History Files


Middle East Kingdoms

Ancient Anatolia





Dardania was located in the north-western corner of Anatolia, to the immediate north of Troy, and facing modern Gallipoli across the Dardanelles. The Trojans and Dardanians were probably of the same stock, a mixture of aboriginal Anatolians and Luwians (such as could be found in nearby Arzawa), with later influxes of Hittites and Mycenaeans. According to the Greeks and Romans, Dardania was a client state of Troy's, but the information relating to its leaders is from traditional Greek sources, with no outside confirmation. Those dates are wholly traditional, according to Herodotus, and have been adjusted downwards by 87 years to bring them into line with the accepted timeframe for the Trojan War.

from c.2200 BC

Luwians settlers begin to enter the region from the east and south, where the later Luwian states of Arzawa and Kizzuwatna form.

Teucri / Teukroi

The Teucri are attributed to this region in the late seventeenth century BC. An Anatolian tribe, a possible linguistic connection has been suggested with the Tjekker, one of the later Sea Peoples. There appears to be some archaeological evidence to support this theory. The geographer Strabo gives the Teucri an origin in Crete, but the same is claimed for the Lukka by the Greeks, so the probability is that they were Indo-European Luwians. After the fall of Troy they largely lost their identity, but according to Herodotus, the Gergithae, 'a remnant of the ancient Teucrians', participated in the Ionian revolt against Persia in the early fifth century BC and were 'conquered' by Hymeas.

c.1527 - 1503 BC


Mythical father.

c.1503 - 1481 BC


Teucri chieftain.


According to Greek mythology the daughter of Teucer, Batea, was married to Dardanus. The land of the Teucri became Dardania, and the Dardanians and Teucri later collaborated in building Troy as a state. It is from the name of these legendary people that the Dardanelles draws its name.

c.1481 - 1450 BC


Inherited the Teucri territory.

c.1450 - 1375 BC


Son. Died childless.

c.1450 - 1375 BC



c.1375 - 1315 BC


Son. Also ruler of Troy. Origin of the name, Troad.

c.1315 BC

Tros leaves Troy to one of his sons, Ilos, while the other, Assaracus, rules Dardania.

Luwian bronze seal
A bronze seal written in the almost universal Anatolian language of Luwian which was discovered at Troy in 1995

c.1315 - ? BC




Son. m Themiste, dau of Ilos of Troy.



Anchises is crippled by a thunderbolt, so Aeneas rules in his father's place.

fl c.1180s BC



c.1193 - 1183 BC

Aeneas leads Archelochus, Acamas, and the Dardanians as allies of Troy during the Trojan War against Mycenae. According to legend, following the sack of Troy, Aeneas and his followers are allowed to leave. They eventually settle in Latium. The whole region of the Troad, Mysia and Dardania is taken over by the newly-formed Phrygian kingdom.

There may be a relationship between the Dardanians and the later Thraco-Illyrian Dardanii tribe who occupy the region north of Macedonia, as suggested by Roman writers, although this cannot be proven.