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European Kingdoms



Kingdom of Aragon
AD 1035 -1516

Formerly part of the kingdom of Navarre, Aragon, on the Mediterranean east coast of Spain, comprised the Catalan-speaking portion of Iberia (previously providing a home in part of its territory to the tribal Iacetani. One of the earliest counts of Aragon had taken over the county of Urgel (close to Andorra) during his exile from his own lands in 820-824.

(Information by Peter Kessler and from the John De Cleene Archive, with additional information from Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, 1985 Edition (Revised 1993), from La Ciudadela de Barcelona: Cataluña vindicada, Lluís Cutchet, from Los Condes de Barcelona Vindicados, y Cronología y Genealogía de los Reyes de España considerados como Soberianos Independientes de su Marca. Tomo I: abraza los siete primeros, desde el año 874 al 1035, Prosper de Bofarull, 1836 (reprinted 1990), from The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, C E Bosworth (2004), and from External Links: Encyclopaedia.com, and Lleida Tourism, and Enciclopèdia Catalana, SAU, and Representació de SE Copríncep Francès (in French and Catalan).)


Following the death of Count Borrell of Osona, overlord of Andorra, Osona is granted to Rampon, count of Barcelona, while Borrell's lesser territories of Urgel (which includes Andorra) and Cerdanya pass to the Basque noble, Aznar I Galíndez of Aragon, following his overthrow and exile from that county.

834 - 844

Sunifred, son-in-law of Belló, count of Carcassonne, is granted Urgel (and Andorra) and Cerdanya by Louis 'the Pious', who has progressed from his early role as king of Aquitaine to ruling the Frankish empire. Sunifred conquers Cerdanya in 835 and Urgel in 838 so that Galindo I Aznárez is dispossessed of his holdings. Even so, he soon goes on to reclaim Aragon for himself.

844 - ?

Galindo I Aznárez

Son of Aznar I Galíndez. Reclaimed Aragon (844). Died 867.


The boundaries are drawn between Navarre and the county of Castile. What is to become the Basque Country now falls within Navarre. The twelfth century reign of Sancho VII 'the Strong' will be the last in four hundred years of Basque monarchies which had begun with that of Eneko de Aritza of Pamplona in 840.

1035 - 1063

Ramiro I

1063 - 1094

Sancho Ramirez

Also king of Navarre.

1094 - 1104

Pedro I

Also king of Navarre.

1104 - 1134

Alfonso I the Battler

Also king of Navarre. Co-ruled Leon & Castile (1109-1126).

1134 - 1137

Ramiro II the Monk


1137 - 1162

Queen Petronilla



The kingdom captures Saragossa. The new capital is established at Aragon.


Aragon achieves union with the County of Barcelona, expanding the kingdom of Aragon to encompass it.

1162 - 1196

Alfonso II the Chaste


The younger sister of Alfonso II, Dulce Berenguer, marries Sancho I of Portugal, thereby securing an alliance between the two kingdoms and recognition of Portugal's right to exist as a kingdom.

1196 - 1213

Pedro II


Caliph Muhammad suffers a devastating defeat by the Christian Iberians of Aragon, Castile, Navarre, and Portugal at Los Navos de Tolosa. Humiliated, they are forced to give way, and their army never fully recovers from the disaster. In the east, the empire fades as local tribes begin to rebel against Almohad rule and control over more territory is gradually lost, along with domination of the western Mediterranean Sea.

Battle of Los Navos de Tolosa
Ongoing battles between the Almohads and the Iberian Christians would end up in North African defeat at the Battle of Los Navos de Tolosa in 1212

1213 - 1276

Jaime / James I the Conqueror

1276 - 1285

Pedro III the Great

King of Sicily (1282-1285).

1285 - 1291

Alfonso III the Do-Gooder

1291 - 1327

Jaime / James II the Just

King of Sicily (1285-1296). Joint king of Sardinia & Corsica (1323).


Shortly after taking office, Pope Boniface VIII sweeps all existing agreements and treaties aside with his proclamation of a 'Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica' that will, naturally, be a fief of the papacy itself. Boniface offers the fief to James II along with papal support should he wish to abandon his territory on Sicily in exchange for invading Pisan-supported Sardinia. James does not immediately take up the offer.


James II forms an alliance with Giudice Hugh II of Arborea to conduct a campaign to take the Pisan-occupied territories of Cagliari and Gallura. This they do, also capturing the city of Sassari, which lies immediately south-east of Porto Torres on Sardinia. The territory is claimed as the 'Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica', with Hugh and James ruling jointly, although Hugh still commands Arborea under his own authority while a viceroy governs the captured territories for Aragon. It takes until 1326 for Pisa to officially cede Sardinia in its entirety.

1327 - 1336

Alfonso IV the Good

Joint 'King of Sardinia & Corsica' with Arborea.

1336 - 1387

Peter IV the Ceremonious

Joint 'King of Sardinia & Corsica' with Arborea.


Sultan Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman launches his grand invasion of Iberia from his capital at Fez. The Castilian fleet is instantly destroyed off the coast of Gibraltar. Tarifa is besieged but Hasan, believing that the Castilians are no longer a threat at sea, lays up much of his own fleet. Alfonso, though, has sought the help of his uncle, Alfonso IV of Portugal, and the king of Aragon. The fleet this produces cuts the Merinid chain of communications across the straits of Gibraltar. The Christian army then relieves Tarifa at the Battle of Río Salado (or the Battle of Tarifa) on 30 October 1340. The Merinids are thoroughly defeated and a North African ruler never again threatens Iberia. Granada now fights alone.


Peter IV invades Sardinia in the continuance of Aragon's claim to rule all of Sardinia. He attacks Arborea, intending to remove the independence of Giudice Marianus, or destroy him entirely and claim the whole island. Marianus ends the alliance with Aragon and instead sides with Aragon's enemy, Genoa, which also infuriates the Pisans, but Marianus remains undefeated. The so-called 'Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica' retains its status as a crown territory, rather than being incorporated directly within the kingdom of Aragon, although Corsica has not even been conquered.


The savagery of Pedro 'the Cruel' of Castile has led to a civil war in which his illegitimate brother, Henry of Trastámara, commands a coalition of nobles who challenge Pedro's authority. Both sides seek foreign support, which began the Spanish phase of the Hundred Years War between England and France.

England supports Peter and his heirs, while the French back Henry of Trastámara and his successors. In 1366 Henry invades Castile and Leon with the help of Peter IV of Aragon and Barcelona. Their professional mercenary army is able to overthrow Pedro so that Henry can claim the throne.


The death of Pedro of Castile triggers a fight for the throne. Peter IV is among the competitors, as are the kings of Navarre and Portugal, and John of Gaunt, English duke of Lancaster. In the end it is Pedro's illegitimate brother who gains the throne, and all parties seek peace talks from Pope Gregory XI.

1372 - 1378

An opportunity for Peter to press his claims to overlordship of Corsica arises thanks to Genoese rule of the island still being resisted by the barons of the south and the hereditary caporali in the north. He sends a force to conquer the island, which it does under the leadership of Arrigo della Rocca in 1372. In a sudden about face after years of opposition, Cape Corso's barons appeal for help to Genoa, which is distracted by other problems.

Christians versus Moors
The Christian conquest of Iberia was a drawn-out process which covered several centuries of combat and slow Christian advance, but in its later days it frequently spilled over into North African kingdoms which were supporting the 'Moors' in southern Iberia

1383 - 1387

Aragon continues to fight Arborea for control of the island of Sardinia, but Giudice Eleanor's effective governance of the war sees Aragon lose almost all of its Sardinian holdings. Arborea now controls much of the island and Eleanor is able to negotiate a treaty that is very favourable. She also continues her father's alliance with Genoa, which secures the independence of Arborea for the time being.

1387 - 1395

John I


Eleanor of Arborea signs a pact with Aragon which finally delivers peace to the island of Sardinia.

1395 - 1410

Martin I the Humane

Martin the Older of Aragon & Sicily (1409-1410).


Matthew, count of Foix, viscount of Castellbò, and co-prince of Andorra, invades Catalonia to further his claim to its throne upon the death of John I of Aragon. He is forced to abandon his attempt in the face of Martin the Humane's stronger claim which also appears to threaten his own position in terms of Andorra.

1408 - 1409

William III of Narbonne lands on Sardinia on 8 December 1408 to be crowned king, but Martin the Humane's son, Martin the Younger, has already landed a force of his own from Sicily (on 6 October), with a subsidiary force of men under the command of John I, future count of Foix and co-prince of Andorra. The two meet at the Battle of Sanluri in 1409, and the battle is a disaster for William. He is forced to flee to France for assistance, but Martin of Sicily dies of malaria a few days after the battle.

1410 - 1412

The death of the Aragonese heir, Martin the Younger in 1409 is quickly followed by that of his father, causing an interregnum in the rule of Aragon. As there is no direct heir to the throne, it passes to another dynasty, that of the Trastámaras. Its representative, Ferdinand, becomes the new king of Aragon through the terms of the Compromise of Caspe of 1412.

1412 - 1416

Ferdinand I the Just

King of Sicily (1412-1416).

1416 - 1458

Alfonso V the Magnanimous

King of Sicily (1416-1458), & Naples (1442-1458).


Alfonso appoints Luis de Pontos as the first Aragonese viceroy of the island of Sardinia, although at this stage he only controls sections of it, with the native Arborea stubbornly holding onto the majority of territory.

1420 - 1421

The titular giudice of Arborea, William II of Narbonne, sells his title to Alfonso V, although differing sources also claim that Regent Brancaleone Doria sells the position of giudice to Aragon in 1409. Either way, the remaining giudici of Arborea on the island of Sardinia are titular only, with little real power. Alfonso is also attempting to gain control over Corsica. With his own general now in charge of most of the island, he arrives in 1421 to take personal possession. Calvi falls to his fresh forces, but while Bonifacio refuses to surrender, a general revolt is triggered by his heavy taxes. Alfonso agrees terms with Bonifacio, which remains an independent Genoese city state, and he withdraws from the island.


Ferdinand's daughter, Eleanor, the widow of King Edward of Portugal, becomes regent to her six year-old son, Alfonso V.

1458 - 1479

John II

John II of Navarre (1425-1479), & Sicily (1458-1479).

1479 - 1516

Ferdinand II

Ferdinand II of Navarre, & Sicily, & later Ferdinand V of Castile.


The marriage of Isabella, soon-to-be queen of Castile and Leon, to Ferdinand II, heir to the throne of Aragon, Navarre, and Sicily, on 19 October lays the foundation for the political unification of all of Spain under their grandson, Charles.

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
The marriage in 1469 of royal cousins Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile eventually brought stability to both kingdoms but also presaged an era of Spanish dominance in world affairs


The Treaty of Alcáçovas, also known as the Peace of Alcáçovas-Toledo, is signed between the joint kingdom of Castile and Aragon on one side and King Afonso V and Prince John II of Portugal on the other. It ends the Castillian War of Succession by recognising Isabella as queen of Castile, renouncing Spanish claims to the Portuguese throne and, most importantly for Morocco, it divides the Atlantic and its coastal territories into zones of influence. The Portuguese are now unopposed in their attempts to dominate the kingdom of Fez.


The Treaty of Tordesillas of 7 June 1494 effectively divides half the known world, including the New World, into Spanish and Portuguese areas of influence. It ignores all other European powers in the process, so they ignore the treaty in return. It gives Portugal the opportunity to exploit Brazil, and also serves to confirm Portuguese domination in Morocco, amongst many other places.

1501 - 1509

The daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand, Katherine, marries Arthur Tudor, elder son of Henry VII of England. Arthur dies in 1502, and in 1509 Catherine marries his brother, the soon-to-be-crowned Henry VIII. Also in ths period, in 1505, Ferdinand II marries Germaine of Foix, thereby bringing the lordship of Andorra under Spanish rule.


Germaine of Foix marries Ferdinand II, king of Aragon, Navarre and Sicily, and soon to be the regent of Castile, thereby bringing the lordship of Andorra under Spanish rule.

1507 - 1516

Ferdinand waits patiently for matters regarding his daughter, Joanna, to reach a head in Castile. In 1507, with the regency council there clearly unable to solve the kingdom's problems, he returns to take control as Ferdinand V of Castile, ruling as regent in his grandson's name.

1512 - 1513

Most of the kingdom of Navarre is seized by Aragon and then Castile under Ferdinand of Navarre and then his son, Charles. Pamplona is occupied, Upper Navarre is annexed, and the title of viscount of Castellbò is confiscated. For a brief period Ferdinand also holds authority over Andorra.

1516 - 1517

With Ferdinand's death, his kingdom is inherited by Charles I of Castile and Aragon is merged permanently with it, unifying Spain. Aragon itself is administered by a viceroy well into the seventeenth century.

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