History Files


Middle East Kingdoms

Ancient Anatolia




MapMysia (Teuthrea)

Mysia was a semi-legendary kingdom which was located in the north-western corner of Anatolia, on the coast of the Sea of Marmara. Theoretically, it could have existed outside Greek myth and history as the Arzawan sub-kingdom of Masa. To its immediate west was the Troad (of which Mysia was part) and Wilusa, while the newly-arrived Phrygians were settling on its south-eastern border. Maeonia, to the south, was separated from it by Mount Temnus. While those borders are difficult to pin down, apparently for periods of its existence it also extended over areas of western and southern Anatolia, before being submerged within Phrygia. The northern section of the kingdom was known as Mysia Minor or Hellespontica, while the southern section was called Major or Pergamene, and it is this that eventually became the heart of the later kingdom of Pergamum. Information on kings is from Herodotus and the dates have been estimated to bring them into line with those established for the Trojan War.


Of Bebrykes (Bithynia).

fl c.1320s BC


fl c.1290s BC


c.1240 BC


The alternate name of Teuthraea used in Greek mythology for the region originates from Teuthras. He is opposed in his reign by Idas.

Sea of Marmara, by Fausto Zonaro
With the collapse of the Hittites at the end of the thirteenth century BC, the Sea of Marmara suddenly became a frontier with the aggressive Greek city states on its far side, although this early twentieth century painting by Fausto Zonaro makes it look peaceful

c.1240 BC


Rival for the throne.

Telephas, of uncertain birth in Mycenaean Arcadia, travels to Mysia where his mother marries the king. After Telephas defeats Idas, who threatens to usurp the throne, Teuthras adopts him and he inherits the kingdom.

fl c.1200 - 1184 BC

Telephas / Telephus

Adopted son of Teuthras.

c.1192 BC

The Mycenaean Greeks set sail for Troy and, unaware of its exact location, land in Mysia instead. They are attacked by Telephas, and Achilles of Phthia strikes back, wounding the king. When the Greeks help heal his wound, he shows them the route to Troy.

c.1184 - 1183 BC


Son. Died at Troy.

c.1183 BC

In the last year of the Trojan War against Mycenae, Eurypylos forms the Mysian forces as allies of Troy, along with Chromis and Ennomus (an augur who is killed by Achilles), and perhaps with Gyrtios too. Eurypylos is killed by Neoptolemus of Phthia. Following the sack of Troy, the kingdom apparently collapses and the territory is occupied as part of the kingdom of Phrygia.

334 - 323 BC

The region is conquered by Alexander the Great's Greek empire. By now the town of Cius within Mysia's territory is ruled by Prince Mithradates of Cius (337-302 BC), subject to Mysia's authority. He is murdered, probably on the orders of Antigonus Monophthalmos to prevent him from teaming up with Antigonus' rival in Greece, Cassander. The murder does nothing to assure Antigonus of the loyalty of Mithradates' son and, having succeeded his father, this younger Mithradates secures Pontus for his own kingdom in 301 BC.

323 - 319 BC

Armenia is governed by Eumenes, Alexander's former secretary.

323 - 319 BC

Eumenes of Cardia

Greek satrap of Cappadocia, Mysia, and Paphlagonia.

319 - 301 BC

The region becomes part of the Empire of Antigonus.