of the Austrian Netherlands and Lombardy, but which gains it the Venetian territories of Dalmatia and Istria in return. The Transpadane republic gains the rest of conquered Venice, signalling the end of the great republic in a period that is a crisis point for the established monarchies of Europe. In the following year Napoleon sells the region to Austria.


The western section of the former republic is added to Napoleon Bonaparte's kingdom of Italy.

1814 - 1866

With the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte from the thrones of France and Italy the scene is set for a renewal of Austrian control of Venice. The Austrians occupy Milan on 28 April 1814, and on 30 May the Treaty of Paris officially hands the remains of the kingdom of Italy to Austria, including Venice. Lombardy and Venice are combined into the Austrian state of Lombardy-Venetia, which falls under the direct control of the Austrian emperor and is administered by viceroys.


Prussia fights the Austro-Prussian War against Austria, essentially as a decider to see which of the two powers will be dominant in Central Europe. Prussia gains Italy as an ally in the south and several minor German states in the north. Austria and its southern German allies are crushed in just seven weeks (giving the conflict its alternative title of the Seven Weeks' War), and Prussia is now unquestionably dominant. Bismark oversees the seizure of four of Austria's northern German allies, the kingdom of Hanover, the electorate of Hessen-Kassel, and the duchy of Nassau, along with the free city of Frankfurt. Prussia also subsumes Schleswig and Holstein and Saxe-Lauenberg, while despite being defeated in its own theatre of the war, Italy gains Venice thanks to Prussia's dominance.

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