History Files


Far East Kingdoms

South Asia





The Chola empire existed in southern India. Around the mid-ninth century, Vijayalaya, a Pallava vassal, conquered Tanjore and rose from obscurity. He and his people had Tamil origins but some of their ancestry reveals traces of Indo-European influence, such as the name Aryaman in the Chola genealogy. As well as ruling their heartland, they also ruled large tracts of lands in adjoining Andhra, Kerala and Karnataka. Thanks to their impressive naval power, they expanded their kingdom to include the present day countries of Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and areas of Malaysia and Indonesia. Their trading sphere included their colonies and also China and the Middle East, and they played a major role in the history of southern India, mainly in the Sangam Age before the invasion of the Kalabhras and later the Pallavas.

The Chola kings were great patrons of the arts, literature, and poetry, and constructed several magnificent temples, the most famous being the Brihadeswara Temple of Thanjavur/Tanjore. Militarily, they were in constant conflict with the Western Chalukyas.

(Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha, and additional information by Edward Dawson.)

Prehistoric Cholas

The Chola kings of the Sangam (literature) period have legends about the mythical Chola kings. Their pantheon of gods were led by Shiva the supreme god, Aiyai or Uma the Kotravai (Kullabai), Sevvel or Muruga the Kurinci-Marudakkadavul, ThiruMaal or Maayoan the Mullaikkadavul, Vanci-Irai (Indra), Neitharman (Varuna or Warunaz - the latter is based on the Indo-European root word for 'ward' or 'guard'), El the Uthi (the sun) and Nanna the Mathi (the moon). The following list of early Sangam Cholas has been built from the various poems of Purananuru. The dates of accession are an approximate interpolation of the Hindu Puranic Timeline.

(Additional information by Edward Dawson.)

c.3020 BC

Eri Oliyan Vaendhi

c.2980 BC


c.2945 BC

El Mei Nannan

c.2895 BC

Keezhai Kinjuvan

c.2865 BC

Vazhisai Nannan

c.2820 BC

Mei Kiyagusi Aerru

c.2810 BC

Aai Kuzhi Agusi Aerru

c.2800 BC

Thizhagan Maandhi

c.2770 BC

Maandhi Vaelan

c.2725 BC

Aai Adumban

c.2710 BC

Aai Nedun Jaet Chozha Thagaiyan

c.2680 BC

El Mei Agguvan / Keezh Nedu Mannan

c.2650 BC

Mudiko Mei Kaalaiyam Thagaiyan

c.2645 BC

Ilangok Keezh Kaalaiyan Thagaiyan

c.2645 BC

Ilangok Keezh Kaalaiyan Thagaiyan is also known as Ilangeezh Nannan. His brother, Aai Keezh Nannan, is the progenitor of the Kadambas.

Gangaikonda Cholapuram temples
The Gangaikonda Cholapuram temples built by the Cholas

c.2630 BC

Kaalaiyan Gudingyan

c.2615 BC

Nedun Gaalayan Dhagayan

c.2614 BC

Vaengai Nedu Vael Varaiyan

c.2600 BC

Vaet Kaal Kudingyan

c.2590 BC

Maei Ila Vael Varaiyan

c.2580 BC

Sibi Vendhi

c.2535 BC

Paru Nonji Chaamazhingyan

c.2525 BC

Vaeqratrtri Chembiya Chozhan

c.2515 BC

Saamazhi Chozhiya Vaelaan

c.2495 BC

Uthi Ven Gaalai Thagan

c.2475 BC

Nannan That Kaalai Thagan

c.2445 BC

Vel Vaen Mindi

c.2415 BC

Nedun Jembiyan

c.2375 BC

Nedu Nonji Vendhi

c.2330 BC

Maei Vael Paqratrtri

c.2315 BC

Aai Perun Thoan Nonji

c.2275 BC

Kudiko Pungi

c.2250 BC

Perun Goep Poguvan

c.2195 BC

Koeth Thatrtri

c.2160 BC

Vadi Sembiyan

c.2110 BC

Aalam Poguvan

c.2085 BC

Nedun Jembiyan

c.2056 BC

Perum Paeyar Poguvan

c.2033 BC

Kadun Jembiyan

c.2015 BC

Nedun Kathan

c.1960 BC

Paru Nakkan

c.1927 BC

Vani Sembiyan

c.1902 BC

Udha Chira Mondhuvan

c.1875 BC

Perun Kaththan

c.1860 BC

Kadun Kandhalan

c.1799 BC

Nakka Monjuvan

c.1786 BC

Maarko Vael Maandhuvan Aaththikko

c.1753 BC

Musukunthan Vaendhi

c.1723 BC

Peru Nakkan Thatrtri

c.1703 BC

Vaer Kaththan

c.1682 BC

Ambalaththu Irumundruvan

c.1640 BC

Kaari Mondhuvan

c.1615 BC

Vennakkan Thatrtri

c.1565 BC

Maarko Chunthuvan

c.1520 BC

Vaer Parunthoan Mundruvan

c.1455 BC

Udhan Kaththan

c.1440 BC

Kaariko Sunthuvan

c.1396 BC

Vendri Nungunan

c.1376 BC

Mondhuvan Vendhi

c.1359 BC


c.1337 BC

Mundruvan Vendhi

c.1297 BC


c.1276 BC

Monjuvan Vendhi

c.1259 BC

Ani Sembiyan

c.1245 BC

Nungunan Vendhi

c.1229 BC

Maarkop Perum Cenni

c.1180 BC

Monjuvan Nanvendhi

c.1170 BC

Kop Perunar Chenni

c.1145 BC

Monthuvan Jembiyan

c.1105 BC


c.1095 BC

Caet Chembiyan

c.1060 BC

Nakkar Chenni

c.1045 BC

Parun Jembiyan

c.998 BC


c.989 BC


c.960 BC

Maarkop Perun Jembiyan

c.935 BC


c.915 BC


c.895 BC

Ambalaththu Iruvaer Chembiyan

c.865 BC

Kaariko Chenni

c.830 BC

Venvaer Chenni

c.788 BC


c.721 BC


c.698 BC


c.680 BC

Vani Nungunan

c.640 BC

Mudhu Sembiyan Vendhi

c.615 BC

Peelan Jembiyach Chozhiyan

c.590 BC

Maeyan Gadungo

c.570 BC


c.515 BC

Perunar Killi Porvaiko

c.496 BC

Kadu Mundruvan

c.495 BC


c.480 BC

Narkilli Mudiththalai

c.465 BC

Thevvan Go Chozhan

c.455 BC

Naran Jembiyan

c.440 BC

Nakkam Peela Valavan

c.410 BC

Iniyan Thevvan Jenni

c.395 BC


c.386 BC

Nedun Jembiyan

c.345 BC

Nakkan Aran Jozhan

c.330 BC

Ambalathu Irungoch Chenni

c.316 BC

Perunar Killi

c.286 BC

Kochaet Cenni

c.275 BC

Cerupazhi Erinda Ilanjaetcenni

c.220 BC

Nedungop Perunkilli

c.205 BC

Cenni Ellagan

c.165 BC

Perun Gilli

c.140 BC

Kopperun Jozhiyav Ilanjaetcenni

c.120 BC

Perunar Killi Mudiththalai Ko

c.100 BC

Perumpoot Cenni

c.100 BC

Ilam Perunjenni

c.70 BC

Perungilli Vendhi / Karikaalan I

c.35 BC

Nedumudi Killi

c.20 BC

Ilavanthigaipalli Thunjiya Maei Nalangilli Caet Cenni

c.15 BC

Aai Vaenalangilli

c.AD 10 - 16

Uruvapakraer Ilanjaetcenni

16 - 30

The kingdom is ruled by a series of Uraiyur chieftains.


Karikaalan II Peruvalaththaan


Vaer Paqradakkai Perunar Killi


Perun Thiru Mavalavan, Kuraapalli Thunjiya




Perunarkilli , Kula Mutrtraththu Thunjiya


Perunarkilli, Irasasuya Vaetta


Vael kadunkilli





Genealogy from Chola Inscriptions

This list is the genealogy of the Chola family as conveyed by the Thiruvalangadu copperplate grant and consists of names that are mostly mythological. However, some of the names at least display a strong Indo-European connection at a time in which the last of the Indo-European migratory groups were settling down. The Mannaeans, Medians, and Persians seem to have been amongst those last groups, having migrated through the River Oxus region into eastern Iran. In fact, one of the names below, Aryaman (shortly after around 1000 BC), is the source of the name 'Iran'. This particular Aryaman was not the one who gave his name to that land, but another Indo-European who also bore the name did just that.

The Cholas were looked upon as being descended from the Sun god. There is a myth in which a Chola king (a contemporary of the sage, Agastya) brought the River Kaveri to Earth. Then there is a story of Chola justice eulogised in a story of the king, Manu, who sentenced his son to death for having accidentally killed a calf. Chola benevolence is personified in a story about King Shibi who rescued a dove from a hawk by giving his own flesh to the hungry hawk. King Shibi was also called Sembiyan, a popular title assumed by a number of Chola kings.

(Additional Information by Edward Dawson.)

c.1100 BC?





c.1000 BC




This name (held by a Persian) was the source of 'Iran'.








c.800 BC?











c.600 BC?










Suraguru (Mrityujit)

c.400 BC?




Vasu (Uparichara)



fl c.270 BC



Early Cholas (Sangam Period)
c.301 BC - c.110 BC

The early Cholas are mentioned in the Sangam literature. References to them occur in many places in the form of poems and stories, but it is difficult to pinpoint them chronologically due to the lack of firm dates. It could be the case that the dating is out by several hundred years, especially as links with the early Cheras would seem to suggest first century AD dates for events surrounding their first few kings. Many royal chroniclers have a habit of tracing lineages to mythical characters which have no historical testimonials in order to establish a rich pedigree.

The Anbil Plates give fifteen names before Vijayalaya Chola (of the Chola Empire), including the genuinely historical ones of Karikala, Perunarkilli and Kocengannan. The Thiruvalangadu Plate names forty-four, and the Kanyakumari Plate almost fifty-two kings (many of these are listed under Prehistoric Cholas).

(Information by Stephen Barr, with additional information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha and from Chronology of the Tamils, K N Sivaraja Pillai, from A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar, K A Nilakanta Sastri, and from Regents of Nations, Part 1, Peter Truhart (Antiquity Worldwide).)

fl c.301 BC


Capital at Puhar.

Ilamcetcenni is said to be a contemporary of the Magadhan king, Bindusara. He is credited with defeating both the Cheras, and the Pandyas during their eclipse from power.

Airavateswara temple in Tanjore
The Darasuram Airavateswara Temple was built in Tanjore by Rajaraja II (1150-1163)

fl c.270 BC

Karikala Chola

Son. Defeated the Cheras and Pandyas. Won Ceylon as well.

Perumchottu is a contemporary of the great Chola, King Karikala, but the dating for him conflicts badly with the apparent early years AD dating for the Cheras (circa 270 BC). This is a mismatch that at the moment cannot be satisfactorily resolved (although the possibility is that the Chola dating is inaccurate). After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Chola ruler in the Battle of Venni, Perumchottu commits suicide.


Son. Involved in a civil war with his relative, Nalinkilli.



Killivalavan captures the Chera capital, Karur, but he is defeated in battle by the Pandyas. Subsequently, he kills the Malainadu chief, Malayaman Tirumudikkari, in battle. (Again, Chera chronology would seem to suggest that this event be dated to the first century AD rather than the second century BC.)

Perhaps around the same time (and most likely within a few years), Ilam Cheral Irumporai (Cheraman Kuddako of the 'northern' Irumporai Chera kings) is described by Perunkundrur Kilar as the lord of the cities Tondi, Kongu, and Puli. He defeats Perunchola Ilam Palaiyan Maran (seemingly of the Cholas) and Vicci and destroys the five forts.


Kopperuncholan is a poet and patronises the arts, literature and poetry. His sons quarrel during his reign and, unable to resolve the strife, he commits suicide by starving himself to death.

fl c.120 BC

Kocengannan / Koccenganan

Defeated the Cheras in battle. Built 70 Shiva temples.

Cheraman Kanaikkal Irumporai of the Cheras marches against Kocengannan, who defeats him at the Battle of the Ovur and takes him captive. He is imprisoned at Kunavayil Kottam (Purananuru: 74). Poigaiyar, the Chera court poet, sings Kalavali Narpattu in praise of Kocengannan to secure his release, but the Chera king, feeling insulted when he is not given water to quench his thirst, breathes his last before his release can be ordered.


Powerful monarch. Performed the Rajasuya yagna after victories.

c.110 BC?

References to Chola kings in this period occur only in poetry and some literary texts. There is no particular history as such, but some incidents and acts are glorified by the poets. These references now fade out and the Cholas return to obscurity in India (perhaps not coincidentally close to the same thing happening to the Cheras). At about the same time, the already-obscure Kalabhras invade Tamil country, displacing native dynasties which probably include the Cholas.

Map of Bactria and India 200 BC
The kingdom of Bactria (shown in white) was at the height of its power around 200-180 BC, with fresh conquests being made in the south-east, encroaching into India just as the Mauryan empire was on the verge of collapse, while around the northern and eastern borders dwelt various tribes that would eventually contribute to the downfall of the Greeks - the Sakas and Tocharians (click on map to show full sized)

c.AD 560s

Simhavishnu reigns as king of the Pallavas around this time, beginning the Pallava revival that defeats the Kalabhras. He recreates a strong Pallava kingdom by subduing many kings in the south (such as the Cheras, Cholas, the now reduced Kalabhras, and the Pandyas. His kingdom soon extends beyond Kanchi (as far as the River Kaveri). Through his naval expeditions he subdues Malaya (Indo-China) and Ceylon (Sri Lanka).


Pulakeshi II of the Badami Chalukyas conquers the eastern Deccan, taking territory corresponding to the coastal districts of modern Andhra Pradesh from the Vishnukundina kingdom, as well as territory from the Pallavas. He appoints his brother, Kubja Vishnuvardhana, as viceroy whilst also conquering the Cheras and Cholas in the south of India (according to inscriptions). The kingdoms of the south - Cheras, Cholas, and Pallavas - subsequently team up to form a coalition to defeat the Chalukyas, but that attempt ends in defeat.


Narsimhavarman I of the Pallavas defeats the Chalukyas under Pulakeshi II and wrests back the territories lost by his father. He also attacks and plunders Vatapi (Badami), the capital of the Chalukyas, killing Pulakeshi II in the process. He later subdues the Cholas and the Cheras (suggesting that they have regained a semblance of independence),


The Pallava king, Narsimhavarman I, subdues the Cholas and the Cheras as part of the Pallava heritage as the successors and replacements to both Cholas and Satvahanas.


The awaited Chalukya invasion of Pallava territory takes place, with Vikramaditya II occupying Kanchi. The Pallavas soon recover, having to fight the Cholas, Pandyas and Gangas in quick succession (with the Cheras as allies at least against the Pandyas).. The Cholas are clearly evident as a major force once again, but their leadership appears to be unrecorded for the space of another century.

Chola Empire
AD 848 - 1279

The Cholas revived their lost glory when Vijayalaya Chola, a vassal of the Pallavas, took bites out of Pandya territory, beginning a new chapter in Chola history. Vijayalaya Chola and his descendents are now generally known as the medieval Cholas.

848 - 871

Vijayalaya Chola

Conquered Tanjore from Muttarayar, a Pallava vassal.

871 - 907

Aditya Chola I



After the death of Sthanu Ravivarman of the Cheras, hostilities break out between them and the Cholas, which continue until the disintegration of the Chera kingdom. The Pandyas of Madurai also involve themselves in the conflict.


Aparajita of the Pallavas tries to revive the the fortunes of his kingdom by defeating the Pandyas at the decisive Battle of Sri Purambiyam, with the help of the Cholas who are his immediate vassals. In return for his help, the Chola king, Aditya, is rewarded with territories, but this also sows the seeds of ambition in his mind. After witnessing the Pallava weaknesses during the battle, in 891 Aditya kills the Pallava king and annexes Tondaimandalam. Then he conquers Kongu country and the Western Gangas become his vassals. This paves the way for Chola supremacy in southern India.

907 - 950

Parantaka Chola I

Son. Died 953.

c.910 - 920

Parantaka defeats the Pandyas, invades the Pandyan kingdom and earns himself the title Maduraikonda (the one who captured Madurai). Rajasimha appeals to Kassapa V, the king of Ceylon, for assistance, but even the combined forces of the Pandyas and the Sinhalese are not able to keep the Cholas at bay and they suffer a huge defeat in Vellur near Madurai. The Cholas rule Pandyan territory for the next three hundred years.

by 930

The Cholas rule the whole of southern India from Pener to Cape Comorin (except the western coast which is under the rule of the Keralas).


Alarmed by the growth of Chola power, the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III invades southern India, conquers the kingdom of the Western Gangas and defeats the Cholas at Takkolam, annexing Tondaimandalam.


Heir to the throne. Died 949.

950 - 957


Son of Parantaka Chola.

956 - 957



957 - 970

Sundara Chola / Parantaka Chola II



The Chola domination of Tamil country begins in earnest during the reign of Parantaka Chola II. Chola armies led by Aditya Karikala, son of Parantaka Chola II, defeat Vira Pandya in battle. The Pandyas are assisted by the Sinhalese (Sri Lankan) forces of Mahinda IV. The Pandyas are driven out of their territories and have to seek refuge on the island of Sri Lanka. This is the start of their long exile. However, on a plus note, Tondaimandalam is recovered from the Rashtrakutas.

970 - 985

Uththama Chola

Son of Gandaraditya.


The Cholas, experiencing a minor succession crisis, are momentarily weakened, and the Western Chalukyan king, Tailapa II, claims victory in a battle against Uththama.

985 - 1014

Rajaraja Chola I (the Great)

Son of Sundara Chola.

c.1000 - 1011

The Eastern Chalukyan king's younger brother, Vimaladitya, flees the kingdom and takes refuge in the court of Rajaraja I. Rajaraja invades Vengi on behalf of the sons of Danarnava, and Jata Choda Bhima is killed in the ensuing war. The Vengi kingdom passes into Rajaraja's hands, a fact that is not appreciated by King Satyasraya of the restored Western Chalukyas of Kalyani. As a result, Vengi becomes a bone of contention between the Cholas and the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Vimaladitya strengthens his alliance with Rajaraja by marrying Rani Kundavai, his daughter.

Brihadeswara temple in Tanjore
Rajaraja constructed the Sri Brihadeswara temple dedicated to nandi, the Bull

Around the same time, Rajaraja captures Talakad and force the Western Gangas to accept their overlordship (AD 1004 is an alternative date for this event). It is likely that the Ganga king, Neetimarga, is either killed during the invasion or is removed at a later date, ending the greater Western Ganga kingdom. The Cholas govern the region themselves for around a century.

c.1008 - 1019

Between the start of his reign and this approximate date, the Cholas under Rajaraja launch a series of campaigns against the Cheras of Mahodyapuram. Coming around from the north they attack the Chera capital and the city is sacked. The Chera fort at Udagai (also at Mahodyapuram) falls during this period. Another, more decisive battle takes place in 1019, when Rajendra Chola surrounds the Chera capital and kills King Bhaskara Ravi Varman I in the fighting. The Cheras also lose a number of generals and chieftains in the battle, making it a heavy defeat.

1012 - 1044

Rajendra Chola I


1021 - 1024

Vangaladesha witnesses a Chola invasion which probably disrupts the entire region, including the kingdom of the Chandras.

However, Rajendra Chola proves to be a great conqueror. He defeats the dispossessed Pandyas, the Cheras (in 1019), the Eastern Chalukyas, and several minor kings in Bengal, and even humbles the mighty Pala king, Mahipala. He also conquers and colonises Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, the Malayan peninsula, and the Eastern Gangas. He builds a new capital at Gangakodaicholapuram, which is decorated with lavish temples (especially the Gangakodaicholiswaram Temple) and palaces.

1044 - 1053

Rajadhiraja Chola I



Rajadhiraja Chola quells several rebellions by the Pandyas, Cheras and the Ceylonese, but loses his life in battle against the Western Chalukyan king Someswara. However, the war itself is won due to the exploits the king's brother Rajendra, who continues to battle against the Chalukyas.

1053 - 1063

Rajendra Chola II


1063 - 1070

Virarajendra Chola




Son. Driven out within a year by a relative who seizes the throne.


Adhirajendra is set aside by Kulotunga, who has Chola blood but who is also a member of the fast-fading Eastern Chalukyas. During his reign he repels attacks from the Western Chalukyan king, Vikramaditya VI (who supports Adhirajendra's cause). He also defeats the Kalinga king, Anantavarman Chodaganga. During his reign Ceylon becomes independent and after his death, Vikramaditya VI captures Vengi. The Hoysalas help in driving the Cholas back beyond the River Kaveri, and free Mysore.

1070 - 1118

Kulotunga I

Relative. Contemporary of famous Tamil poet Ottakuttan.

1073 - 1075

Almost as soon as the weakened Eastern Chalukyan kingdom has been restored, it is invaded by the Chedi king of Dahala, Yasahkarnadeva. The kingdom is extinguished in 1075 and it seems that much of its territory is absorbed by the Cholas for a time.

1088 - 1099

The Western Chalukyas conquer major portions of the former Eastern Chalukyan kingdom, taking them from the Cholas until the latter manage to retake the areas in 1099.


A far more devastating phase of the long conflict begins between Cholas and Cheras. The Chera capital at Mahodyapuram is burnt down and destroyed, and the Chera king shifts his capital southwards to Kollam (Quilon, a port city in Kerala). He defeats the Cholas but is not able to regain his already-fractured kingdom thanks to his enmity with the local Brahmins. His kingdom is now restricted to South Kerala, where it also becomes known as Venad, and his followers as the Cheras of Venadu. Internecine quarrelling further weakens the state, so the Rama Varma abdicates the throne and soon dies.

1118 - 1135

Vikrama Chola


1118 - c.1130

Vikrama Chola reconquers Vengi by defeating Someswara III, the Western Chalukyan king. He also recovers Gangavadi from the Hoysalas (the land of the former Western Gangas). However, the Chalukyas again manage to recapture the Eastern Chalukyan lands and hold onto them until around 1130, when the Cholas apparently absorb them permanently.

1135 - 1150

Kulothunga Chola II


1150 - 1163

Rajaraja Chola II

Son. Built the Airavateswara Temple at Darasuram.

1163 - 1178

Rajadhiraja Chola II


1178 - 1218

Kulotunga Chola III / Kulothunga

Son. Contemporary of famous Tamil writer Kamban.

c.1188 - 1189

The Yadava king, Bhillama V, extends the borders of his kingdom as far as Seringapatam on the River Kaveri, and defeats Kulotunga III. Despite this, during his reign, Kulotunga Chola conquers Kalinga, Ilam (Ceylon), Karur, and Kataha.


Vikkirama Pandyan gains the throne of Madurai with the help of Kulotunga. It had been Kulotunga who had defeated a rebellion by Vira Pandyan III and his Sinhalese allies and on this occasion he rewards Pandya cooperation by awarding the throne to Vikkirama Pandyan.


The Pandyas sack the Chola cities of Thanjavur and Uraiyur and send the Chola crown prince, Rajaraja Chola III, into exile. Kulotunga Chola III appeals for aid for his son-in-law, approaching the Hoysala monarch, Veera Ballala II. Ballala sends an army under his son, Crown Prince Vira Narasimha II. Under pressure from the Hoysala threat, Sundara Pandyan agrees to restore the Chola kingdom to Kulotunga, but only after the Cholas acknowledge his suzerainty.

1218 - 1256

Rajaraja Chola III

Son. Pandya vassal.

c.1240 - 1250

Rajaraja and Rajendra Chola III suffer setbacks against their enemies, and the latter is even is held hostage by the Kadava chieftain, Kopperunchinga, his own vassal. Eventually, the Pandyas seize the Chola capital. With the help of the Hoysalas, the Chola king defeats them, but the Kakatiya king, Ganpati, occupies Kanchi in 1250 and weakens the Cholas decisively.

1256 - 1279

Rajendra Chola III

Son. Pandya vassal.


The Chola empire comes to an end when the Pandyas avenge a previous defeat by completely destroying them and establishing the second powerful Pandyan empire. They also defeat the Cheras, Hoysalas, and the Kakatiyas.

Madurai, a region in southern India, is taken from the former Chola empire by the sultanate of Delhi and is turned into a minor vassal sultanate. The Kadava dynasty, which later claims descent from the Pallavas, is also said to be instrumental in the destruction of the Cholas.

The Chola name survives in the form of the Telugu Chodas who later rule in Renandu (in Cuddapah district) as vassals of the Pallavas, Chalukyas, and Rashtrakutas. The Chola capital at Thanjavur is subsequently ruled by the Pandyas, the Vijaynagar empire, the Madurai Nayaks, and the Thanjavur Nayaks, before the arrival of the Marathas. Previously conquered kingdoms such as the Kadambas of Bayalnad begin to re-emerge.