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Far East Kingdoms

South Asia

 

 

 

Yadava Dynasty (Seuna Maratha Dynasty)
AD 850 - 1334

The Indian Deccan was ruled in turn by various dynasties, from the Satvahanas, the Chalukyas in various guises, and the Rashtrakutas. Another in that line of dynasties was the Yadava dynasty, also known as the Seuna Maratha dynasty, which was founded by Seunachandra in AD 850. The son of Dridhaprahara, at his zenith he ruled a vast kingdom stretching from the River Tungabhadra to the River Narmada, including modern Maharastra, the north of Karnataka, and parts of Madhya Pradesh, with a capital at Devagiri (now Daulatabad) in Maharashtra.

The Yadavas, and their family branch, the Hoysalas of Mysore, initially ruled as vassals of the Western Chalukyas (apparently even while they themselves were eclipsed by the Rashtrakutas), but in 1185 they declared their independence and established a kingdom that reached its peak under Singhana II. The foundation of Marathi culture was laid by the Yadavas and the peculiarities of Maharashtra's social life developed during their rule. The Yadavas also patronised Marathi, which was their court language, and claimed descent from the Yadu clan which gave birth to the epic hero of the Mahabharata, Vasudeva Krishna.

The Varman dynasty of Samatata later claimed descent from the Yadavas. The founder of the Vijaynagar empire may also have been of Yadava descent.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

Dridhaprahara

Son of Subahu. Western Chalukya vassal governor in Nasik.

850 - 874

Seunachandra

Son. Founded the dynasty.

874 - 900

Dhadiyappa

900 - 925

Bhillama I

925 - 974

Vadugi / Vaddiga

c.940 - 950

During this period, the Hoysala kingdom is created and flourishes, with the Hoysala kings claiming kinship with the Yadevas.

974 - 975

Dhadiyappa II

975 - 1005

Bhillama II

During his reign, Bhillama helps the Western Chalukya king, Tailapa II, in battle against the Paramara king, Munja.

1005 - 1020

Vesugi I

1020 - 1055

Bhillama III

Ruled near Sinnar, Nasik.

Bhillama III helps the Western Chalukya king, Somesvara I, against the Paramaras.

1055 - 1068

Vesugi II

1068

Bhillama III

1068

Bhillama IV

Civil war opponent of Seunachandra II.

1068

Seunachandra's early reign is a difficult one. He has to fight a civil war and defeat Bhillama IV in order to secure the throne.

1068 - 1085

Seunachandra II

1085 - 1115

Airamadeva

1115 - 1145

Singhana I

1145 - 1150

Mallugi I

1145

Mallugi's reign sees the beginning of a period of internal family feuding which lasts until 1173.

1150 - 1160

Amaragangeyya

1160

Govindaraja

1160 - 1165

Amara Mallugi II

1165 - 1173

Kaliya Ballala

1173 - 1192

Bhillama V

Son of Mallugi. Declared independence and created a large empire.

1185

Bhillama shrugs off domination by the Western Chalukyas and declares the independence of the Yadavas, selecting Devagiri as his capital.

c.1188 - 1189

The Hoysalas are overrun by their kin in the form of Bhillama V of the Yadavas. He extends the borders of his kingdom as far as Seringapatam on the River Kaveri. He even defeats the Chola king, Kulotunga III. But the Hoysala king, Vir Ballala II, turns the tables on Bhillama, driving him out of Hoysala territory by around 1188. Ballala even manages to capture some Yadava territory. However, they bury their differences and the following year they join together to defeat the people of the former territory of the Eastern Chalukyas.

1192 - 1200

Jaitugi I / Jaitrapala

Son.

1200 - 1247

Singhana II

Son.

Singhana II is considered to be the greatest conqueror of the Yadavas. He wins back all the territories lost to the Hoysalas which his grandfather had lost and establishes the absolute supremacy of the Seuna Yadavas in the Deccan, which includes defeating the Silharas of Kolhapur, and making the Kadambas of Goa vassals (1216). To commemorate his victory over the Hoysalas, Singhana erects a column of victory on the banks of the River Kaveri.

Devagiri Fort
A decorative relief from Devagiri Fort

1247 - 1261

Kannara / Krishna

Grandson.

1261 - 1271

Mahadeva

Grandson of Singhana.

1265

Krishna and later Mahadeva, have both been attacking the North Konkan, and in this year its king drowns while at sea in order to flee an attack. The Yadavas then appoint a governor of their own to rule the Konkan.

1271

Amana

1271 - 1312

Ramachandra

Son of Kannara.

1294

The sultan of Delhi, Jalaluddin Khilji, invades Devagiri. Ramchandra is defeated and has to enter into a humiliating treaty with Khilji, whereby he is to pay a ransom and an annual tribute to the sultan. Ramchandra defaults on his payment, leading to another attack by Jalaluddin Khilji. His commander, Malik Kafur, makes Ramchandra a prisoner and takes him to Khilji's court. Khalji reinstates Ramachandra in return for a promise to help subdue the Hindu kingdoms in the south.

1312 - 1313

Singhana III

Son. Killed in battle.

1313

Singhana attempts to challenge Delhi's overlordship of Devagiri, but is killed in battle. His son-in-law takes command, attempting to stage a revolt, but he too meets a bloody end.

1313 - 1318

Haripaladeva

Son-in-law. Killed in battle.

1318 - 1334

Mallugi III

Puppet?

1334

The Hindu Yadava dynasty at Devagiri is ended, with the kingdom being annexed to the Muslim Delhi sultanate, and with Devagiri being renamed Daulatabad. The vassal Kadambas in Goa are annexed by the Muslim Bahamani empire. During this later period, the Vijaynagar empire emerges in southern India, and this may bear some element of descent from the Yadavas.