History Files

Please help the History Files

Contributed: $213

Target: $420

Totals slider

The History Files is a non-profit site. It is only able to support such a vast and ever-growing collection of information with your help, and your help is still very much needed. Please make a small donation so that we can continue to provide highly detailed historical research on a fully secure site. Your incredible support really is appreciated.



Far East Kingdoms

Central Asia


The developing Silk Road

Features / Lists

Far East


Map of medieval Sogdiana

Sogdian Principalities

A general introduction to the period, plus coverage of the cities of Kish, Nasaf, and Verdana.

Pamir Mountains

Ferghana's Principalities

A general introduction to Ferghana, plus coverage of the cities of Ahsikent, Khojend, and Polona.

Post-Sassanid artistic decoration in Bukhara


One of the biggest cities in the Bukharan oasis, and one of the leaders against Islamic conquest.

Paintings found along Sogdiana's Silk Road

Maimurgh / Māymurḡ

The small city of Maimurgh was located immediately to the south-east of Samarkand.

Paintings found along Sogdiana's Silk Road

Paikand / Pai

Paikand was one of many cities to lay alongside the River Zarafshan, close to Bukhara.

Sogdian banqueters in Penjikent

Penjikent / Panch

Penjikent is one of the most extensively-excavated cities inthe entire Sogdiana region.

An Ustrushana coin

Ustrushana / Osrūshana

This principality was, unusually, governed from a city with a different name: Bunjikat.

Varakhsha palace decoration

Varakhsha / Varaḵša

This city had recovered from virtual extinction during the post-Greek decline in the region.