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African Kingdoms

West Africa

 

Songhai Empire
c.AD 7th Century - 1901

The Songhai state has existed in Africa in one form or another for over a thousand years. This period covers the first settlement in Gao on the eastern edge of the Mali empire, under which it was a semi-vassal status, through to its continuation in what is now Niger as the Dendi empire.

Situated in modern Mali in an area called Western Sudan (not to be confused with the country of the same name), the Songhai empire was founded as a small state centred on Gao circa 700 by Songhai Berbers on the Middle Niger, but it didn't become an empire until the fifteenth century, and reached the height of its power by around 1500, by which time it was the one of the largest African empires in terms of territory, stretching almost the entire length of the River Niger.

(Additional information from the Tarikh al-Fattash and Tarikh al-Sudan (seventeenth century Timbuktu chronicles which end in 1599 and 1656 respectively), from Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Sadi's Tarikh al-Sudan down to 1613 and other contemporary documents, John O Hunwick (2003), from Tedzkiret en-nisiān fi Akhbar molouk es-Soudān (in French), Octave Houdas (Ed & translator, Paris 1901), from Towards an Understanding of the African Experience from Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, Festus Ugboaja Ohaegbulam (University Press of America, 1990), and from External Links: The Met Museum, and Encyclopaedia Britannica, and The Invasion of Morocco in1591 and the Saadian Dynasty, Jonathan Michel, 1995.)

Za Dynasty in Kukiya (Songhai Empire)
c.AD 690 - 800

There were fourteen Za dynasty rulers in the early period of Songhai history, although records are sparse for this early period, especially towards its end.

c.690

Alayaman

c.700

Zakoi

c.710

Takoi / Takay

c.720

Akoi / Mata-Kay

c.730

Ku

c.740

Ali-Fay

c.750

Biyu-Kumoy

c.760

Biyu

c.770

Za-Kuroy

c.775

Yama-Karaway

c.780

Yama

780 - 785

Yama-Danka-Kiba'u

786 - 789

Kukuray

791 - 800

Kinkin

800 - c.1010

Unknown number of kings

c.1010

The empire coverts to Islam. The capital is moved to Gao.

Za Dynasty in Gao (Songhai Empire)
c.AD 1010 - 1275

Za Kusoy was the first Songhai ruler to convert to Islam. He also turned the small kingdom of Gao into a Muslim state. Gao began to attract North African merchants during his reign. Again, towards the end of the dynasty records become sparse.

c.1010

Kusoy Muslim Dam

First converter to Islam.

Han-Kuz-Wanku-Dam

Biyu-Ki-Kima

Nintasanay

Biyu-Kayna-Kinba

Kayna-Shanyunbu

Tib

Yama-Dad

Fadazu

'Ali-Kuru

Bir-Fuluku

Yasiboy

Duru

Zenku-Baru

Bisi-Baru

Bada

c.1150

Bisi Baro Ber

c.1150 - 1260

Unknown number of kings

c.1260 - 1275

The Songhai empire is occupied by the Mali empire.

Sunni Dynasty (Songhai Empire)
c.AD 1275 - 1492

The first great king of the Songhai was Sunni Ali. Ali was a Muslim like the Mali kings before him. He was also an efficient warrior who conquered many of the Songhai's neighbours, including what remained of the Mali empire.

Gao fell under the indirect control of the Mali empire during the reign of Sundiata. Around 1275, it seems that a Mali official fled to Gao and established his own dynasty. The kings were called Sunni or Sonni meaning 'replacement' or 'liberator' kings. Gao had to be continuously attacked by Mali to keep the new Sunni dynasty paying tribute.

c.1275

Sunni Ali Kolon

Sunni Salman Nari

Sunni Ibrahim Kabyao

c.1320

Sunni Uthman Gifo Kanafa

Sunni Bar-Kayna-Ankabi

Sunni Musa

Sunni Bakr Zanku

Sunni Bakr Dala-Buyunbu

Sunni Mar-Kiray

Sunni Muhammad Da'u

c.1275

Sunni Muhammad Kukiya

Sunni Muhammad Fari

Sunni Karbifu

1325

The Songhai empire is occupied by the Mali kingdom.

Sunni Mar-Fay-Kuli-Jimu

Sunni Mar-Arkana

1375

Songhai once more becomes independent.

Sunni Mar Arandan

c.1410 - 1440

Sunni Sulayman Dama Dandi

c.1440 - 1464

Sunni Silman Dandi

1464 - 1492

Sunni Ali Ber 'the Great'

1468

With Sunni Ali Ber's accession the Songhai truly start to become empire-builders, eclipsing their former rulers, the Mali empire. Sunni Ali occupies Timbuktu and creates the last great empire of the western Sudan.

1492 - 1493

Sunni Abu-Bakry Baro

Son. Last Sunni ruler. Rejected in favour of the Askia.

1492 - 1493

Sunni Abu-Bakry Baro is seen by his critics and opponents as not being a faithful Muslim. This gives one of his generals - Mohammed Ture - the opportunity to challenge his succession as ruler of the Songhai empire. His challenge proves to be successful and he replaces Sunni Abu-Bakry Baro to found the Askia dynasty.

Askia Dynasty in Gao (Songhai Empire)
AD 1492 - 1591

Following the death of Sunni Abu-Bakry Baro of the Sunni dynasty of Songhai rulers at Gao, Muslim factions rebelled against his successor. Instead, Askia Muhammad (formerly known as Muhammad Ture) was installed as the first and greatest ruler of the Askia dynasty. Under the rule of the Askias the Songhai empire reached its zenith - with the decline of the previously dominant Mali empire the Songhai were able to expand into their territory, already having taken Timbuktu in 1468. Under Songhai rule, both Timbuktu and Jenne (Djenné) on the River Niger - both of which lay to the west of Gao - flourished as centres of Islamic learning, and Islam was actively promoted. This was the last great empire of the Western Sudan, but its years of glory were brief thanks to an invasion by superior forces from Morocco.

1493 - 1528

Askia Mohammed (I) Ture 'the Great'

Raised during Muslim rebellion. Dynasty founder. Died 1538.

1493 - 1528

As the new ruler of the Songhai empire, Mohammed Ture oversees a programme of expansion which extends the empire's borders to Taghaza in the north and the borders of Yatenga in the south, from Air to the north-east and Fouta Djallon in Guinea on Africa's west coast. He also organises an efficient trade routes system, along with the administrative necessities to ensure that it functions. Despite all his good work, though, he is overthrown by his own son and lives to see him and various other sons bicker over the succession.

Tomb of Askia Mohammed Ture
The Tomb of Askia - built at the end of the fifteenth century AD - is in Gao, Mali, and is believed to be the burial place of Askia Mohammad I, one of the Songhai empire's greatest rulers

1528 - 1531

Askia Musa

Son and usurper. Assassinated.

1528

Having already achieved a high point in its expansion and organisation, the Songhai empire under the Askia dynasty begins to decline. Askia Musa, having deposed his own father, is surrounded by relatives who also want a taste of power and he does his best to kill as many of them as possible. Ultimately he is assassinated by Mohammad Benkan and a group of supporting brothers and relatives. Mohammad Benkan manages to hold onto that power for just six years before he too is overthrown.

1531 - 1537

Askia Mohammad (II) Benkan

Cousin and usurper.

1537 - 1539

Askia Isma'il

Brother of Askia Musa. Died of natural causes.

1539 - 1549

Askia Ishaq (I)

Brother.

1549 - 1582

Askia Daoud / Askia Dawud I

Brother. Left a strong and united empire.

1549 - 1582

Askia Daoud succeeds his deceased brother unopposed and manages to rule over an empire that sees remarkably little internal strife. In fact Daoud is able to expand the empire's borders even further. He is able to organise various campaigns against subject territories which fail to show proper obedience and the Songhai are usually successful. Their one failure comes against the Mossi kingdoms of what is now Burkina Faso in 1561-1562. Daoud's death plunges the empire into renewed instability as his sons vie against one another to control it. Their efforts so weaken the empire that it is exposed to attack from the north.

1582 - 1586

Askia Al-Hajj

Son.

1586 - 1588

Askia Mohommed (III) Bana

Brother.

1588 - 1591

Askia Ishaq (II)

Brother. Killed in battle. Songhai empire destroyed.

1591

A Moroccan invasion terminates the empire. The Songhai forces are routed at the Battle of Tondibi by the Saadi gunpowder weapons despite vastly superior Songhai numbers. Gao, Timbuktu, and Jenne (Djenné), are sacked and the Songhai are destroyed as a regional power. The Saadi Moroccans takes over control of Mali while the Songhai themselves retreat to the Dendi region of what is now Niger and reform a smaller kingdom. Branches of the Songhai Askia dynasty remain in Timbuktu and Gao (the latter provide a rival to the kingship of Lulami in the eighteenth century).

Battle of Tondibi 1591
The Battle of Tondibi in 1591 was a disaster for the already weakened Songhai empire as its troops and defences were totally unprepared to face gunpowder weapons which included small canon

1591 - 1618

Askia Muhammed (IV) Gao

Brother. Ruled Gao under Moroccan dominance.

1591 - 1670

Morocco eventually proves to be unable to control such a vast empire across such great distances. A rebellion in Timbuktu almost as soon as it is taken by Morocco highlights this fact. It is Askia Muhammed in Gao who restores the local peace. Morocco soon relinquishes control of the Western Sudan region (by 1670), allowing it to splinter into dozens of smaller kingdoms of which Gao is one of the larger. To the west,Taureg nomads control Mali until a new local power emerges in the form of the Tukulor empire in 1854, while the Songhai refugees in Dendi flourish.

Askia Dynasty in Lulami / Dendi (Songhai) Kingdom (Niger)
AD 1592 - 1901

Always prone to raids from the Muslim north, the Songhai empire which covered much of modern Mali and Niger still managed a period of greatness in the sixteenth century which saw Islamic learning provided in important centres such as Jenne (Djenné) and Timbuktu. Islam itself was actively promoted in the empire, but that did not protect it from a Moroccan invasion in 1591. The Battle of Tondibi saw the Songhai forces being routed by the use of gunpowder weapons about which the superior numbers of the Songhai could do nothing. The empire's important centres, including Timbuktu, were sacked and the empire was destroyed.

The ruling Askia dynasty survived, however, and its family members fled to their native Dendi region of Niger. They set up a new capital at Lulami (location unknown) and continued all the traditions of the Songhai empire. Sadly the rule of many of their kings - using the title askia or askiya - is fairly obscure. The first king, Askia Nuh I, was a brother of several askia, Ishaq II, Muhammed Gao, and Sulayman (and several more who succeeded Nuh himself). While he joined the exodus back to Lulami, Sulayman remained in Timbuktu as its Saadi puppet ruler, spawning a dynasty of his own there. The gold trade from the region was a source of profit for the reformed kingdom, with some of it reaching Granada in Spain, but the Dendi kingdom never matched the power and prestige of its forebear. By the end of the nineteenth century it was so wracked by internal dissention that its military forces were in no state to stand against the invading French forces.

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information from the Tarikh al-Fattash and Tarikh al-Sudan (seventeenth century Timbuktu chronicles which end in 1599 and 1656 respectively), from Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Sadi's Tarikh al-Sudan down to 1613 and other contemporary documents, John O Hunwick (2003), from Tedzkiret en-nisiān fi Akhbar molouk es-Soudān (in French), Octave Houdas (Ed & translator, Paris 1901), and from Documents Scientifiques de la Mission Tilho (1906-1909) (in French), J Tilho (three volumes, Paris 1911).)

1592 - 1599

Askia Nuh I

Brother of Songhai Askia Ishaq II. First Dendi king at Lulami.

1599 - ?

Askia al-Mustafa

Brother.

Askia Muhammad Surku Ilji / Sorko-ije

Brother.

1609

Although they may have lost most their Songhai empire, the Dendi kings of Lulami have not given up hope of reclaiming their lost lands. The residents of one of their most important former cities, Jenne (Djenné), now rebel against their Moroccan Saadi governors and the Dendi kingdom supports them. The Saadi eventually recover the city but little in the way of support is provided from Morocco itself. The city is soon abandoned to the Fulbe and Tuareg nomads, with Dendi apparently being satisfied enough with the outcome not to try and reclaim it for themselves - and probably lacking the resources to do so. Instead, the Bamana of Jenne soon leads an independent state based around the reduced city.

Jenne mosque
With the collapse of the Songhai empire following the Moroccan invasion of 1591, the Dendi remnant of the empire attempted to free the city of Jenne (here showing the city's mosque) from Saadi rule, but with the result that Jenne became independent of both sides

? - 1611

Askia Harun Dancette / Dankataya

Brother.

1611 - 1618

Askia al-Amin

Brother. Reigned for 7 years.

? - 1639

Askia Dawud I (II)

Nephew. Reigned for 22 years. Deposed by his brother.

1639

Askia Dawud turns out to be a ruthless and dangerous ruler. He murders many members of his own family, supposedly to cement his hold on the throne, while the military and general populace are also not immune. His brother, Isma'il, flees to the Saadi-held city of Timbuktu, seeking military support from the Moroccans. He returns with an army in 1639 and Dawud is removed from power. Then Isma'il attempts to get the Saadi forces to leave and is himself deposed. The Saadi general, Pashad Mesaoud sacks Lulami.

1639

Askia Isma'il

Brother. Deposed by the Saadi.

1639

Askia Muhammad

Cousin. Saadi puppet. deposed by his own people.

1639

Askia Muhammad is the Saadi puppet ruler imposed on the Dendi kingdom following the removal of Askia Isma'il Muhammad. The length of his reign is unclear but seems to be little more than a few months. Then he is removed by the Dendi people, by which time it has to be assumed that the bulk of the Saadi forces have returned to Timbuktu.

1639 - ?

Askia Dawud II (III)

Son of Muhammad Surku Ilji.

Askia Muhammad Bari / Borgo

Son of Harun Dancette.

Askia Mar Shindin / Mar-Chindin

Cousin? Son of Fari-Mondzo Hammad.

Askia Nuh II

Cousin? Son of al-Mustafa.

Askia al-Barak / al-Borko

Son of Dawud I (II).

1670

The Alawi rulers of Morocco have found it impossible to control such a vast empire across such long distances as the one they have taken from the former Songhai empire. By this date they have already begun relinquishing control of the region, allowing it splinter into dozens of smaller kingdoms.

Dendi people
The lives of the ordinary people of the Dendi kingdom probably altered relatively little during the kingdom's decline, albeit with an increased chance of internecine conflict affecting them more directly

Askia al-Hajj

Brother.

Askia Ismail

Son of Muhammad Surku Ilji.

? - c.1700

Askia Dawud III (IV)

Brother. Last of the dynasty founded by Nuh I.

c.1700

Although the bulk of the former Songhai empire's leadership had transferred to Lulami in 1591, there had been a great many brothers of the first king at Lulami who remained scattered across the empire's now Saadi-dominated lands. One of these had become the ruler of Timbuktu, founding a dynasty of his own there, while another had remained at the old city of Gao to found a local ruling dynasty there.

Around this date, El Hadjj Hanga, son of Ismai'la who is the son of Morobani of Gao, relocates to Lulami to challenge for the crown. He wins it for himself and sons, but even this leadership is later challenged again from Gao. These struggles disrupt the weakening kingdom and send it on a course towards fragmentation.

c.1700 - 1761

Askia El Hadjj Hanga

Son of Ismai'la of a rival Askia dynasty at Gao.

1761 - 1779

Askia Samsu Beri

Son.

1779 - 1793

Askia Hargani

Brother.

1793

Askia Fodi Mayrumfa

Son of Samsu Beri. Deposed.

1793 - 1798

Askia Samsu Keyna

Son of Morobani of Gao.

1798 - 1805

Askia Fodi Mayrumfa

Restored.

1798 - 1805

The Dendi kingdom fractures into three separate elements. Each has its own capital, at Gaya, Karimama, and Madékali, now on either side of the modern border between Benin and Niger. All three rulers claim descent from the Songhai rulers of Gao and all survive into the French occupation period where they are documented. The dominant rule of the Dendi kingdom may be shared or rotated between the houses (its exact pedigree is unclear), with the descendants of Tomo and Bassaru dominating in later years.

Modern Benin/Niger border
The modern border between Benin and Niger is probably very much as it was in 1798, when the Dendi kingdom fractured into three separate states on either side of today's border

1805 - 1823

Askia Tomo

Son of Samsu Beri.

1823 - 1842

Askia Bassaru Missi Ize

Brother.

1842 - 1845

Askia Bumi / Askia Kodama Komi

Brother.

1845 - 1864

Askia Koyze Baba

Son of Tomo.

1864 - 1865

Askia Koyze Baba Baki

Son of Fodi Mayrumfa.

1865 - 1868

Askia Wankoy / Ouankoˇ

Son of Tomo.

1868 - 1882

Askia Bigo Farma / Boyo Birma

Son of Tomo.

1882 - 1887

Askia Dauda

Son of Bassaru.

1887 - 1901

Askia Malla

Son of Tomo. Deposed by France.

1901

The French have had an occupying force in the region since 1890, with the effect that native power is greatly curtailed, although this does have the side benefit of reducing internecine conflict. Now, in 1901, with the French appropriating further territory in the River Niger and Sahara regions, the Dendi kingdom is effectively terminated and incorporated into their colonial possessions. Along with a number of other territories the former kingdom is now part of French West Africa.

1901 - 1905

Askia Igoumou

Son of Bassaru. Puppet king until French rule is in place?

1902 - 1958

In 1902, two major administrative regions of French West Africa - Middle Niger and Upper Senegal - are re-merged as Senegambia & Niger, and renamed in 1904 as Upper Senegal & Niger when a direct governorship is re-established. This would seem to affect the former Dendi region, and certainly affects French Sudan.

1958 - 1960

The territory becomes an autonomous republic of the 'French Community' of states in 1958. Two years later it gains independence from France, and becomes part of a modern Niger. One of the new nation state's first acts is to leave the 'French Community'.

 
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