History Files

European Kingdoms



Christian Kingdom of Asturias & Galicia
AD 718 - 910

This state was founded in the north-western mountains of Spain by the Astures people of Iberia, shortly after the Umayyad Islamic invasion of Iberia. Asturias fronted the Bay of Biscay. Created just seven years after the collapse of the Visigothic kingdom, Asturias was a Christian revival of that former kingdom and its Suevi antecedent (although not the earliest - the County of Barcelona was established one year before, in 717). It was centred on Oviedo, until expansion saw the capital moved. The Basques were soon brought under its command, although the extent of their territory is not known.

The Asturians had a long history in the region, being descended as they were from the warlike Astures tribe whom both the Romans and the Visigoths had struggled to conquer.

718 - 737

Pelayo / Pelagius

Stopped the Arabs at Covadonga (718).


Under Pelagius the Asturians defeat the invading Muslims at the Battle of Covadonga in the Picos de Europa. Subsequent Asturian efforts continually keep the Muslims at bay.


The kingdom expands to encompass the former Suevi kingdom in Galicia.


The Frankish mayor of the palace, Charles Martel, defeats an army of 90,000 Arabs at Tours in France, ending the northward expansion of the empire through Iberia and into southern France.

737 - 739


739 - 757

Alfonso I 'the Catholic'

King of the Astures. Hereditary Basque chief.


The Islamic Umayyads are overthrown and massacred in the Abbasid revolution, with the survivors fleeing to Iberia where they rule independently. This signals the end of the Arab empire.

757 - 768

Fruela I 'the Cruel'

757 - 768

The reign of Fruela 'the Cruel' ignites a rebellion in the Basques of Cantabria, although they are ultimately unsuccessful in their attempt to rid themselves of Asturian rule.

768 - 774

Aurelio / Aurelius

774 - 783


783 - 788

Mauregato / Mauregatus

788 - 791

Vermundo / Bermudo I the Deacon

791 - 842

Alfonso II the Chaste


Nepocian / Nepotian

842 - 850

Ramiro I

850 - 866

Ordono I


Leon is freed from Islamic control.

866 - 910

Alfonso III the Great


Alfonso grants the re-conquered land between the Douro and Minho rivers to Vimera Peres. The county of Portugal is established.


The lands to the south of Portugal are freed from the Omayyid Moors. The county of Coimbra is created to govern the area on a military footing under Alfonso's overlordship.


The kingdom expands and evolves into the kingdom of Leon. Galicia is sub-divided, and with its attached county of Portugal it remains nominally independent.

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