History Files

Please help the History Files

Contributed: 175

Target: 400

Totals slider

The History Files still needs your help. As a non-profit site, it is only able to support such a vast and ever-growing collection of information with your help, and this year your help is needed more than ever. Please make a donation so that we can continue to provide highly detailed historical research on a fully secure site. Your help really is appreciated.

European Kingdoms

Eastern Mediterranean


Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire
End of the Isaurian Dynasty / Nicophoran Dynasty (AD 802-813)

In AD 395, the Roman empire finally split permanently, creating formal Eastern Roman and Western Roman empires, acknowledging what had existed in practise for many years.

Eastern Roman Emperor Basil II in iconography

(Information by Peter Kessler, and from External Link: History of the Byzantine Empire (Live Science).)

802 - 811

Nicephorus I

Son of Isaurian Constantine V. Killed by Bulgar Khan Krum.


The intervention of the Niceta fleet reaffirms Eastern Roman sovereignty over the lagoon region of Venice, Istria, and Dalmatia.

Map of the Frankish Empire in AD 800
Under Charlemagne's leadership, the Franks greatly expanded their borders eastwards, engulfing tribal states, the Bavarian state and its satellite, Khorushka, and much of northern Italy, with the Avars now an eastern neighbour (click or tap on map to view full sized)


Stung by constant Bulgarian raiding and the capture of pockets of frontier territory, Emperor Nicephorus I launches a major raid which sees the Bulgarian capital pillaged and burned. On their way back to the empire, the imperial army is surprised by a scratch-force of soldiers and peasants, led by Krum. The army is destroyed, the emperor is killed, and his son is paralysed, with the result that his own position is usurped later in the year.


Strauracius / Staurakios

Son. Paralysed in battle and usurped. Died 812.

811 - 813

Michael I Rhangabé

Brother-in-law. Usurped throne. Abdicated.

812 - 813

During 812, Khan Krum seizes towns in Thrace, forcing Michael Rhangabé into a confrontation at Versinikia, on the route towards Adrianople. The battle, when it comes on 22 June 813, is a complete Bulgarian success. Constantinople is besieged, with the result that Michael abdicates to become a monk. He is succeeded by the Non-Dynastic Emperor Leo V.

Images and text copyright © all contributors mentioned on this page. An original king list page for the History Files.