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European Kingdoms

Central Europe

 

Saxe-Ratzeburg (Saxony)
AD 1305 - 1689

Saxe-Mölln-Bergedorf and the duchy of Saxe-Ratzeburg were created in 1305 from a division of lands within the already-reduced duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg.

1305 - 1308

Albrecht III

Former duke of Saxe-Lauenburg.

1305 - 1361

Erich I

Brother. Ruled jointly until his brother's death.

1361 - 1368

Erich II

1368 - 1401

Erich IV

Ruled a reunited Saxe-Lauenburg from 1401.

1401

The line of dukes in Saxe-Mölln-Bergedorf dies out and the territory is rejoined to Saxe-Ratzeburg.

Duchy of Saxe-Ratzeburg (Saxe-Lauenburg)

Saxe-Mölln-Bergedorf and Saxe-Ratzeburg were rejoined in 1401 under the latter line of dukes.

1401 - 1412

Erich IV

Former duke of Saxe-Ratzeburg.

1412 - 1436

Erich V

1412 - 1436

John IV

Ruled jointly.

1436 - 1463

Bernhard III

1463 - 1507

John V

1507 - 1543

Magnus I

1543 - 1581

Franz I

1581 - 1603

Magnus II

1603 - 1619

Franz II

1619 - 1656

August

1656 - 1665

Julius Heinrich

1665 - 1666

Franz Erdmann

1666 - 1689

Julius Franz

1689

The duchy passes out of Saxon hands to the Welfs in the form of Georg Wilhelm, duke of Brunswick, elector of Hanover, and father of the future George I of England.

1814

The duchy is united with the kingdom of Denmark within the German Confederation.

1866

Prussia fights the Austro-Prussian War against Austria, essentially as a decider to see which of the two powers will be dominant in Central Europe. Prussia gains the newly-created kingdom of Italy as an ally in the south and several minor German states in the north. Austria and its southern German allies are crushed in just seven weeks (giving the conflict its alternative title of the Seven Weeks' War), and Prussia is now unquestionably dominant. Bismark oversees the seizure of four of Austria's northern German allies, the kingdom of Hanover, the electorate of Hessen-Kassel, and the duchy of Nassau, along with the free city of Frankfurt. Prussia also subsumes Schleswig and Holstein, and forces Saxe-Lauenburg into personal union (annexation in all but name, which turns into fact in 1876).