History Files

Please help the History Files

Contributed: 84

Target: 400

Totals slider

The History Files still needs your help. As a non-profit site, it is only able to support such a vast and ever-growing collection of information with your help, and this year your help is needed more than ever. Please make a donation so that we can continue to provide highly detailed historical research on a fully secure site. Your help really is appreciated.

European Kingdoms



Kingdom of Leon
AD 910 -1230

The kingdom was founded as an expanded Asturias & Galicia, although the latter experienced periods of semi-independence. The Asturian capital of Oviedo in Asturias was moved to Zamora, and it was probably Ordono II who moved it again, this time to Leon, from which the enlarged kingdom now drew its name. Overlordship of the county of Portugal initially remained with Galicia. The reignal numbering was continued from Asturias.

910 - 914


914 - 924

Ordono II

King of Galicia (910-924).


Galicia is drawn into the kingdom. With it, the kings of Leon gain overlordship of Portugal.

924 - 925

Fruela II the Cruel

925 - 930

Alfonso IV the Monk

Son of Ordono II. Abdicated.

931 - 950

Ramiro II

Brother. Titular king of Asturias before accession.

950 - 956

Ordono III

956 - 958

Sancho I 'the Fat'


Sancho removes the ruling count of Portugal from power and seeks support from the Omayyids to protect him from retaliation.

958 - 960

Ordono IV the Wicked

960 - 966

Sancho I 'the Fat'



Gonçalo Menendez rebels against Sancho and re-establishes his governance of the county of Portugal.

967 - 984

Ramiro III

982 - 984

With the accession of Bermudo II in Galicia, overlordship of Portugal passes back to that kingdom, but Bermudo gains the throne of Leon just two years later, reuniting the two kingdoms.

984 - 999

Vermundo / Bermudo II

King of Galicia (982-999).


Count Gonçalo adopts the title grand duke of Portugal and goes to war against Bermudo II, his overlord. Bermudo defeats him.

999 - 1027

Alfonso V the Noble

1027 - 1037

Vermundo III

1037 - 1065

Leon & Galicia are ruled by Castile.

1065 - 1070

Alfonso VI the Brave

Defeated and exiled.


The kingdom of Castile, Leon & Galicia is divided between the three sons of Ferdinand I: Sancho II receives Castile, Alfonso VI, Leon, and Galicia is once again sub-divided from Leon for Garcia. Sancho attacks Alfonso as he attempts to capture Leon, and Garcia takes the opportunity to proclaim the independence of Galicia and Portugal.

1070 - 1072

Sancho defeats Alfonso in 1070 and drives him into exile, reassembling the whole of Ferdinand's kingdom, although Galicia and Portugal are still autonomous. In 1072, Sancho dies, and the kingdom of Castile, Leon and Galicia immediately falls to Alfonso, who maintains its unity by imprisoning Garcia until his death.

1072 - 1109

Alfonso VI the Brave

Restored. Also king of Castile & Galicia.

1085 - 1086

Alfonso captures Toledo in 1085, marking the beginning of the Reconquista, but he is subsequently defeated by the western Saharan Almoravids at the Battle of Zallâqa (otherwise known as Sagrajas) in the following year. Over half of the army is lost, a crippling blow for the Christians, but the Almoravids suffer high casualties themselves and are unable to follow up on their victory.


Alfonso has endowed the county of Portugal to his favourite daughter, Theresa. From an early age she has been betrothed to Henry of Burgundy, and now the couple re-establish the county under the regency of Henry himself.

1109 - 1126


Also queen of Castile. Married to Alfonso I of Aragon.

1109 - 1112

With the death of Alfonso VI, Henry of Portugal invades Leon, hoping to annexe it to his county and form a kingdom. His early death in 1112 ends that plan, but his young widow is hailed as queen of Portugal by the Pope.

1126 - 1157

Alfonso VII

Also king of Castile.

1139 - 1143

Following an attempting invasion of Portugal, Alfonso VII loses his claim to overlordship of the county when Afonso is declared king in 1139. Alfonso bows to the inevitable and recognises that independence in 1143.

1157 - 1188

Ferdinand II

1188 - 1230

Alfonso IX

1230 - 1252

The kingdom becomes a permanent part of the kingdom of Castile, firstly in personal union through shared monarchs. In 1301 the situation becomes permanent when Ferdinand IV 'the Summoned' unites the thrones of Castile and Leon.

Images and text copyright © all contributors mentioned on this page. An original king list page for the History Files.